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Plant Autophagy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828709/a-comprehensive-review-on-pharmacotherapeutics-of-three-phytochemicals-curcumin-quercetin-and-allicin-in-the-treatment-of-gastric-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Atousa Haghi, Haniye Azimi, Roja Rahimi
OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Medicinal plants are one of the main sources for discovery of new pharmacological agents especially for treatment of cancers. The aim of the present study is to review pharmacotherapeutic aspects of three mostly studied phytochemicals including curcumin, quercetin, and allicin for management of gastric cancer. METHODS: Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for the effects of curcumin, quercetin, allicin, and their analogs in gastric cancer...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819237/disruption-of-the-plant-specific-cfs1-gene-impairs-autophagosome-turnover-and-triggers-eds1-dependent-cell-death
#2
Arpaporn Sutipatanasomboon, Stefanie Herberth, Ellen G Alwood, Heidrun Häweker, Britta Müller, Mojgan Shahriari, Anke Y Zienert, Birger Marin, Silke Robatzek, Gerrit J K Praefcke, Kathryn R Ayscough, Martin Hülskamp, Swen Schellmann
Cell death, autophagy and endosomal sorting contribute to many physiological, developmental and immunological processes in plants. They are mechanistically interconnected and interdependent, but the molecular basis of their mutual regulation has only begun to emerge in plants. Here, we describe the identification and molecular characterization of CELL DEATH RELATED ENDOSOMAL FYVE/SYLF PROTEIN 1 (CFS1). The CFS1 protein interacts with the ENDOSOMAL SORTING COMPLEX REQUIRED FOR TRANSPORT I (ESCRT-I) component ELCH (ELC) and is localized at ESCRT-I-positive late endosomes likely through its PI3P and actin binding SH3YL1 Ysc84/Lsb4p Lsb3p plant FYVE (SYLF) domain...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816419/tubulin-acetylation-accompanies-autophagy-development-induced-by-different-abiotic-stimuli-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Vira Olenieva, Dmytro Lytvyn, Alla Yemets, Catherine Bergounioux, Yaroslav Blume
Microtubules (MTs) play an important role in the regulation of autophagy development in yeast and animal as well as in plant cells. MTs participate in maturation and traffic of autophagosomes through their dynamic state changes and post-translational modifications of tubulin, namely acetylation. We subjected Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to metabolic-, salt-, osmotic stresses as well as irradiation of ultraviolet B and investigated the involvement of plant MTs in the development of stress-induced autophagy via tubulin acetylation...
August 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800850/characterization-of-the-autophagy-related-gene-bmatg8-in-bipolaris-maydis
#4
Takuya Sumita, Kosuke Izumitsu, Chihiro Tanaka
Autophagy is involved in cellular development and the maintenance of viability under nutrient deprivation in a wide range of eukaryotes. A filamentous ascomycete Bipolaris maydis, responsible for southern corn leaf blight, is also studied as a model fungus for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes that form filiform ascospores. In order to clarify the roles of autophagy in various stages of the life cycle of B. maydis, we constructed null mutants of BmATG8, an orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae autophagy gene ATG8 in B...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792845/discovery-of-pan-autophagy-inhibitors-through-a-high-throughput-screen-highlights-macroautophagy-as-an-evolutionarily-conserved-process-across-3-eukaryotic-kingdoms
#5
Piyush Mishra, Adrian N Dauphinee, Carl Ward, Sovan Sarkar, Arunika H L A N Gunawardena, Ravi Manjithaya
Due to the involvement of macroautophagy/autophagy in different pathophysiological conditions such as infections, neurodegeneration and cancer, identification of novel small molecules that modulate the process is of current research and clinical interest. In this work, we developed a luciferase-based sensitive and robust kinetic high-throughput screen (HTS) of small molecules that modulate autophagic degradation of peroxisomes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Being a pathway-specific rather than a target-driven assay, we identified small molecule modulators that acted at key steps of autophagic flux...
