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Plant Autophagy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218074/autophagy-in-endometriosis
#1
REVIEW
Hui-Li Yang, Jie Mei, Kai-Kai Chang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Li-Qing Huang, Ming-Qing Li
Endometriosis (EMS) is a common gynecologic disease that causes chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and infertility in women. The doctrine of menstruation back flow planting and defects in the immune system are well known and widely accepted. In recent years, increasing studies have been focused on the role of autophagy in EMS, and have shown that autophagy plays a vital role in EMS. Autophagy, which is known as the non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death induced by a large number of intracellular/extracellular stimuli, is the major cellular pathway for the degradation of long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles in eukaryotic cells...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210078/mdatg18a-overexpression-improves-tolerance-to-nitrogen-deficiency-and-regulates-anthocyanin-accumulation-through-increased-autophagy-in-transgenic-apple
#2
Xun Sun, Xin Jia, Liuqing Huo, Runmin Che, Xiaoqing Gong, Ping Wang, Fengwang Ma
Nitrogen (N) availability is an essential factor for plant growth. Recycling and remobilization of N have strong impacts on crop yield and quality under N deficiency. Autophagy is a critical nutrient-recycling process that facilitates remobilization under starvation. We previously showed that an important AuTophaGy (ATG) protein from apple, MdATG18a, has a positive role in drought tolerance. In this study, we explored its biological role in response to low-N. Overexpression of MdATG18a in both Arabidopsis and apple improved tolerance to N-depletion and caused a greater accumulation of anthocyanin...
December 5, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181154/hexane-fraction-of-pluchea-indica-root-extract-inhibits-proliferation-and-induces-autophagy-in-human-glioblastoma-cells
#3
Chung-Lung Cho, Ya-Zhe Lee, Chao-Neng Tseng, Joshua Cho, Yuan-Bin Cheng, Kuo-Wei Wang, Han-Jung Chen, Shean-Jaw Chiou, Chia-Hua Chou, Yi-Ren Hong
Pluchea indica (L.) Less. is a perennial plant known for its versatile uses in traditional medicine. Previous findings have shown that the extracts of Pluchea indica possess significant anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and anti-tuberculosis activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the anticancer activity of the hexane fraction of P. indica root extract (H-PIRE) in human glioblastoma cells using flow cytometric and western blot analysis. The results shoewd that, H-PIRE suppressed the growth of glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner...
November 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179721/apigenin-by-activating-p53-and-inhibiting-stat3-modulates-the-balance-between-pro-apoptotic-and-pro-survival-pathways-to-induce-pel-cell-death
#4
Marisa Granato, Maria Saveria Gilardini Montani, Roberta Santarelli, Gabriella D'Orazi, Alberto Faggioni, Mara Cirone
BACKGROUND: Apigenin is a flavonoid widely distributed in plant kingdom that exerts cytotoxic effects against a variety of solid and haematological cancers. In this study, we investigated the effect of apigenin against primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a KSHV-associated B cell lymphoma characterized by a very aggressive behavior, displaying constitutive activation of STAT3 as well as of other oncogenic pathways and harboring wtp53. METHODS: Cell death was assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay, FACS analysis as well as by biochemical studies...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178615/plant-organ-senescence-regulation-by-manifold-pathways
#5
REVIEW
Natalia Wojciechowska, Ewa Sobieszczuk-Nowicka, Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna
Senescence is the final stage of plant ontogeny before death. Senescence may occur naturally because of age or may be induced by various endogenous and exogenous factors. Despite its destructive character, senescence is a precisely controlled process that follows a well-defined order. It is often inseparable from programmed cell death (PCD), and a correlation between these processes has been confirmed during the senescence of leaves and petals. Despite suggestions that senescence and PCD are two separate processes, with PCD occurring after senescence, cell death responsible for senescence is accompanied by numerous changes at the cytological, physiological, and molecular levels, similar to other types of PCD...
November 27, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171222/-molecular-regulative-mechanisms-of-aging-and-interventional-effects-of-chinese-herbal-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Bu-Hui Liu, Yi-Huang Gu, Yue Tu, Wei-Ming He, Wei Wu, Ying-Lu Liu, Zi-Yue Wan, Yi-Gang Wan
Aging is a gradual process during the loss of functions in cells,organs and tissues by time. The molecular mechanisms of aging-related theories include the classical ones such as telomere,oxygen radical and nonenzymatic glycosylation,as well as the newly proposed ones such as DNA methylation,mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)and autophagy. The latest study showed the anti-aging effect of autophagy in hematopoietic stem cells. In recent years,based on the molecular regulative mechanisms of aging,a number of the promising anti-aging drugs have been found,including nicotinamide mononucleotide(NMN)and FOXO4-DRI,a peptide of anti-aging...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165603/all-roads-lead-to-the-vacuole-autophagic-transport-as-part-of-the-endomembrane-trafficking-network-in-plants
#7
Kamila Kalinowska, Erika Isono
Plants regulate their development and response to the changing environment by sensing and interpreting environmental signals. Intracellular trafficking pathways including endocytic-, vacuolar-, and autophagic trafficking are important for the various aspects of responses in plants. Studies in the last decade have shown that the autophagic transport pathway uses common key components of endomembrane trafficking as well as specific regulators. A number of factors previously described for their function in endosomal trafficking have been discovered to be involved in the regulation of autophagy in plants...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159335/protective-effects-of-lipoic-acid-against-acrylamide-induced-neurotoxicity-involvement-of-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-and-autophagy
#8
Ge Song, Zhigang Liu, Luanfeng Wang, Renjie Shi, Chuanqi Chu, Man Xiang, Qi Tian, Xuebo Liu
Acrylamide (ACR) is a chronic neurotoxin that is generated in high-starch foods during heat processing. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is an antioxidant that occurs in most plants and animals. The objective of this study was to reveal the mechanism of ACR-triggered neurotoxicity and identify the protective role of LA in SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, LA restored ACR-stimulated depletion of glutathione content and mitochondrial membrane potential, moderated the activation of inflammatory pathways, and recovered the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway...
