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lung cancer immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645111/intersecting-transcriptomic-profiling-technologies-and-long-non-coding-rna-function-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-discovery-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-applications
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan Castillo, Theresa R Stueve, Crystal N Marconett
Previously thought of as junk transcripts and pseudogene remnants, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have come into their own over the last decade as an essential component of cellular activity, regulating a plethora of functions within multicellular organisms. lncRNAs are now known to participate in development, cellular homeostasis, immunological processes, and the development of disease. With the advent of next generation sequencing technology, hundreds of thousands of lncRNAs have been identified. However, movement beyond mere discovery to the understanding of molecular processes has been stymied by the complicated genomic structure, tissue-restricted expression, and diverse regulatory roles lncRNAs play...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637046/the-preoperative-composite-physiologic-index-may-predict-mortality-in-lung-cancer-patients-with-combined-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-emphysema
#2
Fumika Ueno, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi, Takayuki Shiina, Shiho Asaka, Kentaro Miura, Masanori Yasuo, Yosuke Wada, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Masayuki Hanaoka
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether the preoperative pulmonary function parameters and prognostic indices that are indicative of nutritional and immunological status are associated with prognosis in lung cancer patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) who have undergone surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify prognostic determinants in these patients. METHODS: The medical records of all patients with lung cancer associated with CPFE who had undergone surgery at Shinshu University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed to obtain clinical data, including the results of preoperative pulmonary function tests and laboratory examinations, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and survival...
June 22, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628092/tissue-resident-memory-features-are-linked-to-the-magnitude-of-cytotoxic-t-cell-responses-in-human-lung-cancer
#3
Anusha-Preethi Ganesan, James Clarke, Oliver Wood, Eva M Garrido-Martin, Serena J Chee, Toby Mellows, Daniela Samaniego-Castruita, Divya Singh, Grégory Seumois, Aiman Alzetani, Edwin Woo, Peter S Friedmann, Emma V King, Gareth J Thomas, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Christian H Ottensmeier
Therapies that boost the anti-tumor responses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have shown promise; however, clinical responses to the immunotherapeutic agents currently available vary considerably, and the molecular basis of this is unclear. We performed transcriptomic profiling of tumor-infiltrating CTLs from treatment-naive patients with lung cancer to define the molecular features associated with the robustness of anti-tumor immune responses. We observed considerable heterogeneity in the expression of molecules associated with activation of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and of immunological-checkpoint molecules such as 4-1BB, PD-1 and TIM-3...
June 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626727/mast-cell-infiltration-in-human-brain-metastases-modulates-the-microenvironment-and-contributes-to-the-metastatic-potential
#4
Ananya Roy, Sylwia Libard, Holger Weishaupt, Ida Gustavsson, Lene Uhrbom, Göran Hesselager, Fredrik J Swartling, Fredrik Pontén, Irina Alafuzoff, Elena Tchougounova
Metastatic brain tumors continue to be a clinical problem, despite new therapeutic advances in cancer treatment. Brain metastases (BMs) are among the most common mass lesions in the brain that are resistant to chemotherapies, have a very poor prognosis, and currently lack any efficient diagnostic tests. Predictions estimate that about 40% of lung and breast cancer patients will develop BM. Despite this, very little is known about the immunological and genetic aberrations that drive tumorigenesis in BM. In this study, we demonstrate the infiltration of mast cells (MCs) in a large cohort of human BM samples with different tissues of origin for primary cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588778/rexin-g-%C3%A2-a-tumor-targeted-retrovector-for-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-a-case-report
#5
Seth Kim, Noah Federman, Erlinda M Gordon, Frederick L Hall, Sant P Chawla
Soft tissue sarcoma is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, accounting for only ~1% of all adult cancers and consisting of 75 histological subtypes. In the present report, the unique case of a 14 year-old female with metastatic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (formerly, malignant melanotic schwannoma) of the parotid gland, who experienced a durable response and sustained tumor control with Rexin-G(®), a tumor-targeted retroviral expression vector encoding an anti-cyclin G1 construct, is described...
June 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586276/dendritic-cell-trafficking-and-function-in-rare-lung-diseases
#6
Huan Liu, Claudia Jakubzick, Andrew R Osterburg, Rebecca L Nelson, Nishant Gupta, Francis X McCormack, Michael T Borchers
Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized immune cells that capture antigens and then migrate to lymphoid tissue and present antigen to T cells. This critical function of DCs is well defined and recent studies further demonstrate that DCs are also key regulators of several innate immune responses. Studies focused on the roles of DCs in the pathogenesis of common lung diseases such as asthma, infection and cancer have traditionally driven our mechanistic understanding of pulmonary DC biology. The emerging development of novel DC reagents, techniques and genetically modified animal models has provided abundant data revealing distinct populations of DCs in the lung and allow us to examine mechanisms of DC development, migration and function in pulmonary disease with unprecedented detail...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555812/lung-resident-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-their-roles-in-lung-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Min Cheng, Shilian Hu
γδ T cells are greatly enriched in mucosal and epithelial sites, such as the skin, respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts, and they are defined as tissue-resident immune cells. In these tissues, the characteristics and biological roles of γδ T cells are distinguished from each other. The lungs represent the most challenging immunological dilemma for the host, and they have their own effective immune system. The abundance of γδ T cells, an estimated 8-20% of resident pulmonary lymphocytes in the lung, maintains lung tissue homeostasis...
