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Plant Autophagy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293765/rutin-increases-the-cytotoxicity-of-temozolomide-in-glioblastoma-via-autophagy-inhibition
#1
Pingde Zhang, Stella Sun, Ning Li, Amy Suk Wai Ho, Karrie Mei Yee Kiang, Xiaoqin Zhang, Yin Stephen Cheng, Ming Wai Poon, Derek Lee, Jenny Kan Suen Pu, Gilberto Ka Kit Leung
The chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Rutin, a citrus flavonoid ecglycoside found in edible plants, has neuroprotective and anticancer activities. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the underlying mechanisms of rutin used in combination with TMZ in GBM. In vitro cell viability assay demonstrated that rutin alone had generally low cytotoxic effect, but it enhanced the efficacy of TMZ in a dose-dependent manner. Subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft studies also showed that tumor volumes were significantly lower in mice receiving combined TMZ/Rutin treatment as compared to TMZ or rutin alone treatment...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274097/induction-of-cell-death-by-betulinic-acid-through-induction-of-apoptosis-and-inhibition-of-autophagic-flux-in-microglia-bv-2-cells
#2
Jeongbin Seo, Juneyoung Jung, Dae Sik Jang, Joungmok Kim, Jeong Hee Kim
Betulinic acid (BA), a natural pentacyclic triterpene found in many medicinal plants is known to have various biological activity including tumor suppression and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the cell-death induction effect of BA was investigated in BV-2 microglia cells. BA was cytotoxic to BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ of approximately 2.0 μM. Treatment of BA resulted in a dosedependent chromosomal DNA degradation, suggesting that these cells underwent apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis further confirmed that BA-treated BV-2 cells showed hypodiploid DNA content...
March 10, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260002/a-novel-cycloartane-triterpenoid-from-cimicifuga-induces-apoptotic-and-autophagic-cell-death-in-human-colon-cancer-ht-29-cells
#3
Xiaoli Dai, Jing Liu, Yin Nian, Ming-Hua Qiu, Ying Luo, Jihong Zhang
The extract from Cimicifuga, a genus of flowering plants, has been demonstrated to have mainly therapeutic effects on menstrual and menopausal symptoms and also exhibits immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the anticancer effects of Cimicifuga have been reported, but the underlying mechanism causing cancer cell death has been poorly described. The present study was designed to investigate the antitumor effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of cimigenol (KY17), a novel cycloartane triterpenoid from Cimicifuga...
February 14, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258023/importance-of-ros-mediated-autophagy-in-determining-apoptotic-cell-death-induced-by-physapubescin-b
#4
Jian Xu, Yihua Wu, Guang Lu, Shujun Xie, Zhongjun Ma, Zhe Chen, Han-Ming Shen, Dajing Xia
Physapubescin B, a steroidal compound extracted from the plant Physalis pubescens L. (Solanaceae), has been reported to possess anti-cancer potential, whereas the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we first demonstrated that physapubescin B induced autophagy in human cancer cells based on the evidence that physapubescin B increased lipidation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) as well as number of GFP-LC3 puncta. We further examined the molecular mechanisms and found that physapubescin B enhanced the autophagic flux through promotion of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1), the key negative regulator of autophagy...
February 24, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252344/autophagy-inducing-natural-compounds-a-treasure-resource-for-developing-therapeutics-against-tissue-fibrosis
#5
Xiao-Xi Lv, Shan-Shan Liu, Zhuo-Wei Hu
Tissue fibrosis is a common pathologic change of many chronic diseases, which is characterized by extracellular matrix accumulation in tissues and dysfunction of the injured organs. Despite there recently gain mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis, therapeutics for tissue fibrosis and thus many chronic diseases remain a significant clinical unmet need. Recent progressions indicate that autophagy, a conserved lysosomal degradation process in eukaryotic cells, not only plays an important regulatory role in maintaining cellular and tissue homeostasis, but also contributes to the development and progression of tissue fibrosis in a diversity of organs...
February 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251795/quercetin-simultaneously-induces-g0-g1-phase-arrest-and-caspase-mediated-crosstalk-between-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-leukemia-hl-60-cells
#6
Junn-Liang Chang, Jyh-Ming Chow, Jer-Hwa Chang, Yu-Ching Wen, Yung-Wei Lin, Shun-Fa Yang, Wei-Jiunn Lee, Ming-Hsien Chien
Quercetin is a plant-derived bioflavonoid with high anticancer activity in various tumors. Herein, the molecular mechanisms by which quercetin exerts its anticancer effects against HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells were investigated. Results showed that quercetin suppressed cell proliferation in the HL-60 cell line in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin-induced G0 /G1 -phase arrest occurred when expressions of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2/4 were inhibited and the CDK inhibitors, p16 and p21, were induced...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250067/the-mitochondrial-protease-ftsh4-regulates-leaf-senescence-via-wrky-dependent-salicylic-acid-signal
#7
Shengchun Zhang, Cui Li, Rui Wang, Yaxue Chen, Si Shu, Ruihua Huang, Daowei Zhang, Shi Xiao, Nan Yao, Jian Li, Chengwei Yang
Mitochondria and autophagy play important roles in the networks that regulate plant leaf senescence and cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between mitochondrial signaling and autophagy are currently not well understood. This study characterized the function of the Arabidopsis mitochondrial AAA-protease gene AtFtSH4 in regulating autophagy and senescence,finding that AtFtSH4 mediates WRKY-dependent salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and signaling. Knock-out of FtSH4 in the ftsh4-4 mutant resulted in severe leaf senescence, cell death, and high autophagy levels...