November 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158964/ginsenoside-rk1-bioactivity-a-systematic-review
#9
Abdelrahman Elshafay, Ngo Xuan Tinh, Samar Salman, Yara Saber Shaheen, Eman Bashir Othman, Mohamed Tamer Elhady, Aswin Ratna Kansakar, Linh Tran, Le Van, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
Ginsenoside Rk1 (G-Rk1) is a unique component created by processing the ginseng plant (mainly Sung Ginseng (SG)) at high temperatures. The aim of our study was to systematically review the pharmacological effects of G-Rk1. We utilized and manually searched eight databases to select in vivo and in vitro original studies that provided information about biological, pharmaceutical effects of G-Rk1 and were published up to July 2017 with no restriction on language or study design. Out of the 156 papers identified, we retrieved 28 eligible papers in the first skimming phase of research...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157804/anti-parkinsonian-effects-of-%C3%AE-amyrin-are-regulated-via-lgg-1-involved-autophagy-pathway-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Chia-Cheng Wei, Chun-Han Chang, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan Liao
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is associated with aging and is characterized as a movement disorder. Currently, there is still no complete therapy for PD. In recent years, the identification and characterization of medicinal plants to cure or treat PD has gained increasing scientific interest. PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, β-amyrin, which is found in many medicinal plants for its anti-Parkinsonian effects, using Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154192/resveratrol-attenuates-testicular-apoptosis-in-type-1-diabetic-mice-role-of-akt-mediated-nrf2-activation-and-p62-dependent-keap1-degradation
#11
Yuguang Zhao, Wenjing Song, Zhenyu Wang, Zongqiang Wang, Xing Jin, Jiancheng Xu, Ling Bai, Yuying Li, Jiuwei Cui, Lu Cai
Infertility is a common complication in diabetic men, mainly due to the loss of germ cells by apoptotic cell death. However, effective and safe approaches to prevent diabetic induction of testicular apoptosis for diabetic patients have not been available. Resveratrol (RSV), a group of compounds called polyphenols from plants, has been indicated its promising used clinically for cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed determining whether RSV attenuates type 1 diabetes (T1D)-induced testicular apoptotic cell death in a mouse model...
November 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149404/the-translational-controlled-tumour-protein-tctp-biological-functions-and-regulation
#12
Ulrich-Axel Bommer
The Translational Controlled Tumour Protein TCTP (gene symbol TPT1, also called P21, P23, Q23, fortilin or histamine-releasing factor, HRF) is a highly conserved protein present in essentially all eukaryotic organisms and involved in many fundamental cell biological and disease processes. It was first discovered about 35 years ago, and it took an extended period of time for its multiple functions to be revealed, and even today we do not yet fully understand all the details. Having witnessed most of this history, in this chapter, I give a brief overview and review the current knowledge on the structure, biological functions, disease involvements and cellular regulation of this protein...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145153/the-pro-apoptosis-effect-of-sinomenine-in-renal-carcinoma-via-inducing-autophagy-through-inactivating-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#13
Fei Deng, Yue-Xian Ma, Liang Liang, Ping Zhang, Jing Feng
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous histological disease and the most common kidney cancer. The mortality rate of RCC remains high despite the improved treatment. Sinomenine is an isoquinoline extracted from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, famous for its ability to suppress several cancer cell types. Our research aimed to explore the anti-cancer potential of sinomenine in RCC. Results showed that sinomenine reduced the viability by reducing sphere-forming ability and enhancing pro-apoptosis effect in ACHN cells in a dose dependent manner...