May 29, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539271/gene-expression-profiling-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-after-exposure-to-single-dose-irradiation
#8
Wei-Hsiang Kung, Ching-Fang Yu, Andy Chi-Lung Lee, Chi-Dung Yang, Yu-Chen Liu, Fang-Hsin Chen, Hsien-Da Huang
Radiotherapy (RT) is a common cancer treatment approach that accounts for nearly 50% of patient treatment; however, tumor relapse after radiotherapy is still a major issue. To study the crucial role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the regulation of tumor progression post-RT, microarray experiments comparing TAM gene expression profiles between unirradiated and irradiated tumors were conducted to discover possible roles of TAMs in initiation or contribution to tumor recurrence following RT, taking into account the relationships among gene expression, tumor microenvironment, and immunology...
April 30, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529904/mini-review-of-conventional-and-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-combined-with-immunotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Allison M Campbell, Roy H Decker
A successful antitumoral response requires immunological activation as well as an antigenic pool capable of stimulating both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Recent advances in immunotherapy have been aimed at boosting the activation status of the innate and adaptive immune system, including cytokine administration, monoclonal antibodies engineered to target high yield elements in oncogenic signaling pathways, cancer vaccines, and checkpoint inhibitors. Herein, we examine the ways that radiation therapy induced cell death provides a pool of stimulus antigen, and draw parallels from the immunobiology of autoimmunity to explore how the immunogenicity of antigen derived from radiation-induced cell death might augment the antitumoral response...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529897/uncovering-the-immune-tumor-microenvironment-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-to-understand-response-rates-to-checkpoint-blockade-and-radiation
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan E Schoenhals, Steven N Seyedin, Clark Anderson, Eric D Brooks, Yun R Li, Ahmed I Younes, Sharareh Niknam, Ailin Li, Hampartsoum B Barsoumian, Maria Angelica Cortez, James W Welsh
The study of immunology has led to breakthroughs in treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The recent approval of an anti-PD1 checkpoint drug for NSCLC has generated much interest in novel combination therapies that might provide further benefit for patients. However, a better understanding of which combinations may (or may not) work in NSCLC requires understanding the lung immune microenvironment under homeostatic conditions and the changes in that microenvironment in the setting of cancer progression and with radiotherapy...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515940/nivolumab-induced-autoimmune-diabetes-mellitus-presenting-as-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-lung-cancer
#11
James Luke Godwin, Shuchie Jaggi, Imali Sirisena, Pankaj Sharda, Ajay D Rao, Ranee Mehra, Colleen Veloski
BACKGROUND: Advances in cancer immunotherapy have generated encouraging results in multiple malignancies refractory to standard chemotherapies. As the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) proliferates, the incidence of autoimmune side effects associated with these agents, termed immune related adverse events (irAE), is expected to increase. The frequency of significant irAE in ICI treated patients is about 10-20% and early recognition is critical to prevent serious morbidity and even mortality...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512460/immunological-aspect-of-radiation-induced-pneumonitis-current-treatment-strategies-and-future-prospects
#12
REVIEW
Anup Kainthola, Teena Haritwal, Mrinialini Tiwari, Noopur Gupta, Suhel Parvez, Manisha Tiwari, Hrideysh Prakash, Paban K Agrawala
Delivery of high doses of radiation to thoracic region, particularly with non-small cell lung cancer patients, becomes difficult due to subsequent complications arising in the lungs of the patient. Radiation-induced pneumonitis is an early event evident in most radiation exposed patients observed within 2-4 months of treatment and leading to fibrosis later. Several cytokines and inflammatory molecules interplay in the vicinity of the tissue developing radiation injury leading to pneumonitis and fibrosis. While certain cytokines may be exploited as biomarkers, they also appear to be a potent target of intervention at transcriptional level...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499411/paraneoplastic-acral-vascular-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-melanoma-under-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#13
Thilo Gambichler, Stefanie Strutzmann, Andrea Tannapfel, Laura Susok
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic acral vascular syndrome (PAVS) is a rare phenomenon which is observed in patients with adenocarcinomas and other malignancies. Various potential pathogenic mechanisms such as tumour invasion of sympathetic nerves, hyperviscosity, hypercoagulability, vasoactive tumour-secreted substances, and immunological mechanisms have been suggested. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 60-year-old Caucasian male attended our hospital with a bulky lymph node mass in the right axilla...
