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drugs testing and analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324814/risk-of-injury-from-alcohol-marijuana-and-other-drug-use-among-emergency-department-patients
#1
Cheryl J Cherpitel, Yu Ye, Gabriel Andreuccetti, Tim Stockwell, Kate Vallance, Clifton Chow, Jeffrey R Brubacher
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is known to be associated with injury, but little is known of combined use of alcohol and other drugs on injury; especially important for marijuana, given increasing legalization of use in the U.S. and Canada. METHODS: Probability samples of patients 18 and older were interviewed in the emergency department at two sites in Vancouver and one in Victoria, BC (n=1191 injured and 1613 non-injured patients). Case-control and case-crossover analyses were used to analyze risk of injury, based on self-reported alcohol and drug use (marijuana, stimulants, depressants) prior to injury...
March 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324660/single-and-combination-drug-screening-with-aqueous-biphasic-tumor-spheroids
#2
Pradip Shahi Thakuri, Hossein Tavana
Spheroids of cancer cells represent a physiologic model of solid tumors for cancer drug screening. Despite this known benefit, difficulties with generating large quantities of uniformly sized spheroids in standard plates, individually addressing spheroids with drug compounds, and quantitatively analyzing responses of cancer cells have hindered the use of spheroids in high-throughput screening applications. Recently, we addressed this challenge by using an aqueous two-phase system technology to generate a spheroid within an aqueous drop immersed in a second, immiscible aqueous phase...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320083/xiaoaiping-combined-with-cisplatin-can-inhibit-proliferation-and-invasion-and-induce-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-human-ovarian-cancer-cell-lines
#3
Ai-Wen Zheng, Ya-Qing Chen, Jing Fang, Ying-Li Zhang, Dong-Dong Jia
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was utilizing Xiaoaiping as a single agent or combined with cisplatin to study its effect on the ovarian cancer cells (HO-8910 and HO-8910PM cells) in tumor cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and cell invasion and migration. METHODS: Both HO-8910 and HO-8910PM cell lines were treated with Xiaoaiping injection, cisplatin or combination. Effects on the cell viability and apoptosis induction were estimated using the Cell counting Kit-8 assay and Annexin V-FITC/Propidium Iodide staining...
March 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319810/inhibitors-of-glut-slc2a-enhance-the-action-of-bcnu-and-temozolomide-against-high-grade-gliomas
#4
Alberto Azzalin, Giulia Nato, Elena Parmigiani, Francesca Garello, Annalisa Buffo, Lorenzo Magrassi
Glucose transport across glioblastoma membranes plays a crucial role in maintaining the enhanced glycolysis typical of high-grade gliomas and glioblastoma. We tested the ability of two inhibitors of the glucose transporters GLUT/SLC2A superfamily, indinavir (IDV) and ritonavir (RTV), and of one inhibitor of the Na/glucose antiporter type 2 (SGLT2/SLC5A2) superfamily, phlorizin (PHZ), in decreasing glucose consumption and cell proliferation of human and murine glioblastoma cells. We found in vitro that RTV, active on at least three different GLUT/SLC2A transporters, was more effective than IDV, a specific inhibitor of GLUT4/SLC2A4, both in decreasing glucose consumption and lactate production and in inhibiting growth of U87MG and Hu197 human glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures of human glioblastoma...
March 17, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319548/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-sevoflurane-neurotoxicity-in-neonatal-mice
#5
Yimeng Xia, Heng Xu, Chenfei Jia, Xiaodong Hu, Yu Kang, Xiaoxuan Yang, Qingsheng Xue, Guorong Tao, Buwei Yu
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is the most widely used inhalational anesthetic in pediatric medicine. Despite this, sevoflurane has been reported to exert potentially neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Clinical interventions and treatments for these effects are limited. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), has been documented to alleviate cognitive decline in traditional applications. Therefore, we hypothesized that preadministration of Tan IIA may attenuate sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting that Tan IIA is a new and promising drug capable of counteracting the effects of cognitive dysfunction produced by general anesthetics...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319113/combinatorial-crispr-cas9-screens-for-de-novo-mapping-of-genetic-interactions
#6
John Paul Shen, Dongxin Zhao, Roman Sasik, Jens Luebeck, Amanda Birmingham, Ana Bojorquez-Gomez, Katherine Licon, Kristin Klepper, Daniel Pekin, Alex N Beckett, Kyle Salinas Sanchez, Alex Thomas, Chih-Chung Kuo, Dan Du, Assen Roguev, Nathan E Lewis, Aaron N Chang, Jason F Kreisberg, Nevan Krogan, Lei Qi, Trey Ideker, Prashant Mali
We developed a systematic approach to map human genetic networks by combinatorial CRISPR-Cas9 perturbations coupled to robust analysis of growth kinetics. We targeted all pairs of 73 cancer genes with dual guide RNAs in three cell lines, comprising 141,912 tests of interaction. Numerous therapeutically relevant interactions were identified, and these patterns replicated with combinatorial drugs at 75% precision. From these results, we anticipate that cellular context will be critical to synthetic-lethal therapies...
