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Plant Autophagy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901086/glycycoumarin-inhibits-hepatocyte-lipoapoptosis-through-activation-of-autophagy-and-inhibition-of-er-stress-gsk-3-mediated-mitochondrial-pathway
#1
Enxiang Zhang, Shutao Yin, Xinhua Song, Lihong Fan, Hongbo Hu
Herbal medicine as an alternative approach in the treatment of disease has drawn growing attention. Identification of the active ingredient is needed for effective utilization of the herbal medicine. Licorice is a popular herbal plant that is widely used to treat various diseases including liver diseases. Glycycoumarin (GCM) is a representative of courmarin compounds isolated from licorice. In the present study, the protective effect of GCM on hepatocyte lipoapoptosis has been evaluated using both cell culture model of palmitate-induced lipoapoptosis and animal model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890807/diosmin-induced-senescence-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-breast-cancer-cells-of-different-p53-status-and-erk-activity
#2
Anna Lewinska, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Ewa Kwasniewicz, Anna Deregowska, Maciej Wnuk
Relatively low bioavailability of plant-derived nutraceuticals with anticancer properties may limit their usefulness for prevention and therapy of cancer. In the present study, we have screened for nutraceuticals (n=30) that would act at low micromolar range against phenotypically distinct breast cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7 (ER(+), PR(+/-), HER2(-)), MDA-MB-231 (ER(-), PR(-), HER2(-)) and SK-BR-3 (ER(-), PR(-), HER2(+)), and diosmin, a citrus fruit flavonoid belonging to a flavone subclass, was selected...
November 24, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890431/neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-plant-extracts-against-mptp-induced-neurotoxicity-future-applications-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Ahmed Negida, Hussien Ahmed, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, affecting about seven to 10 million patients worldwide. The major pathological features of PD are loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway and accumulation of alpha-synuclein molecules, forming Lewy bodies. Until now, there is no effective cure for PD, and investigators are searching for neuroprotective strategies to stop or slow the disease progression. The MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) induced neurotoxicity of the nigrostriatal pathway has been used to initiate PD in animal models...
November 24, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880045/koelreuteria-formosana-extract-induces-growth-inhibition-and-cell-death-in-human-colon-carcinoma-cells-via-g2-m-arrest-and-lc3-ii-activation-dependent-autophagy
#4
Chi-Ting Horng, Yueh-Jung Wu, Pei-Ni Chen, Shu-Chen Chu, Chun-Miao Tsai, Yih-Shou Hsieh
Autophagy is a self-destructive process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents. In our previous study, Koelreuteria formosana ethanolic extract (KFEE), which is obtained from natural plants endemic to Taiwan, has inhibited cell metastasis in renal carcinoma cells. However, the anticancer effects of KFEE on colon cancer remain unclear. In this study, KFEE exerted a strong cytotoxic effect on DLD-1 and COLO 205 human colorectal cancer cell lines. KFEE effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation, induced G2/M-phase arrest associated with downregulaton of cyclin E, cyclin B and cdc25C and upregulation of p21, and induced cell death by activating autophagy but did not cause apoptotic cell death...
November 23, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878656/mille-modis-morimur-we-die-in-a-thousand-ways
#5
Gaspar Banfalvi
Dying cells subjected to apoptotic programs are engulfed by neighboring cells or by professional phagocytes, without inflammation or immunological reactions in the tissue where apoptosis takes place. Apoptotic cells release danger-associated project signals to their neighbours, through different molecular patterns, stimulate antigen production and immune responses. Microenvironmental effects with several functional consequences indicate that cell death is a complex process and may take place in several ways...
November 23, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867391/origin-of-the-autophagosomal-membrane-in-plants
#6
REVIEW
Xiaohong Zhuang, Kin Pan Chung, Liwen Jiang
During autophagy, cargo molecules destined for degradation are sequestrated into a double-membrane structure called autophagosome, which subsequently fuses with the vacuole. An isolation membrane structure (also called the phagophore) initiates from the platform termed PAS (phagophore assembly site or preautophagosomal structure), which then elongates and expands to become the completed autophagosome. The origin of the membrane for autophagosome formation has been extensively investigated but remains an enigma in the field of autophagy...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836799/cucurbitacin-i-induces-hypertrophy-in-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts-through-activation-of-autophagy-via-mek-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#7
Yao Wu, Hongying Chen, Ruli Li, Xiaoxiao Wang, He Li, Juanjuan Xin, Zhiqiang Liu, Sisi Wu, Wei Jiang, Ling Zhu
Cucurbitacin-I, a natural triterpenoids initially identified in medicinal plants, shows a potent anticancer effect on a variety of cancer cell types. Nevertheless, the cardiotoxicity of cucurbitacin-I has not heretofore been reported. In this study, the mechanisms of cucurbitacin-I-induced cardiotoxicity were examined by investigating the role of MAPK-autophagy-dependent pathways. After being treated with 0.1-0.3μM cucurbitacin-I for 48h, H9c2 cells showed a gradual decrease in the cell viabilities, a gradual increase in cell size, and mRNA expression of ANP and BNP (cardiac hypertrophic markers)...
