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drugs testing and analysis

Madhusudhanan Gogul Ramnath, Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan, Nagarajan NagaSundaram, Gunasekaran Bhuvaneswari
BACKGROUND: Genus Isodon (Lamiaceae) is a prolific source for bioactive terpenoids. Nowadays, people move towards natural products because of undesirable effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. OBJECTIVE: In silico and in vitro approach were attempted to screen bioactive terpenoids isolated from Isodon wightii with acetylcholinesterase and histone deacetylase3 receptors, Methods: Terpenoids such as abietic acid, oleanolic acid, α-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin acetate were docked with AchE and HDAC3 receptors using AutoDock Vina (version 1...
March 20, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Avneet Kaur, Sharad Wakode, Dharam Pal Pathak, Vidushi Sharma, Ashok K Shakya
BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used for many years, but the chronic use of NSAID's leads to gastric side effects, ulceration and kidney problems. These side effects are due to non-selective inhibition of COX-2 along with COX-1. Therefore, it is imperative to develop novel and selective COX-2 inhibitors Objective: In this paper wehave synthesized a series of novel hybrids comprising of substituted-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-benzo[d]oxazole derivatives and screened for the treatment of inflammation...
March 21, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Emanuela Risi, Andrea Grilli, Ilenia Migliaccio, Chiara Biagioni, Amelia McCartney, Cristina Guarducci, Martina Bonechi, Matteo Benelli, Stefania Vitale, Laura Biganzoli, Silvio Bicciato, Angelo Di Leo, Luca Malorni
PURPOSE: HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers show heterogeneous response to chemotherapy, with the ER-positive (ER+) subgroup deriving less benefit. Loss of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB1) function has been suggested as a cardinal feature of breast cancers that are more sensitive to chemotherapy and conversely resistant to CDK4/6 inhibitors. We performed a retrospective analysis exploring RBsig, a gene signature of RB loss, as a potential predictive marker of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER+/HER2+ breast cancer patients...
March 22, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Mosayeb Moradniani, Zohre Mirbeik-Sabzevari, Soleiman Jaferian, Shiva Shafiezadeh, Mohammad Javad Ehsani Ardakani, Mehrdad Mirzaee Roozbahany, Saleh Azadbakht, Hamidreza Sherkatolabbasieh
Aim: This study was aimed to evaluating the efficacy of levofloxacin based sequential therapy vs clarithromycin based sequential therapy in h.pylori (HP) eradication. Background: Several therapeutic regimen were investigated to treat HP infection. Sequential therapy is an alternative to classic triple therapy. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 200 HP infected patients randomly divided into two therapeutic groups .1-Levofloxacin based sequential regimen (group A); omeprazole and amoxicillin for 7days followed by omeprazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin for 7days...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Helio S Sader, Paul R Rhomberg, Michael D Huband, Ian A Critchley, Gregory G Stone, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones
We evaluated the correlation between MIC and disk diffusion inhibition zones when testing ceftazidime-avibactam using the 30/20-μg disk and the disk diffusion and MIC breakpoints established by the United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Organisms used included 2 groups of Enterobacteriaceae and 2 groups of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates; 1 group of each consisted of randomly selected isolates and the second group consisted of a challenge group from thousands of surveillance isolates with an increased proportion of organisms displaying ceftazidime-avibactam MIC values close to the breakpoints...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
K Schnippel, C Firnhaber, R Berhanu, L Page-Shipp, E Sinanovic
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the provider costs of managing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to standard long-course treatment for multidrug- and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) according to South African guidelines. METHODS: We parameterised a published Markov health state model for MDR/RR-TB with guidelines-based, bottom-up public-sector provider costing of ADR management. Frequency of ADR occurrence was extracted from the literature. Costs were estimated over 10 years, discounted 3% annually and tested using probabilistic sensitivity analysis...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Guoqing Duan, Su Hou, Jianjun Ji, Bin Deng
Sclareol (sclarcol) is an organic compound extracted from sage clary plants. Recent study has showed its anti-tumor effects against breast cancer, gastric carcinoma, osteosarcoma and colorectal cancer. However, its exact mechanisms in inhibiting tumor growth remain unknown. This study thus observed the effect of sclareol on the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, in an attempt to investigate the role of sclarcol on osteosarcoma growth. MG63 osteosarcoma cell was treated with different concentrations of sclarcol...