March 20, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318881/targeted-therapy-in-thyroid-cancer-state-of-the-art
#7
L Valerio, L Pieruzzi, C Giani, L Agate, V Bottici, L Lorusso, V Cappagli, L Puleo, A Matrone, D Viola, C Romei, R Ciampi, E Molinaro, R Elisei
Thyroid cancer typically has a good outcome following standard treatments, which include surgery, radioactive iodine ablation for differentiated tumours and treatment with thyrotropine hormone-suppressive levothyroxine. Thyroid cancers that persist or recur following these therapies have a poorer prognosis. Cytotoxic chemotherapy or external beam radiotherapy has a low efficacy in these patients. 'Target therapy' with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent an important therapeutic option for the treatment of advanced cases of radioiodine refractory (RAI-R) differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and possibly for cases of poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC)...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317808/isolation-and-characterization-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-from-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-ghana
#8
Isaac Darko Otchere, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Stephen Osei-Wusu, Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) species are assuming public health importance in pulmonary diseases; they are increasingly being isolated, and importantly, most NTMs do not respond to routine tuberculosis (TB) drugs. This study aimed to identify NTMs isolated from pulmonary TB cases and also determine their susceptibility to streptomycin (STR), isoniazid (INH), and rifampicin (RIF). METHODS: A total of 1755 mycobacterial isolates, obtained between August 2012 and July 2014, from 2036 smear-positive pulmonary cases were identified using polymerase chain reaction amplification of IS6110, and hsp65 gene sequencing analysis...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317510/predictors-and-outcomes-of-twelve-step-sponsorship-of-stimulant-users-secondary-analyses-of-a-multisite-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Dennis C Wendt, Kevin A Hallgren, Dennis C Daley, Dennis M Donovan
OBJECTIVE: This secondary data analysis explored predictors and outcomes of having a 12-step sponsor among individuals receiving treatment for stimulant use disorders, inclusive of four types of 12-step groups (Narcotics Anonymous, Alcoholics Anonymous, Cocaine Anonymous, and Crystal Meth Anonymous). METHOD: For a multisite randomized clinical trial, participants (N = 471; 59% women) were recruited among adult patients in 10 U.S. community treatment programs. Participants were randomized into treatment as usual (TAU) or a 12-step facilitation (TSF) intervention: Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12-Step (STAGE-12)...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317210/epidemiology-of-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-infection-among-women-who-inject-drugs-in-northeast-india-a-respondent-driven-sampling-study
#10
Allison M Mcfall, Sunil S Solomon, Greg M Lucas, David D Celentano, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Muniratnam S Kumar, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite extensive research on HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID), there remains a gap in knowledge on the burden among women who inject drugs and their unique contexts and risk factors. This analysis compares HIV and HCV prevalence in female and male PWID and estimates injection and sexual risk correlates of prevalent HIV and HCV infection among women in Northeast India. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample accrued using respondent-driven sampling...
March 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315463/in-vitro-biphasic-dissolution-tests-and-their-suitability-for-establishing-in-vitro-in-vivo-correlations-a-historical-review
#11
REVIEW
Aude Pestieau, Brigitte Evrard
For many decades, one of the most critical issues in the pharmaceutical industry has been the poor solubility of some drugs. Indeed, a prerequisite for drug absorption is the presence of dissolved drug at the absorption site and this can be challenging for compounds with low aqueous solubility such as BCS class II (low solubility, high permeability) and IV (low solubility, low permeability) compounds. If the development of oral delivery formulations of these compounds is frequently challenging to formulation scientists in the pharmaceutical industry, the in vitro evaluation of these new formulations is also a great challenge...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314993/comparative-analysis-of-internalisation-haemolytic-cytotoxic-and-antibacterial-effect-of-membrane-active-cationic-peptides-aspects-of-experimental-setup
#12
Kata Horváti, Bernadett Bacsa, Tamás Mlinkó, Nóra Szabó, Ferenc Hudecz, Ferenc Zsila, Szilvia Bősze
Cationic peptides proved fundamental importance as pharmaceutical agents and/or drug carrier moieties functioning in cellular processes. The comparison of the in vitro activity of these peptides is an experimental challenge and a combination of different methods, such as cytotoxicity, internalisation rate, haemolytic and antibacterial effect, is necessary. At the same time, several issues need to be addressed as the assay conditions have a great influence on the measured biological effects and the experimental setup needs to be optimised...