November 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140451/lipids-in-membrane-dynamics-during-autophagy-in-plants
#14
Rodrigo Enrique Gomez, Jérôme Joubès, Nicolas Valentin, Henri Batoko, Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaître, Amélie Bernard
Autophagy is a critical pathway for plant adaptation to stress. Macroautophagy relies on the biogenesis of a specialized membrane named the phagophore that maturates into a double membrane vesicle. Proteins and lipids act synergistically to promote membrane structure and functions, yet research on autophagy has mostly focused on autophagy-related proteins while knowledge of supporting lipids in the formation of autophagic membranes remains scarce. This review expands on studies in plants with examples from other organisms to present and discuss our current understanding of lipids in membrane dynamics associated with the autophagy pathway in plants...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133371/turnip-mosaic-virus-counteracts-selective-autophagy-of-the-viral-silencing-suppressor-hcpro
#15
Anders Hafrén, Suayib Üstün, Anton Hochmuth, Steingrim Svenning, Terje Johansen, Daniel Hofius
Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation pathway and has emerged as a key mechanism of antiviral immunity in metazoans, including the selective elimination of viral components. In turn, some animal viruses are able to escape and modulate autophagy for enhanced pathogenicity. Whether host autophagic responses and viral countermeasures play similar roles in plant-virus interactions is not well understood. Here, we have identified selective autophagy as antiviral pathway during plant infection with turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), a positive-stranded RNA potyvirus...
November 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125860/autophagy-pathway-induced-by-a-plant-virus-facilitates-viral-spread-and-transmission-by-its-insect-vector
#16
Yong Chen, Qian Chen, Manman Li, Qianzhuo Mao, Hongyan Chen, Wei Wu, Dongsheng Jia, Taiyun Wei
Many viral pathogens are persistently transmitted by insect vectors and cause agricultural or health problems. Generally, an insect vector can use autophagy as an intrinsic antiviral defense mechanism against viral infection. Whether viruses can evolve to exploit autophagy to promote their transmission by insect vectors is still unknown. Here, we show that the autophagic process is triggered by the persistent replication of a plant reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) in cultured leafhopper vector cells and in intact insects, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious virus-containing double-membrane autophagosomes, conversion of ATG8-I to ATG8-II and increased level of autophagic flux...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107216/pharmacological-effects-and-potential-therapeutic-targets-of-dt-13
#17
REVIEW
Ghulam Jilany Khan, Mohsin Rizwan, Muhammad Abbas, Muhammad Naveed, Yu Boyang, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem, Sara Khan, Shengtao Yuan, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Li Sun
DT-13 is an isolated compound from Dwarf lillytruf tuber and currently among active research drugs by National Natural Science foundation of China for its several potential effects. The drug has been reported for its multiple pharmacological actions however no thorough review studies are available on it. Our present study is highlighting the pros and cons of DT-13 focusing on its potential pharmacological actions, therapeutic utilization and further exploration for novel targets. The drug possesses very low toxicity profile, quick onset and long duration of action with slow elimination that combinely makes it favorable for the clinical studies...
October 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101280/an-arabidopsis-glycine-rich-plasma-membrane-protein-enhances-disease-resistance-in-soybean
#18
Bing Wang, Rishi Sumit, Binod B Sahu, Micheline N Ngaki, Subodh K Srivastava, Yang Yang, Madan K Bhattacharyya
Nonhost resistance is defined as the immunity of a plant species to all nonadapted pathogen species. Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0 (Col-0) is nonhost to oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora sojae and fungal plant pathogen Fusarium virguliforme that are pathogenic to soybean. Previously, we reported generating pss1 mutation in the pen1-1 genetic background, genetic mapping and characterization of the Arabidopsis nonhost resistance Phytophthora sojae susceptible gene locus, PSS1. In this study, we identified six candidate PSS1 genes by comparing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of (i) the bulked DNA sample of seven F2:3 families homozygous for the pss1 allele and (ii) the pen1-1 mutant with Col-0...
November 3, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091860/eclalbasaponin-i-from-aralia-elata-miq-seem-reduces-oxidative-stress-induced-neural-cell-death-by-autophagy-activation
#19
Wei Wang, Guo-Dong Yao, Xin-Yue Shang, Ji-Chao Gao, Yan Zhang, Shao-Jiang Song
Oxidative stress has been proposed to contribute to DNA damage and is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. It has been reported that Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. (A. elata) exhibits an anti-oxidative effect but the mechanisms underlying this protective effect are still unclear. In this study, six known triterpene saponins were isolated from the buds of A. elata, a well-known medicinal and edible plant in Northeast China. Subsequently, the anti-oxidative effects of all six triterpene saponins were screened by H2O2-induced damage in human neuronblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079776/sulfur-availability-regulates-plant-growth-via-glucose-tor-signaling
#20
Yihan Dong, Marleen Silbermann, Anna Speiser, Ilaria Forieri, Eric Linster, Gernot Poschet, Arman Allboje Samami, Mutsumi Wanatabe, Carsten Sticht, Aurelio A Teleman, Jean-Marc Deragon, Kazuki Saito, Rüdiger Hell, Markus Wirtz
Growth of eukaryotic cells is regulated by the target of rapamycin (TOR). The strongest activator of TOR in metazoa is amino acid availability. The established transducers of amino acid sensing to TOR in metazoa are absent in plants. Hence, a fundamental question is how amino acid sensing is achieved in photo-autotrophic organisms. Here we demonstrate that the plant Arabidopsis does not sense the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine itself, but its biosynthetic precursors. We identify the kinase GCN2 as a sensor of the carbon/nitrogen precursor availability, whereas limitation of the sulfur precursor is transduced to TOR by downregulation of glucose metabolism...
October 27, 2017: Nature Communications
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