March 1, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Nancy A Gonzales, Michaeline Jensen, Jenn Yun Tein, Jessie J Wong, Larry E Dumka, Anne Marie Mauricio
Importance: Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. Objective: To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Juliano de Souza Caliari, Lilian Andreia Fleck Reinato, Daiana Patrícia Marchetti Pio, Letícia Pimenta Lopes, Renata Karina Reis, Elucir Gir
OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors related to the quality of life of elderly people living with HIV/AIDS. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out with people aged 50 years or more in a specialized outpatient clinic. The data collection was by means of an interview. For the analysis of data and characterization of the sample, descriptive statistics and comparison tests were used. The project met the ethical requirements. RESULTS: Participants were 81 users aged 50 to 75 years, mean age was 57...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Smit D Patel, Rupak Desai, Upenkumar Patel, Sandeep Singh, Zinal Patel, Neel Patel, Allan Zhang, Amruta H Panwala, Vinshi N Khan, Gagandeep Singh, Nihar Shah
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (LGIH) are 2 of the most common reasons for hospital admissions across the United States. The 30-day readmission after index admission poses a major burden on the health care infrastructure, and thus, it is important to assess the causes of 30-day readmission for patients with UGIH and LGIH. METHODS: The study cohort was derived from the 2013 National Readmission Database...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Jorge Valencia, Pablo Ryan, Alejandro Alvaro-Meca, Jesus Troya, Jorge Gutierrez, Guillermo Cuevas, Santiago Moreno
OBJECTIVES: Current harm reduction strategies will probably remain insufficient to eliminate HIV transmission among drug users. We aimed to estimate the HIV seroconversion rate among drug users followed at a Harm Reduction Unit (HRU) to evaluate the potential use of PrEP as a prevention tool. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of drug users have been followed at a HRU in Madrid between 2013 and 2016. Individuals who were HIV-negative at baseline and who had at least one re-test for HIV infection were eligible...
March 20, 2018: AIDS
Khaled Abdullah Al Bishi, Ayman Afify
Background: Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male sex hormone (testosterone) that are increasingly used by athletes as performance enhancing drugs to increase muscle mass and strength. Multiple health adverse effects may be caused by its non-medical use. Several international and regional studies showed the high prevalence of AAS usage and low level of awareness of it among different populations. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of AAS and to determine the level of awareness toward it among gymnasts in the western province of Riyadh...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Gregory R Stroh, Fanglong Dong, Elizabeth Ablah, Jeanette G Ward, James M Haan
The effects of methamphetamines (MAs) on trauma patient outcomes have been evaluated, but with discordant results. The purpose of this study was to identify hospital outcomes associated with MA use after traumatic injury. Retrospective review of adult trauma patients admitted to an American College of Surgeons verified-Level I trauma center who received a urine drug screen (UDS) between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2013. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with mortality...
March 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Jiawei Liu, Mian Zu, Kaotan Chen, Li Gao, Huan Min, Weiling Zhuo, Weiwen Chen, Ailin Liu
BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase (NA) is one of the key surface protein of the influenza virus, and has been established as a primary drug target for anti-influenza therapies. This study aimed to screen bioactive herbal extracts from some medicinal plants traditionally used in Lingnan Chinese Medicines by NA activity high-throughput screening assay. METHODS: One hundred ninety herbal extracts from 95 medicinal plants collected in Guangzhou were screened for their potential inhibitory activities against A (H1N1) influenza neuraminidase, and the most active extracts were further evaluated for their anti-influenza virus activities using virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE)...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Xingyu Zhang, Di Chen, Guifeng Xu, Weichun Huang, Xing Wang
Infection by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is a public health challenge worldwide, in particular among children, which was associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There was limited data in pediatric populations, thus this study aimed to investigate molecular epidemiology and drug resistant mechanism of CR-KP strains from pediatric patients in Shanghai, China. A total of 41 clinical CR-KP isolates from sputum, urine, blood or drainage fluid were collected between July 2014 and May 2015 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center...