March 1, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244873/autophagy-functions-as-an-antiviral-mechanism-against-geminiviruses-in-plants
#8
Yakupjan Haxim, Asigul Ismayil, Qi Jia, Yan Wang, Xiyin Zheng, Tianyuan Chen, Lichao Qian, Na Liu, Yunjing Wang, Shaojie Han, Jiaxuan Cheng, Yijun Qi, Yiguo Hong, Yule Liu
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that recycles damaged or unwanted cellular components, and has been linked to plant immunity. However, how autophagy contributes to plant immunity is unknown. Here we reported that the plant autophagic machinery targets the virulence factor βC1 of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) for degradation through its interaction with the key autophagy protein ATG8. A V32A mutation in βC1 abolished its interaction with NbATG8f, and virus carrying βC1(V32A) showed increased symptoms and viral DNA accumulation in plants...
February 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237118/using-photoconvertible-and-extractable-fluorescent-proteins-to-study-autophagy-in-plants
#9
M O Abiodun, K Matsuoka
Several methodologies have been employed to understand the kinetics of induced autophagic degradation in plants, but most of them are not capable of distinguishing the autophagic cargo proteins before and after induction of autophagy in cells. Here, we designed a mass photoconverter that allowed us to simultaneously monitor protein synthesis and degradation in tobacco BY-2 cells using a photoconvertible fluorescence marker protein, Kikume Green Red (KikGR). An example of a new protocol for the analysis of autophagy progression using a fusion protein of cytochrome b5 and KikGR under phosphate starvation is described...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237117/biochemical-methods-to-monitor-autophagic-responses-in-plants
#10
Y Bao, Y Mugume, D C Bassham
The study of autophagy in plants is rapidly increasing, due to its pivotal and fundamental roles in responding to stressful stimuli, recycling nutrients during senescence, and maintaining growth under normal conditions. Assays for detecting autophagy in plants have generally been based on microscopic observations, providing qualitative information on autophagy activity. Here, we discuss biochemical assays for detecting autophagy, which have the potential for providing more quantitative information, with a focus on immunoblotting with antibodies against ATG8, NBR1, or epitope tags fused to ATG proteins...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223514/selective-autophagy-limits-cauliflower-mosaic-virus-infection-by-nbr1-mediated-targeting-of-viral-capsid-protein-and-particles
#11
Anders Hafrén, Jean-Luc Macia, Andrew J Love, Joel J Milner, Martin Drucker, Daniel Hofius
Autophagy plays a paramount role in mammalian antiviral immunity including direct targeting of viruses and their individual components, and many viruses have evolved measures to antagonize or even exploit autophagy mechanisms for the benefit of infection. In plants, however, the functions of autophagy in host immunity and viral pathogenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified both anti- and proviral roles of autophagy in the compatible interaction of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), a double-stranded DNA pararetrovirus, with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana We show that the autophagy cargo receptor NEIGHBOR OF BRCA1 (NBR1) targets nonassembled and virus particle-forming capsid proteins to mediate their autophagy-dependent degradation, thereby restricting the establishment of CaMV infection...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213701/ursolic-acid-mediated-changes-in-glycolytic-pathway-promote-cytotoxic-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-phenotypically-different-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Anna Lewinska, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Ewa Kwasniewicz, Anna Deregowska, Maciej Wnuk
Plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenotids with multiple biological activities are considered as promising candidates for cancer therapy and prevention. However, their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of low dose treatment (5-20 µM) of ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) on breast cancer cells of different receptor status, namely MCF-7 (ER(+), PR(+/-), HER2(-)), MDA-MB-231 (ER(-), PR(-), HER2(-)) and SK-BR-3 (ER(-), PR(-), HER2(+)). UA-mediated response was more potent than BA-mediated response...
February 17, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213625/8-nitro-cgmp-a-novel-protein-reactive-cnmp-and-its-emerging-roles-in-autophagy
#13
Hirokazu Arimoto, Daiki Takahashi
Nitric oxide (NO) raises the intracellular 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level through the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and, in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reacts with biomolecules to produce nitrated cGMP derivatives. 8-Nitro-cGMP was the first endogenous cGMP derivative discovered in mammalian cells (2007) and was later found in plant cells. Among the six nitrogen atoms in this molecule, the one in the nitro group (NO2) comes from NO. This chapter asserts that this newly found cGMP is undoubtedly one of the major physiological cNMPs...