March 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314679/an-analysis-of-the-rewarding-and-aversive-associative-properties-of-nicotine-in-the-neonatal-quinpirole-model-effects-on-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf
#13
Russell W Brown, Seth L Kirby, Adam R Denton, John M Dose, Elizabeth D Cummins, Wesley Drew Gill, Katherine C Burgess
This study analyzed the associative properties of nicotine in a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in adolescent rats neonatally treated with quinpirole (NQ) or saline (NS). NQ produces dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity that persists throughout the animal's lifetime, and therefore has relevance towards schizophrenia. In two experiments, rats were ip administered quinpirole (1mg/kg) or saline from postnatal day (P)1-21. After an initial preference test at P42-43, animals were conditioned for eight consecutive days with saline or nicotine (0...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314368/metallic-nanoparticles-reduce-the-migration-of-human-fibroblasts-in-vitro
#14
Larissa Fernanda de Araújo Vieira, Marvin Paulo Lins, Iana Mayane Mendes Nicácio Viana, Jeniffer Estevão Dos Santos, Salete Smaniotto, Maria Danielma Dos Santos Reis
Nanoparticles have extremely wide applications in the medical and biological fields. They are being used in biosensors, local drug delivery, diagnostics, and medical therapy. However, the potential effects of nanoparticles on target cell and tissue function, apart from cytotoxicity, are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on human fibroblasts with respect to their interaction with the extracellular matrix and in cell migration...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314266/additive-interaction-of-cisplatin-and-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-combined-treatment-in-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells-an-isobolographic-analysis
#15
Agata Jarząb, Jarogniew J Łuszczki, Małgorzata Guz, Ewelina Gumbarewicz, Krzysztof Polberg, Andrzej Stepulak
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the anticancer effect and the type of pharmacologic drug-drug interaction of cisplatin (CDDP) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) combined treatment on the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antiproliferative actions of cisplatin and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat), as well as valproic acid (VPA) alone and in combination, were evaluated using the tetrazolium dye-based MTT cell proliferation assay and isobolographic analysis...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314049/biological-evaluation-of-3-hydroxybenzyl-alcohol-an-extrolite-produced-by-aspergillus-nidulans-strain-kzr-132
#16
C Ganesh Kumar, Poornima Mongolla, Sujitha Pombala, Shiva Bandi, K Suresh Babu, Kallaganti Venkata Siva Ramakrishna
AIMS: The aim of the study was to purify and characterize a bioactive compound from Aspergillus nidulans strain KZR-132 and its biological evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bioactive extolite was purified from Aspergillus nidulans strain KZR-132, and its chemical structure was elucidated as 3-hydroxylbenzyl alcohol (3-HBA) based on (1) H and (13) C NMR, FT-IR and mass spectroscopic analysis. The antimicrobial efficacy of 3-HBA was established against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and different Candida strains...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304379/development-of-bioluminescent-chick-chorioallantoic-membrane-cam-models-for-primary-pancreatic-cancer-cells-a-platform-for-drug-testing
#17
Maria Rovithi, Amir Avan, Niccola Funel, Leticia G Leon, Valentina E Gomez, Thomas Wurdinger, Arjan W Griffioen, Henk M W Verheul, Elisa Giovannetti
The aim of the present study was to develop chick-embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) bioluminescent tumor models employing low passage cell cultures obtained from primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Primary PDAC cells transduced with lentivirus expressing Firefly-luciferase (Fluc) were established and inoculated onto the CAM membrane, with >80% engraftment. Fluc signal reliably correlated with tumor growth. Tumor features were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and genetic analyses, including analysis of mutations and mRNA expression of PDAC pivotal genes, as well as microRNA (miRNA) profiling...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304140/seven-years-of-workplace-drug-testing-in-italy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Gian Luca Rosso, Cristina Montomoli, Luca Morini, Stefano M Candura
BACKGROUND: In Italy, Workplace Drug Testing (WDT) is compulsory by law for specific categories of workers since 2008, offering the opportunity to compare studies conducted within a single regulatory framework. AIMS: (i) To estimate the overall prevalence of WDT positivity (at screening survey) among Italian workers. (ii) To evaluate the percentage of true and false positives at confirmation analysis. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the scientific literature on WDT in Italy from January 2008 to March 2015, according to the MOOSE Guidelines...
March 17, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303985/pattern-of-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-of-salmonella-typhi-and-paratyphi-a-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-islamabad
#19
Azmat Ali, Hafiz Awais Ali, Fazal Hussain Shah, Arslan Zahid, Hina Aslam, Benazir Javed
OBJECTIVE: To see the pattern of antimicrobial drug resistance among Salmonella serovars. METHODS: This longitudinal, observational study was conducted at Khan Research Laboratories Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from May 2012 to December 2014. All patients presenting with typhoid fever with positive blood culture were included. Age, gender, salmonella serovar and sensitivity to 9 antimicrobial drugs were taken into account. The tested antimicrobial drugs were ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ceftriaxone and cefixime...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303653/utility-of-hantzsch-reaction-for-development-of-highly-sensitive-spectrofluorimetric-method-for-determination-of-alfuzosin-and-terazosin-in-bulk-dosage-forms-and-human-plasma
#20
Mohamed A Hammad, Mahmoud A Omar, Baher I Salman
A highly sensitive, cheap, simple and accurate spectrofluorimetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of alfuzosin hydrochloride and terazosin hydrochloride in their pharmaceutical dosage forms and in human plasma. The developed method is based on the reaction of the primary amine moiety in the studied drugs with acetylacetone and formaldehyde according to the Hantzsch reaction, producing yellow fluorescent products that can be measured spectrofluorimetrically at 480 nm after excitation at 415 nm...
March 17, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
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