2018: PloS One
Miran Brvar, Ming Yin Chan, Andrew H Dawson, Richard R Ribchester, Michael Eddleston
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of acute organophosphorus or carbamate insecticide self-poisoning is often ineffective, with tens of thousands of deaths occurring every year. Researchers have recommended the addition of magnesium sulfate or calcium channel blocking drugs to standard care to reduce acetylcholine release at cholinergic synapses. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to review systematically the evidence from preclinical studies in animals exposed to organophosphorus or carbamate insecticides concerning the efficacy of magnesium sulfate and calcium channel blocking drugs as therapy compared with placebo in reducing mortality or clinical features of poisoning...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Venessa Chin, Adnan Nagrial, Katrin Sjoquist, Chelsie A O'Connor, Lorraine Chantrill, Andrew V Biankin, Rob Jpm Scholten, Desmond Yip
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease with few effective treatment options. Over the past few decades, many anti-cancer therapies have been tested in the locally advanced and metastatic setting, with mixed results. This review attempts to synthesise all the randomised data available to help better inform patient and clinician decision-making when dealing with this difficult disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both for first-line treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michał Romański, Jacek Wachowiak, Franciszek K Główka
Treosulfan is a prodrug that undergoes a highly pH- and temperature-dependent nonenzymatic conversion to the monoepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol 4-methanesulfonate [S,S-EBDM]} and diepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane [S,S-DEB]}. Currently, treosulfan is tested in clinical trials as an alternative to busulfan in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of note, the optimal dosing of the prodrug is still unresolved, especially in infants. In this paper, the pharmacokinetics of treosulfan, together with its biologically active epoxides, is comprehensively reviewed for the first time, with the focus on conditioning prior to HSCT...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Jingtao Lu, Jianguo Li, Gabriel Helmlinger, Nidal Al-Huniti
Modeling the relationship between drug concentrations and heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) change from baseline (C-∆QTc), based on Phase I single ascending dose (SAD) or multiple ascending dose (MAD) studies, has been proposed as an alternative to thorough QT studies (TQT), in assessing drug-induced QT prolongation risk. The present analysis used clinical SAD, MAD and TQT study data of an experimental compound, AZD5672, to evaluate the performance of: (i) three computational platforms (linear mixed-effects modeling implemented via PROC MIXED in SAS, as well as in R using LME4 package and linear quantile mixed models (LQMM) implemented via LQMM package; (ii) different model structures with and without treatment- or time-specific intercepts; and (iii) three methods for calculating the confidence interval (CI) of QTc prolongation (analytical and bootstrap methods with fixed or varied geometric mean concentrations)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Feng Yang, Yonggen Jiang, Lihua Yang, Juanxiu Qin, Mingquan Guo, Yuxia Lu, Hongyou Chen, Yuan Zhuang, Jinghao Zhang, Hong Zhang, Zhaoyun Dai, Min Li, Changqing Yang, Min Chen, Yanmei Zhang, Hu Zhao
Objective: To investigate prevalence of acute diarrhea in Shanghai and analyze virulence associated-genes and antibiotic resistance of major enteropathogens using combination of conventional and molecular epidemiology methods. Method: The 412 stool specimens were obtained by systematic sampling from diarrhea patients throughout entire year 2016. Bacterial and viral pathogens were identified and bacterial isolates were cultured and screened for antibiotic resistance profiles. Two most prevalent bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were further typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and analyzed for presence of virulence-associated genes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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