November 9, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834133/the-effects-of-colchicum-baytopiorum-on-regulatory-genes-of-apoptotic-and-autophagic-cell-death-in-hela-cells
#8
Özlem D Özsöylemez, Melek Öztürk, Nurhayat Sütlüpinar, Sera Kayacan, Matem Tunçdemir, Gül Özcan
BACKGROUND: The natural products have increasing important for the development of anticancer agents. Colchicum baytopiorum C.D.Brickell (C. baytopiorum), an endemic species for Turkey, contains colchicine and its derivatives. Stimulation of apoptotic and autophagy-mediated cell deaths are effective strategy for anticancer therapies. AIM: The aim of the study is to determine the role of the extract on both apoptotic and autophagic cell death in HeLa cell line. METHODS: The cell viability of C...
November 9, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830977/altered-apoptosis-autophagy-and-epigenetic-modifications-cause-the-impaired-postimplantation-octaploid-embryonic-development-in-mice
#9
Bao-Jiang Wu, Li-Xia Zhao, Cheng-Cheng Zhu, Yang-Lin Chen, Meng-Yi Wei, Si-Qin Bao, Shao-Chen Sun, Xi-He Li
Polyploids are pervasive in plants and have large impacts on crop breeding, but natural polyploids are rare in animals. Mouse diploid embryos can be induced to become tetraploid by blastomere fusion at the 2-cell stage and tetraploid embryos can develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro. However, there is little information regarding mouse octaploid embryonic development and precise mechanisms contributing to octaploid embryonic developmental limitations are unknown. To investigate the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying octaploid embryonic development, we generated mouse octaploid embryos and evaluated the in vitro/in vivo developmental potential...
November 10, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814595/particulate-beta-glucan-induces-early-and-late-phagosomal-maturation-in-murine-macrophages
#10
Nida Fatima, Tarun Upadhyay, Deepak Sharma, Rolee Sharma
Beta-glucans are carbohydrates (glucose polymers) found in the cell walls of fungi, yeast, algae, lichens, and plants such as oats and barley. Beta-glucans bind to glucan receptor on phagocytic cells and modify these cells to become "immunologically active" by generating a variety of innate immune responses. Particulate beta-glucan has been specifically shown to engage dectin-1 receptor, which leads to the recruitment and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 (NOX-2) and release of antimicrobial reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796611/synergy-of-2-deoxy-d-glucose-combined-with-berberine-in-inducing-the-lysosome-autophagy-and-transglutaminase-activation-facilitated-apoptosis
#11
H Dorota Halicka, Jorge Garcia, Jiangwei Li, Hong Zhao, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz
Utilizing a variety of flow cytometric methods evidence was obtained indicating that a combination of the glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-dG) and the plant alkaloid berberine (BRB) produces synergistic effect in the induction of apoptosis in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. The synergistic effect is seen at concentrations of the drugs at which each of them alone shows no cytotoxicity at all. The data suggest that the combination of these drugs, which are known in terms of their overall toxicity, side effects and pharmacokinetics may be considered for further studies as chemopreventive and cancer treatment modalities...
October 28, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795417/the-potyviral-silencing-suppressor-protein-vpg-mediates-degradation-of-sgs3-via-ubiquitination-and-autophagy-pathways
#12
Xiaofei Cheng, Aiming Wang
: RNA silencing is an innate antiviral immunity of plants and animals. To counteract this host immune response, viruses have evolved an effective strategy to protect themselves by expression of viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). Most potyviruses encode two VSRs, the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) and the viral genome-linked protein (VPg). The molecular biology of the former has been well characterized, whereas how VPg exerts its function in RNA silencing suppression is yet to be understood...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793785/autophagy-modulators-from-traditional-chinese-medicine-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-potentials-for-cancer-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Sheng-Fang Wang, Ming-Yue Wu, Cui-Zan Cai, Min Li, Jia-Hong Lu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an ancient yet still alive medicinal system widely used in East Asia, has played an essential role in health maintenance and diseases control, for a wide range of human chronic diseases like cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. TCM-derived compounds and extracts attract wide attention for their potential application as therapeutic agents against above mentioned diseases. AIM OF REVIEW: Recent years the enthusiasm in searching for autophagy regulators for human diseases has yielded many positive hits...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791467/identification-of-natural-products-with-neuronal-and-metabolic-benefits-through-autophagy-induction
#14
Yuying Fan, Nan Wang, Altea Rocchi, Weiran Zhang, Robert Vassar, Yifa Zhou, Congcong He
Autophagy is a housekeeping lysosomal degradation pathway important for cellular survival, homeostasis and function. Various disease models have shown that upregulation of autophagy may be beneficial to combat disease pathogenesis. However, despite several recently reported small-molecule screens for synthetic autophagy inducers, natural chemicals of diverse structures and functions have not been included in the synthetic libraries, and characterization of their roles in autophagy has been lacking. To discover novel autophagy-regulating compounds and study their therapeutic mechanisms, we used analytic chemistry approaches to isolate natural phytochemicals from a reservoir of medicinal plants used in traditional remedies...
