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Plant Autophagy

Siew-Li Lai, Mohd Rais Mustafa, Pooi-Fong Wong
BACKGROUND: Targeting autophagy is emerging as a promising strategy in cancer therapeutics in recent years. Autophagy can be modulated to drive cancer cell deaths that are notoriously resistant to apoptotic-inducing drugs. In addition, autophagy has been implicated as a prosurvival mechanism in mediating cancer chemoresistance. Our previous study has demonstrated that Panduratin A (PA), a plant-derived active compound exploits ER-stress-mediated apoptosis as its cytotoxic mechanism on melanoma...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Yang Cao, Shuang You, Yang Yao, Junchang Wei, Wureli Hazi, Cunyuan Li, Xiangyu Zhang, Xiaoxu Hou, Zhijin Liu, Xiaoyue Li, Dawei Wang, Chuangfu Chen, Yunfeng Zhang, Wei Ni, Shengwei Hu
Objective: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a newfound class of non-coding RNA in animals and plants. Recent studies have revealed that circRNAs play important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, autophagy and apoptosis during development. However, there are few reports about muscle development-related circRNAs in livestock. Methods: RNA sequencing analysis was employed to identify and annotate circRNAs from longissimus dorsi of sheep. Reverse transcription followed by real-time quantitative (q) PCR analysis verified the presence of these circRNAs...
April 11, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Mateusz Matuszkiewicz, Miroslaw Sobczak, Javier Cabrera, Carolina Escobar, Stanislaw Karpiński, Marcin Filipecki
Cyst-forming plant-parasitic nematodes are common pests of many crops. They inject secretions into host cells to induce the developmental and metabolic reprogramming that leads to the formation of a syncytium, which is the sole food source for growing nematodes. As in other host-parasite models, avirulence leads to rapid and local programmed cell death (PCD) known as the hypersensitive response (HR), whereas in the case of virulence, PCD is still observed but is limited to only some cells. Several regulators of PCD were analyzed to understand the role of PCD in compatible plant-nematode interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xuan-Ming Zhang, Dong-Qing An, Long-Long Guo, Ning-Hui Yang, Hua Zhang
This study investigated the flavonoid constituents of a traditional Chinese medical plant Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry and screened the active components in regulating autophagy.Normal rat kidney (NRK) cells transfected with green fluorescent protein- microtubule-associated protein 1 light Chain 3(GFP-LC3) were treated with Z. clinopodioides flavonoids and its chemical compositions. After 4 h of treatment, the auto-phagy spot aggregation in NRK cells was photographed and observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy...
April 3, 2018: Natural Product Research
Xiaohui Yang, Jiabei Zhu, Jianchun Wu, Nan Huang, Zhongqi Cui, Yingbin Luo, Fenyong Sun, Qiuhui Pan, Yan Li, Qingyuan Yang
(-)-Guaiol, a sesquiterpene alcohol with the guaiane skeleton, has been found in many Chinese medicinal plants and been reported to comprise various guaiane natural products that are well known for their antibacterial activities. Previously, we have shown its antitumor activity by inducing autophagy in NSCLC cells. However, its potential mechanism in inducing autophagy is still under our investigation. Here, data from our western blotting assays showed that, in NSCLC cells, (-)-Guaiol significantly blocked the mTORC2-AKT signaling by suppressing mTOR phosphorylation at serine 2481 (S2481) to induce autophagy, illustrated by the increasing ratio of LC3II/I...
April 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Shumin Zhou, Qiang Hong, Yang Li, Qi Li, Mao Wang
Programmed cell death (PCD) and autophagy are both important means for plants to resist pathogen. It is also the main biological reaction of plant immunity. In previous studies, we found that TMV local-infection on tomato leaves not only caused the PCD process in the distal root tissues, but also induced autophagy in root-tip cells. However, the reasons for these biological phenomena are unclear. In order to get deeper insight, the role of a putative inducible factor reactive oxidative species (ROS) was investigated...
