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Plant Autophagy

Antonella Rigo, Isacco Ferrarini, Angela Bonalumi, Cristina Tecchio, Alessio Montresor, Carlo Laudanna, Fabrizio Vinante
The sesquiterpene α-bisabolol (α-BSB) is a cytotoxic agent against acute leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Here the profile of α-BSB citotoxicity was evaluated ex vivo in primary mononuclear blood cells isolated from 45 untreated B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. We studied the effects of α-BSB by flow cytometric and western blotting techniques with the following findings: (1) α-BSB was an effective proapoptotic agent against B-CLL cells (IC50 42 ± 15 μM). It was also active, but to a lesser extent, on normal residual B cells and monocytes (IC50 68 ± 34 and 74 ± 28 μM, respectively; p < 0...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Kohki Yoshimoto, Yoshinori Ohsumi
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular vacuolar process. Since Christian de Duve first coined the term 'autophagy' in 1963, it had not been well understood at the molecular level until much later due to limitations in biochemical approaches and/or morphological approaches posed by electron microscopy. An important milestone was achieved with the isolation and identification of autophagy-related (ATG) genes by genetic screening using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ATG genes are well conserved in most eukaryotic organisms, which has allowed the subsequent isolation of ATG gene-knockouts in plants...
June 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Amit Kumar Singh, Anupam Bishayee, Abhay K Pandey
Cancer initiation and progression are the result of genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. Acetylation-mediated histone/non-histone protein modification plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Histone modification is controlled by the balance between histone acetyltransferase and (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Imbalance between the activities of these two enzymes is associated with various forms of cancer. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) regulate the activity of HDACs and are being used in cancer treatment either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs/radiotherapy...
June 6, 2018: Nutrients
Md Abdullah-Al Mamun, Chunlei Tang, Yingchao Sun, Md Nazrul Islam, Peng Liu, Xiaojie Wang, Zhensheng Kang
Autophagy-related 8 (ATG8) protein has been reported to be involved in plant's innate immune response, but it is not clear whether such genes play a similar role in cereal crops against obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens. Here, we reported an ATG8 gene from wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), designated TaATG8j . This gene has three copies located in chromosomes 2AS, 2BS, and 2DS. The transcriptions of all three copies were upregulated in plants of the wheat cultivar Suwon 11, inoculated with an avirulent race (CYR23) of Puccinia striiformis f...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Man Yu, Ting Liu, Yicheng Chen, Yafang Li, Wenhua Li
BACKGROUND: Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that was isolated from the medicinal plant Stephania tetrandrine S. Moore, was recently identified as a novel chemotherapy drug. Tetrandrine exhibited a potential antitumor effect on multiple types of cancer. Notably, an enhanced therapeutic efficacy was identified when tetrandrine was combined with a molecularly targeted agent. H89 is a potent inhibitor of protein kinase A and is an isoquinoline sulfonamide. METHODS: The effects of H89 combined with tetrandrine were investigated in vitro with respect to cell viability, apoptosis and autophagy, and synergy was assessed by calculation of the combination index...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Vera Meyer, Sascha Jung
The emergence and spread of pathogenic fungi resistant to currently used antifungal drugs represents a serious challenge for medicine and agriculture. The use of smart antimicrobials, so-called "dirty drugs" which affect multiple cellular targets, is one strategy to prevent resistance. Of special interest is the exploitation of the AFP family of antimicrobial peptides, which include its founding member AFP from Aspergillus giganteus . This latter is a highly potent inhibitor of chitin synthesis and affects plasma membrane integrity in many human and plant pathogenic fungi...
June 2, 2018: Microorganisms
Kyoung Sang Cho, Myeongcheol Shin, Sunhong Kim, Sung Bae Lee
Carotenoids, symmetrical tetraterpenes with a linear C40 hydrocarbon backbone, are natural pigment molecules produced by plants, algae, and fungi. Carotenoids have important functions in the organisms (including animals) that obtain them from food. Due to their characteristic structure, carotenoids have bioactive properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and autophagy-modulatory activities. Given the protective function of carotenoids, their levels in the human body have been significantly associated with the treatment and prevention of various diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Meng Yang, Yongliang Zhang, Xialin Xie, Ning Yue, Jinlin Li, Xian-Bing Wang, Cheng-Gui Han, Jia-Lin Yu, Yule Liu, Dawei Li
Autophagy is a conserved defense strategy against viral infection. However, little is known about the counter-defense strategies of plant viruses involving interference with autophagy. Here, we show that γb protein from Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), a positive single-stranded RNA virus, directly interacts with AUTOPHAGY PROTEIN7 (ATG7). BSMV infection suppresses autophagy, and overexpression of γb protein is sufficient to inhibit autophagy. Furthermore, silencing of autophagy-related gene ATG5 and ATG7 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants enhanced BSMV accumulation and viral symptoms, indicating that autophagy plays an antiviral role in BSMV infection...
May 30, 2018: Plant Cell
Qing Liu, Dongchuan Zhu, Baozhen Hao, Zhiwei Zhang, Yongjie Tian
Luteolin (LUT) is a flavone universally presented in plants. It shows an anti-carcinogenic effect in different cancers and could increase the sensitivity of cisplatin in colorectal cancer cell lines through Nrf2 pathway. However, the effect of luteolin on the sensitivity to ovarian cancer cells has not been studied. In this study, luteolin was found to suppress autophagy with reduced expression of LC3-II, but enhanced the inhibition of cell vitality and promoted apoptosis induced by cisplatin, leading to restoration of the sensitivity to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells through CCK-8, flow cytometry and immunofluorescent assays...