February 18, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190539/corrigendum-to-evodiamine-a-plant-alkaloid-induces-calcium-jnk-mediated-autophagy-and-calcium-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-human-glioblastoma-cells-chem-biol-interact-205-1-2013-sep-5-20-28
#14
Ann-Jeng Liu, Sheng-Hao Wang, Ku-Chung Chen, Hsiu-Ping Kuei, Yung-Luen Shih, Sz-Ying Hou, Wen-Ta Chiu, Sheng-Huang Hsiao, Chwen-Ming Shih
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177687/curcumin-protects-neuronal-cells-against-status-epilepticus-induced-hippocampal-damage-through-induction-of-autophagy-and-inhibition-of-necroptosis
#15
Jin Wang, Yuan Liu, Xiao-Hui Li, Xiang-Chang Zeng, Jian Li, Jun Zhou, Bo Xiao, Kai Hu
Status epilepticus, the most severe form of epilepsy, is characterized by progressive functional and structural damage in the hippocampus, ultimately leading to the development and clinical appearance of spontaneous, recurrent seizures. Though the pathogenesis underlying epileptogenesis processes remains unclear, a substantial body of evidence has shown that status epilepticus acts as an important initial factor in triggering epileptogenesis. Notably, besides classical cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis, two novel regulators of cell fate known as necroptosis and autophagy, are demonstrated to be involved in neuronal damage in various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders...
December 9, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167039/apple-autophagy-related-protein-mdatg3s-afford-tolerance-to-multiple-abiotic-stresses
#16
Ping Wang, Xun Sun, Xin Jia, Fengwang Ma
The efficient degradation system of autophagy in plant cells has important roles in removing and recycling intracellular components during normal development or under environmental stresses. Formation of autophagosomes requires the conjugation of ubiquitin-like protein ATG8 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). We isolated two ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-like ATG3 homologues from Malus domestica - MdATG3a and MdATG3b - that are crucial for ATG8-PE conjugation. Both share a conserved N-terminal, as well as the catalytic and C-terminal domains of ATG3 with HPC and FLKF motifs...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145408/impact-of-salt-stress-cell-death-and-autophagy-on-peroxisomes-quantitative-and-morphological-analyses-using-small-fluorescent-probe-n-bodipy
#17
Deirdre Fahy, Marwa N M E Sanad, Kerstin Duscha, Madison Lyons, Fuquan Liu, Peter Bozhkov, Hans-Henning Kunz, Jianping Hu, H Ekkehard Neuhaus, Patrick G Steel, Andrei Smertenko
Plant peroxisomes maintain a plethora of key life processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, photorespiration, synthesis of hormones, and homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Abundance of peroxisomes in cells is dynamic; however mechanisms controlling peroxisome proliferation remain poorly understood because measuring peroxisome abundance is technically challenging. Counting peroxisomes in individual cells of complex organs by electron or fluorescence microscopy is expensive and time consuming. Here we present a simple technique for quantifying peroxisome abundance using the small probe Nitro-BODIPY, which in vivo fluoresces selectively inside peroxisomes...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142220/glutamate-synthase-moglt1-mediated-glutamate-homeostasis-is-important-for-autophagy-virulence-and-conidiation-in-the-rice-blast-fungus
#18
Wei Zhou, Wei Shi, Xiao-Wen Xu, Zhi-Gang Li, Chang-Fa Yin, Jun-Bo Peng, Song Pan, Xiao-Lin Chen, Wen-Sheng Zhao, Yan Zhang, Jun Yang, You-Liang Peng
Glutamate homeostasis plays vital roles in central nitrogen metabolism and coordinates several key metabolic functions. However, its functions in fungal pathogenesis and development have not been well investigated. In this study, we identified and characterized a glutamate synthase gene MoGLT1 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that was important to glutamate homeostasis. MoGLT1 was constitutively expressed but had the highest expression level in appressoria. Deletion of MoGLT1 resulted in significant reductions in conidiation and virulence...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125285/the-life-and-death-of-a-plant-cell
#19
Mehdi Kabbage, Ryan Kessens, Lyric C Bartholomay, Brett Williams
Like all eukaryotic organisms, plants possess an innate program for controlled cellular demise termed programmed cell death (PCD). Despite the functional conservation of PCD across broad evolutionary distances, an understanding of the molecular machinery underpinning this fundamental program in plants remains largely elusive. As in mammalian PCD, the regulation of plant PCD is critical to development, homeostasis, and proper responses to stress. Evidence is emerging that autophagy is key to the regulation of PCD in plants and that it can dictate the outcomes of PCD execution under various scenarios...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123106/entire-photodamaged-chloroplasts-are-transported-to-the-central-vacuole-by-autophagy
#20
Masanori Izumi, Hiroyuki Ishida, Sakuya Nakamura, Jun Hidema
Turnover of dysfunctional organelles is vital to maintain homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. As photosynthetic organelles, plant chloroplasts can suffer sunlight-induced damage. However, the process for turnover of entire damaged chloroplasts remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that autophagy is responsible for the elimination of sunlight-damaged, collapsed chloroplasts in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that vacuolar transport of entire chloroplasts, termed chlorophagy, was induced by ultraviolet-B (UVB) damage to the chloroplast apparatus...
January 25, 2017: Plant Cell
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