April 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Mary Chacko Sunitha, Radhakrishnan Dhanyakrishnan, Bhaskara PrakashKumar, Kottayath Govindan Nevin
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a widely administered chemotherapeutic drug and incidences of cardiotoxicity associated with its administration have been of general concern. Extensive research proposes several mechanisms as a cause of Dox induced cardiotoxicity. However, none of these studies have been able to suggest a find one, cure all antidote for the same. To this end, several studies involving plant based compounds or natural products have gained acclaim for their ability to address at least one factor contributing to drug induced pathogenesis...
March 29, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Fangfang Li, Changwei Zhang, Yinzi Li, Guanwei Wu, Xilin Hou, Xueping Zhou, Aiming Wang
Autophagy emerges as an essential immunity defense against intracellular pathogens. Here we report that turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infection activates autophagy in plants and that Beclin1 (ATG6), a core component of autophagy, inhibits virus replication. Beclin1 interacts with NIb, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of TuMV, via the highly conserved GDD motif and the interaction complex is targeted for autophagic degradation likely through the adaptor protein ATG8a. Beclin1-mediated NIb degradation is inhibited by autophagy inhibitors...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Martyna Broda, A Harvey Millar, Olivier Van Aken
Mitophagy is a conserved cellular process that is important for autophagic removal of damaged mitochondria to maintain a healthy mitochondrial population. Mitophagy also appears to occur in plants and has roles in development, stress response, senescence, and programmed cell death. However, many of the genes that control mitophagy in yeast and animal cells are absent from plants, and no plant proteins marking defunct mitochondria for autophagic degradation are yet known. New insights implicate general autophagy-related proteins in mitophagy, affecting the senescence of plant tissues...
March 22, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Weichao Ren, Na Liu, Chengwei Sang, Dongya Shi, Mingguo Zhou, Changjun Chen, Qingming Qin, Wenchan Chen
Autophagy is a conserved degradation process that maintains intracellular homeostasis to ensure normal cell differentiation and development in eukaryotes. ATG8 is one of the key molecular components of autophagy pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized BcATG8 , a homologue of yeast ATG8 , in the necrotrophic plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea Yeast complementation experiments demonstrated that BcATG8 can functionally complement the defects of the yeast ATG8 null mutant. The physical direct interaction between BcAtg8 and BcAtg4 was detected in yeast two-hybrid system...
March 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Guibin Cui, Fengli Sun, Xinmei Gao, Kunliang Xie, Chao Zhang, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi
Melatonin-mediated osmotic tolerance was attributed to increased antioxidant capacity, energy metabolism, osmoregulation and autophagy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Melatonin is known to play multiple roles in plant abiotic stress tolerance. However, its role in wheat has been rarely investigated. In this study, 25% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used to simulate osmotic stress, and wheat seeds and seedlings were treated with different concentrations of melatonin under PEG stress. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic techniques were used to identify the differentially accumulated proteins from melatonin-treated and non-treated seedlings...