October 28, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756818/control-of-autophagy-in-chlamydomonas-is-mediated-through-redox-dependent-inactivation-of-the-atg4-protease
#15
María Esther Pérez-Pérez, Stéphane D Lemaire, José L Crespo
Autophagy is a major catabolic pathway by which eukaryotic cells deliver unnecessary or damaged cytoplasmic material to the vacuole for its degradation and recycling in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Control of autophagy has been associated with the production of reactive oxygen species in several organisms, including plants and algae, but the precise regulatory molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that the ATG4 protease, an essential protein for autophagosome biogenesis, plays a central role for the redox regulation of autophagy in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Our results indicate that the activity of C...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755961/marrubium-vulgare-ethanolic-extract-induces-proliferation-block-apoptosis-and-cytoprotective-autophagy-in-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#16
V Paunovic, M Kosic, S Djordjevic, A Zugic, N Djalinac, U Gasic, V Trajkovic, J Harhaji-Trajkovic
Marrubium vulgare is a European medicinal plant with numerous beneficial effects on human health. The aim of the study was to isolate the plant ethanolic extract (MVE) and to investigate its anti-melanoma and anti-glioma effects. MVE was prepared by the modified pharmacopoeial percolation method and characterized by UHPLC-LTQ OrbiTrap MS. MVE dose-dependently reduced viability of melanoma (B16) and glioma (U251) cells, but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It arrested cell cycle in S+G2/M phase, which was associated with the activation of MAP kinase p38 and up-regulation of antiproliferative genes p53, p21 and p27...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733337/progress-on-the-autophagic-regulators-and-receptors-in-plants
#17
Zeng Xiaowei, Liu Cuicui, Han Ning, Bian Hongwu, Zhu Muyuan
Autophagy is an evolutionarily highly conserved catabolic pathway among eukaryotic cells that protects the organisms against environmental stress. Normally, autophagy is mainly involved with autophagy-related proteins(ATGs) and autophagic regulators including a series of cytoplasmic proteins and small molecules. Besides, the selective autophagy, which targets damaged organalles or protein aggregates, is mediated by the additional receptors to help the ATGs recognize different substrates. In this review, we summarize recent advances in autophagic regulators like ROS(Reactive oxygen species), TOR(Target of rapamycin) and receptors like NBR1(Neighbor of BRCA1 gene protein), RPN10(Regulatory particle non-ATPase 10) as well as their functional mechanisms mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733118/genome-wide-analysis-of-autophagy-associated-genes-in-foxtail-millet-setaria-italica-l-and-characterization-of-the-function-of-siatg8a-in-conferring-tolerance-to-nitrogen-starvation-in-rice
#18
Weiwei Li, Ming Chen, Erhui Wang, Liqin Hu, Malcolm J Hawkesford, Li Zhong, Zhu Chen, Zhaoshi Xu, Liancheng Li, Yongbin Zhou, Changhong Guo, Youzhi Ma
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that is highly evolutionarily-conserved in yeast, plants, and animals. In plants, autophagy plays important roles in regulating intracellular degradation and recycling of amino acids in response to nutrient starvation, senescence, and other environmental stresses. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has strong resistance to stresses and has been proposed as an ideal material for use in the study of the physiological mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732590/polyphenol-rich-diets-exacerbate-ampk-mediated-autophagy-decreasing-proliferation-of-mosquito-midgut-microbiota-and-extending-vector-lifespan
#19
Rodrigo Dutra Nunes, Guilherme Ventura-Martins, Débora Monteiro Moretti, Priscilla Medeiros-Castro, Carlucio Rocha-Santos, Carlos Renato de Oliveira Daumas-Filho, Paula Rego Barros Bittencourt-Cunha, Karina Martins-Cardoso, Cecília Oliveira Cudischevitch, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto, José Henrique Maia Oliveira, Desiely Silva Gusmão, Francisco José Alves Lemos, Daniela Sales Alviano, Pedro Lagerblad Oliveira, Carl Lowenberger, David Majerowicz, Ricardo Melo Oliveira, Rafael Dias Mesquita, Georgia Correa Atella, Mário Alberto Cardoso Silva-Neto
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols. RESULTS: Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK)...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717811/structure-and-functions-of-the-chaperone-like-p97-cdc48-in-plants
#20
REVIEW
Hervé Bègue, Sylvain Jeandroz, Cécile Blanchard, David Wendehenne, Claire Rosnoblet
BACKGROUND: The chaperone-like p97 is a member of the AAA+ ATPase enzyme family that contributes to numerous cellular activities. P97 has been broadly studied in mammals (VCP/p97) and yeasts (CDC48: Cell Division Cycle 48/p97) and numerous investigations highlighted that this protein is post-translationally regulated, is structured in homohexamer and interacts with partners and cofactors that direct it to distinct cellular signalization pathway including protein quality control and degradation, cell cycle regulation, genome stability, vesicular trafficking, autophagy and immunity...
October 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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