August 9, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783755/snrk1-activates-autophagy-via-the-tor-signaling-pathway-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Diane C Bassham
Autophagy is a degradation process in which cells break down and recycle their cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress or during cellular remodeling. The Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK1 complex is a protein kinase that senses changes in energy levels and triggers downstream responses to enable survival. Its mammalian ortholog, AMPK, and yeast ortholog, Snf-1, activate autophagy in response to low energy conditions. We therefore hypothesized that SnRK1 may play a role in the regulation of autophagy in response to nutrient or energy deficiency in Arabidopsis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769960/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-sm-mediated-hypersensitive-response-to-stemphylium-lycopersici-in-tomato
#7
Huanhuan Yang, Tingting Zhao, Jingbin Jiang, Xiuling Chen, He Zhang, Guan Liu, Dongye Zhang, Chong Du, Songbo Wang, Xiangyang Xu, Jingfu Li
Gray leaf spot disease caused by Stemphylium lycopersici is a major disease in cultivated tomato plants and threatens tomato-growing areas worldwide. Sm is a single dominant gene that confers resistance to tomato gray leaf spot disease agent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, resistant (cv. Motelle, containing the Sm gene) and susceptible (cv. Moneymaker) plants were inoculated with virulent Stemphylium lycopersici isolate at a time point at which both cultivars showed a strong response to S...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768938/a-novel-molecular-model-of-plant-lectin-induced-programmed-cell-death-in-cancer
#8
Zheng Shi, Wen-Wen Li, Yong Tang, Li-Jia Cheng
Plant lectin, a class of highly diverse non-immune origin and carbohydrate-binding proteins, has been reported to specially induce cancer cell through programmed cell death (PCD) pathways (apoptosis and/or autophagy), shedding lights on screening promising anti-cancer candidate agent for further therapeutic trials. However, the complicated molecular mechanisms by which plant lectins induced the programmed death of tumor cells, have not yet been fully clarified. Here, we summarized a novel model, based on vast amount of research, by which plant lectins eliminate various types of cancer cells via three major pathways, including a) direct ribosome inactivating, b) endocytosis-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and c) sugar-containing receptors binding...
August 1, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744293/tor-dependent-and-independent-pathways-regulate-autophagy-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Yunting Pu, Xinjuan Luo, Diane C Bassham
Autophagy is a critical process for recycling of cytoplasmic materials during environmental stress, senescence and cellular remodeling. It is upregulated under a wide range of abiotic stress conditions and is important for stress tolerance. Autophagy is repressed by the protein kinase target of rapamycin (TOR), which is activated in response to nutrients and in turn upregulates cell growth and translation and inhibits autophagy. Down-regulation of TOR in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to constitutive autophagy and to decreased growth, but the relationship to stress conditions is unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742127/tpc1-is-an-important-zn-ii-2cys6-transcriptional-regulator-required-for-polarized-growth-and-virulence-in-the-rice-blast-fungus
#10
Rita Galhano, Adriana Illana, Lauren S Ryder, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Marie Demuez, Muhammad Badaruddin, Ana Lilia Martinez-Rocha, Darren M Soanes, David J Studholme, Nicholas J Talbot, Ane Sesma
The establishment of polarity is a critical process in pathogenic fungi, mediating infection-related morphogenesis and host tissue invasion. Here, we report the identification of TPC1 (Transcription factor for Polarity Control 1), which regulates invasive polarized growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. TPC1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the fungal Zn(II)2Cys6 family, exclusive to filamentous fungi. Tpc1-deficient mutants show severe defects in conidiogenesis, infection-associated autophagy, glycogen and lipid metabolism, and plant tissue colonisation...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740502/the-amp-activated-protein-kinase-kin10-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-autophagy-in-arabidopsis
#11
Liang Chen, Ze-Zhuo Su, Li Huang, Fan-Nv Xia, Hua Qi, Li-Juan Xie, Shi Xiao, Qin-Fang Chen
Autophagy is a highly conserved system in eukaryotes for the bulk degradation and recycling of intracellular components. Autophagy is involved in many physiological processes including development, senescence, and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. The adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase AMPK positively regulates autophagy in mammals; however, the potential function of AMPK in plant autophagy remains largely unknown. Here, we identified KIN10, a plant ortholog of the mammalian AMPK, as a positive regulator of plant autophagy and showed that it acts by affecting the phosphorylation of ATG1 (AUTOPHAGY-RELATED GENE 1) proteins in Arabidopsis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738521/ginkgo-biloba-exocarp-extracts-induces-autophagy-in-lewis-lung-cancer-cells-involving-ampk-mtor-p70s6k-signaling-pathway
#12
Chenjie Cao, Dongdong Han, Ya Su, Yu Ge, Huasheng Chen, Aihua Xu
OBJECTIVES: Ginkgo biloba L. is called a living fossil plant, and could be used for the treatment of cancer thousands of years ago in China. The extracts prepared from the Ginkgo biloba exocarp (Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts, GBEE) has a significant anti-cancer effect. Autophagy plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cancer as programmed cell death (PCD) type II. Thus it would be interesting to study the effects and mechanisms of GBEE inducing autophagy in Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737825/combination-of-rapamycin-and-garlic-derived-s-allylmercaptocysteine-induces-colon-cancer-cell-apoptosis-and-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-xenograft-nude-mice-through-autophagy-p62-nrf2-pathway
#13
Siying Li, Guang Yang, Xiaosong Zhu, Lin Cheng, Yueyue Sun, Zhongxi Zhao
The natural plant-derived product S-allylmercapto-cysteine (SAMC) has been studied in cancer therapy as a single and combination chemotherapeutic agent. The present study was employed to verify the combination use of SAMC and rapamycin that is the mTOR inhibitor with anticancer ability but has limited efficacy due to drug resistance, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We combined rapamycin and SAMC for colorectal cancer treatment in the HCT‑116 cancer cells and a xenograft murine model. The in vivo study was established by xenografting HCT‑116 cells in BALB/c nude mice...