May 12, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493304/cpam-type-2-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-malignancy-risk-study-in-a-14-month-old-boy
#14
Gloria Pelizzo, Maria A Avanzini, Marco Folini, Rossana Bussani, Melissa Mantelli, Stefania Croce, Gloria Acquafredda, Paola Travaglino, Graziella Cimino-Reale, Marina Boni, Irene Dambruoso, Valeria Calcaterra
INTRODUCTION: The association between congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) and malignancy is reported in the literature. Interactions between the tumor, immune, and mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been recognized as crucial for understanding tumorigenesis. We characterized MSCs isolated from CPAM lesions in order to define potential malignancy risks. METHODS: CPAM II pulmonary tissue was used for MSC expansion; a "healthy" lung section from the same child was used as a comparator...
May 10, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472762/oroxylin-a-inhibits-the-generation-of-tregs-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Le Shen, Lu-Lu Zhang, Hui Li, Xiao Liu, Xiao-Xuan Yu, Po Hu, Hui Hui, Qing-Long Guo, Shuai Zhang
Oroxylin A (OA), a naturally occurring monoflavonoid isolated from Scutellariae radix, has previously been reported to inhibit the proliferation of several cancer cell lines. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in maintenance of immunologic self-tolerance. Tregs also increase in cancer and take part in suppressing antitumor immune responses. Here, we explored how OA affected the Tregs in lung cancer environment and the involved underlying mechanism. It is found that OA reversed the generation of Tregs induced by H460 lung cancer cells co-culture...
April 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465453/rational-combination-immunotherapy-understand-the-biology
#16
Howard L Kaufman
Selecting rational treatment combinations remains a major challenge for improving immunotherapy outcomes. In this issue of Cancer Immunology Research, Zhang and colleagues reduced tumors by inhibiting CD47 in a lung carcinoma model, a treatment that inadvertently induced autophagy through inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway. By also targeting autophagy, the therapeutic response improved, highlighting the importance of understanding the biology beneath antitumor immunity. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(5); 355-6. ©2017 AACRSee article by Zhang et al...
May 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462209/lung-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-the-therapeutic-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibition
#17
REVIEW
Paul A J Beckers, Jan F Gielis, Paul E Van Schil, Dirk Adriaensen
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a cell surface protease that has been reported to play a role in glucose homeostasis, cancer, HIV, autoimmunity, immunology and inflammation. A role for DPP4 in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the heart has been established. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition (DPP4i) appeared to decrease infarct size, improves cardiac function and promotes myocardial regeneration. Lung ischemia reperfusion injury is caused by a complex mechanism in which macrophages and neutrophils play an important role...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446615/proliferation-of-pd-1-cd8-t-cells-in-peripheral-blood-after-pd-1-targeted-therapy-in-lung-cancer-patients
#18
Alice O Kamphorst, Rathi N Pillai, Shu Yang, Tahseen H Nasti, Rama S Akondy, Andreas Wieland, Gabriel L Sica, Ke Yu, Lydia Koenig, Nikita T Patel, Madhusmita Behera, Hong Wu, Megan McCausland, Zhengjia Chen, Chao Zhang, Fadlo R Khuri, Taofeek K Owonikoko, Rafi Ahmed, Suresh S Ramalingam
Exhausted T cells in chronic infections and cancer have sustained expression of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). Therapies that block the PD-1 pathway have shown promising clinical results in a significant number of advanced-stage cancer patients. Nonetheless, a better understanding of the immunological responses induced by PD-1 blockade in cancer patients is lacking. Identification of predictive biomarkers is a priority in the field, but whether peripheral blood analysis can provide biomarkers to monitor or predict patients' responses to treatment remains to be resolved...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432455/dual-activation-of-toll-like-receptors-7-and-9-impairs-the-efficacy-of-antitumor-vaccines-in-murine-models-of-metastatic-breast-cancer
#19
Mariela A Moreno Ayala, María Florencia Gottardo, María Soledad Gori, Alejandro Javier Nicola Candia, Carla Caruso, Andrea De Laurentiis, Mercedes Imsen, Slobodanka Klein, Elisa Bal de Kier Joffé, Gabriela Salamone, Maria G Castro, Adriana Seilicovich, Marianela Candolfi
PURPOSE: Since combination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands could boost antitumor immunity, we evaluated the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines upon dual activation of TLR9 and TLR7 in breast cancer models. METHODS: DCs were generated from mouse bone marrow or peripheral blood from healthy human donors and stimulated with CpG1826 (mouse TLR9 agonist), CpG2006 or IMT504 (human TLR9 agonists) and R848 (TLR7 agonist). Efficacy of antitumor vaccines was evaluated in BALB/c mice bearing metastatic mammary adenocarcinomas...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428185/investments-in-cancer-research-awarded-to-uk-institutions-and-the-global-burden-of-cancer-2000-2013-a-systematic-analysis
#20
Mahiben Maruthappu, Michael G Head, Charlie D Zhou, Barnabas J Gilbert, Majd A El-Harasis, Rosalind Raine, Joseph R Fitchett, Rifat Atun
OBJECTIVES: To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DESIGN: Systematic analysis of all open-access data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Open
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