March 21, 2018: Planta
Kim L Gonzalez, Sarah E Ratzel, Kendall H Burks, Charles H Danan, Jeanne M Wages, Bethany K Zolman, Bonnie Bartel
Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles critical for plant and human development because they house essential metabolic functions, such as fatty acid β-oxidation. The interacting ATPases PEX1 and PEX6 contribute to peroxisome function by recycling PEX5, a cytosolic receptor needed to import proteins targeted to the peroxisomal matrix. Arabidopsis pex6 mutants exhibit low PEX5 levels and defects in peroxisomal matrix protein import, oil body utilization, peroxisomal metabolism, and seedling growth. These defects are hypothesized to stem from impaired PEX5 retrotranslocation leading to PEX5 polyubiquitination and consequent degradation of PEX5 via the proteasome or of the entire organelle via autophagy...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guanghui Lian, Fujun Li, Yani Yin, Linlin Chen, Junwen Yang
PURPOSE: Artemisia vulgaris (A.vulgaris) belonging to family Compositae, commonly known as mugwort, has been used as a medicinal herb in Chinese traditional medicine for treatment of diseases. Studies have reported a diversity of activities for this plant which include antiseptic, antispasmodic, antigastric, anticancer and nervous system diseases. However, the anticancer activity of A.vulgaris in HCT-15 human colon cancer cells has not been scientifically validated. Therefore the present study aimed at evaluating the anticancer activity of methanolic extract of A...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Peter V Bozhkov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Lingfei Shangguan, Xiang Fang, Lide Chen, Liwen Cui, Jinggui Fang
Grapevine autophagy-related genes (ARGs) include 35 members that have unique evolutionary backgrounds and expression patterns, with some of them responding to abiotic stresses, including copper stress. Autophagy is one of the most crucial self-regulating phenomena in livings organisms, including animals, plants, yeasts, etc. In the genomes of plants, like Arabidopsis, rice, tobacco, and barley, more than 30 autophagy-related genes (ARGs) have been found. These ARGs are involved in plant development, programed cell death, and the stress response process...
March 14, 2018: Planta
Richard S Marshall, Richard D Vierstra
Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to recycle intracellular constituents, which are essential for developmental and metabolic transitions; for efficient nutrient reuse; and for the proper disposal of proteins, protein complexes, and even entire organelles that become obsolete or dysfunctional. One major route is autophagy, which employs specialized vesicles to encapsulate and deliver cytoplasmic material to the vacuole for breakdown. In the past decade, the mechanics of autophagy and the scores of components involved in autophagic vesicle assembly have been documented...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Masanori Izumi, Sakuya Nakamura
Most assimilated nutrients in the leaves of land plants are stored in chloroplasts as photosynthetic proteins, where they mediate CO₂ assimilation during growth. During senescence or under suboptimal conditions, chloroplast proteins are degraded, and the amino acids released during this process are used to produce young tissues, seeds, or respiratory energy. Protein degradation machineries contribute to the quality control of chloroplasts by removing damaged proteins caused by excess energy from sunlight...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Abhishek Sadhu, Ilika Ghosh, Yuji Moriyasu, Anita Mukherjee, Maumita Bandyopadhyay
The effect of cerium oxide nanoparticle (CeNP) in plants has elicited substantial controversy. While some investigators have reported that CeNP possesses antioxidant properties, others observed CeNP to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In spite of considerable research carried out on the effects of CeNP in metazoans, fundamental studies that can unveil its intracellular consequences linking ROS production, autophagy and DNA damage are lacking in plants. To elucidate the impact of CeNP within plant cells, tobacco BY-2 cells were treated with 10, 50 and 250 µg ml-1 CeNP (Ce10, Ce50 and Ce250), for 24 h...
February 28, 2018: Mutagenesis
Mingyu Ding, Jing Li, Xinyue Fan, Fang He, Xiaoyang Yu, Lei Chen, Shenshen Zou, Yuancun Liang, Jinfeng Yu
The Ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, has become a predominant model organism for the study of fungal phytopathogens. Aquaporins (AQPs) have been implicated in the transport of water, glycerol, and a variety of other small molecules in yeast, plants and animals. However, the role of these proteins in phytopathogenic fungi is not well understood. Here, we identified and attempted to elucidate the function of the five aquaporin genes in F. graminearum...
March 3, 2018: Current Genetics
Suayib Üstün, Anders Hafrén, Qinsong Liu, Richard S Marshall, Elena A Minina, Peter Bozhkov, Richard D Vierstra, Daniel Hofius
Autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are two major protein degradation pathways implicated in the response to microbial infections in eukaryotes. In animals, the contribution of autophagy and the UPS to anti-bacterial immunity is well documented and several bacteria have evolved measures to target and exploit these systems to the benefit of infection. In plants, the UPS has been established as a hub for immune responses and is targeted by bacteria to enhance virulence. However, the role of autophagy during plant-bacterial interactions is less understood...
March 1, 2018: Plant Cell
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