July 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734771/new-advances-in-autophagy-in-plants-regulation-selectivity-and-function
#14
REVIEW
Ping Wang, Yosia Mugume, Diane C Bassham
Autophagy is a major and conserved pathway for delivering unwanted proteins or damaged organelles to the vacuole for degradation and recycling. In plants, it functions as a housekeeping process to maintain cellular homeostasis under normal conditions and is induced by stress and senescence; it thus plays important roles in development, stress tolerance and metabolism. Autophagy can both execute bulk degradation and be highly selective in targeting cargos under specific environmental conditions or during certain developmental processes...
July 19, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731173/anacardic-acid-induces-cell-apoptosis-of-prostatic-cancer-through-autophagy-by-er-stress-dapk3-akt-signaling-pathway
#15
Jing Tan, Xianzhen Jiang, Guangming Yin, Leye He, Jianye Liu, Zhi Long, Zhiqiang Jiang, Kun Yao
Anacardic acid, which is commonly seen in plants of Anacardiaceae, is an important composition of cashew, ginkgo leaf and fruit, and it has been suggested in previous research to show antitumor activity. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer effects of anacardic acid on cell apoptosis of prostatic cancer and molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon. In this study we found that anacardic acid inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and caspase-3/9 activities and Bax protein expression of prostatic cancer...
July 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724770/rgs-cam-detects-and-counteracts-viral-rna-silencing-suppressors-in-plant-immune-priming
#16
Eun Jin Jeon, Kazuki Tadamura, Taiki Murakami, Jun-Ichi Inaba, Bo Min Kim, Masako Sato, Go Atsumi, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Chikara Masuta, Kenji S Nakahara
Primary infection of a plant with a pathogen that causes high accumulation of salicylic acid in the plant typically via a hypersensitive response confers enhanced resistance against secondary infection with a broad spectrum of pathogens, including viruses. This phenomenon is called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is a plant-priming for adaption to repeated biotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of SAR-mediated enhanced inhibition, especially of virus infection, remain unclear. Here, we show that SAR against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) involves a calmodulin-like protein, rgs-CaM...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716412/degradation-of-cytosolic-ribosomes-by-autophagy-related-pathways
#17
REVIEW
Diane C Bassham, Gustavo C MacIntosh
Ribosomes are essential molecular machines that require a large cellular investment, yet the mechanisms of their turnover are not well understood in any eukaryotic organism. Recent advances in Arabidopsis suggest that plants utilize selective mechanisms to transport rRNA or ribosomes to the vacuole, where rRNA is degraded and the breakdown products recycled to maintain cellular homeostasis. This review focuses on known mechanisms of rRNA turnover and explores unanswered questions on the specificity and pathways of ribosome turnover and the role of this process in maintenance of cellular homeostasis...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710132/autophagy-deficiency-compromises-alternative-pathways-of-respiration-following-energy-deprivation
#18
Jessica As Barros, João Henrique F Cavalcanti, David B Medeiros, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Alisdair R Fernie, Wagner Araujo
Under heterotrophic conditions carbohydrate oxidation inside the mitochondria is the primary energy source for cellular metabolism. However, during energy-limited conditions, alternative substrates are required to support respiration. Amino acid oxidation in plant cells plays a key role in this by generating electrons that can be transferred to the mitochondrial electron transport chain via the electron transfer flavoprotein/ubiquinone oxidoreductase system. Autophagy, a catabolic mechanism for macromolecule and protein recycling, allows the maintenance of amino acid pools and nutrient remobilization...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704927/the-tor-signaling-network-in-the-model-unicellular-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#19
REVIEW
María Esther Pérez-Pérez, Inmaculada Couso, José L Crespo
Cell growth is tightly coupled to nutrient availability. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase transmits nutritional and environmental cues to the cellular growth machinery. TOR functions in two distinct multiprotein complexes, termed TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). While the structure and functions of TORC1 are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, including algae and plants, TORC2 core proteins seem to be missing in photosynthetic organisms. TORC1 controls cell growth by promoting anabolic processes, including protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis, and inhibiting catabolic processes such as autophagy...
July 12, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671960/stress-fibers-autophagy-and-necrosis-by-persistent-exposure-to-pm2-5-from-biomass-combustion
#20
Regina Dornhof, Christoph Maschowski, Anastasiya Osipova, Reto Gieré, Maximilian Seidl, Irmgard Merfort, Matjaz Humar
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can adversely affect human health. Emissions from residential energy sources have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, but their pathological and molecular implications on cellular physiology are still elusive. In the present study potential molecular consequences were investigated during long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to PM2.5, collected from a biomass power plant. Initially, we observed that PM2.5 did not affect cellular survival or proliferation...
2017: PloS One
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