May 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Chuanliang Liu, Wenjin Shen, Chao Yang, Lizhang Zeng, Caiji Gao
Plasma membrane (PM) not only creates a physical barrier to enclose the intracellular compartments but also mediates the direct communication between plants and the ever-changing environment. A tight control of PM protein homeostasis by selective degradation is thus crucial for proper plant development and plant-environment interactions. Accumulated evidences have shown that a number of plant PM proteins undergo clathrin-dependent or membrane microdomain-associated endocytic routes to vacuole for degradation in a cargo-ubiquitination dependent or independent manner...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Gladys Jiménez-Nopala, Angel Eduardo Salgado-Escobar, Diego Cevallos-Porta, Luis Cárdenas, Gabriela Sepúlveda-Jiménez, Gladys Cassab, Helena Porta
This work shows that autophagy plays a key role in the hydrotropic curvature of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. An analysis of GFP-ATG8a transgenic plants showed that autophagosomes accumulated in the root curvature 2 h after the transfer of seedlings to Normal Medium-Water Stress Medium (NM-WSM). Autophagy flux was required for root bending. Remarkably, several atg mutants did not show hydrotropic curvature in NM-WSM or the splitting-agar system. Hyper, an H2 O2 sensor showed that H2 O2 preferentially accumulated in the root curvature at a similar rate as the autophagosomes did during hydrotropic response...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Renu Srivastava, Zhaoxia Li, Giulia Russo, Jie Tang, Ran Bi, Usha Muppirala, Sivanandan Chudalayandi, Andrew Severin, Mingze He, Samuel I Vaitkevicius, Carolyn J Lawrence-Dill, Peng Liu, Ann E Stapleton, Diane C Bassham, Federica Brandizzi, Stephen H Howell
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly conserved response that protects plants from adverse environmental conditions. The UPR is elicited by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, in which unfolded and misfolded proteins accumulate within the ER. Here, we induced the UPR in maize (Zea mays) seedlings to characterize the molecular events that occur over time during persistent ER stress. We found that a multiphasic program of gene expression was interwoven among other cellular events, including the induction of autophagy...
May 25, 2018: Plant Cell
Meriem Durgud, Saurabh Gupta, Ivan Ivanov, Amin Omidbakhshfard, Maria Benina, Saleh Alseekh, Nikola Staykov, Mareike Hauenstein, Paul Dijkwel, Stefan Hörtensteiner, Valentina Toneva, Yariv Brotman, Alisdair R Fernie, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Tsanko Gechev
The desiccation-tolerant plant Haberlea rhodopensis can withstand months of darkness without any visible senescence. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this adaptation to prolonged (30 days) darkness and subsequent return to light. H. rhodopensis plants remained green and viable throughout the dark treatment. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that darkness regulated several transcription factor (TF) genes. Stress- and autophagy-related TFs such as ERF8, HSFA2b, RD26, TGA1, and WRKY33 were upregulated, while chloroplast- and flowering-related TFs such as ATH1, COL2, COL4, RL1, and PTAC7 were repressed...
May 22, 2018: Plant Physiology
Rishiram Ramanan, Quynh-Giao Tran, Dae-Hyun Cho, Jae-Eun Jeong, Byung-Hyuk Kim, Sang-Yoon Shin, Sae-Hae Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Dae-Soo Kim, Seon-Jin Lee, Jose L Crespo, Hee-Gu Lee, Hee-Mock Oh, Hee-Sik Kim
Algae undergo a complete metabolic transformation under stress by arresting cell growth, inducing autophagy, and hyper-accumulating biofuel precursors such as triacylglycerols and starch. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind this stress-induced transformation are still unclear. Here, we use biochemical, mutational, and 'omics' approaches to demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling mediates the homeostasis of energy molecules and influences carbon metabolism in algae. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the inhibition and knockdown (KD) of algal class III PI3K led to significantly decreased cell growth, altered cell morphology, and higher lipid and starch contents...
May 16, 2018: Plant Physiology
Sakuya Nakamura, Masanori Izumi
Light energy is essential for photosynthetic energy production and plant growth. Chloroplasts in green tissues convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy via the electron transport chain. When the level of light energy exceeds the capacity of the photosynthetic apparatus, chloroplasts undergo a process known as photoinhibition. Since photoinhibition leads to the overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the spreading of cell death, plants have developed multiple systems to protect chloroplasts from strong light...
May 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sakuya Nakamura, Jun Hidema, Wataru Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Ishida, Masanori Izumi
Plant chloroplasts constantly accumulate damage caused by visible light during photosynthesis. Our previous study revealed that entire photodamaged chloroplasts are subjected to vacuolar digestion through an autophagy process termed chlorophagy; however, how this process is induced and executed remained poorly understood. In the current study, we monitored intracellular induction of chlorophagy in Arabidopsis leaves, and found that mesophyll cells damaged by high visible light (HL) displayed abnormal chloroplasts with a swollen shape and 2...
May 10, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ora Son, Sunghan Kim, Dooil Kim, Yoon-Sun Hur, Jiyoung Kim, Choong-Ill Cheon
In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that a stretch of amino-acid sequences identified from Arabidopsis ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) provided a plant version of the TOS (TOR-signaling) motif, mediating the interaction with the Raptor protein in the TOR (Target of Rapamycin) kinase complex. Here we report the presence of same element in Arabidopsis Autophagy related-13 (AtATG13) protein, which is a key component of the plant autophagy response. Its composition is nearly identical to that found in the AtS6K1 in the five-amino-acid core sequence, and the presence of this five-amino-acid sequence was found to be essential for its interaction with the Raptor protein...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zhihua Hua, Paymon Doroodian, William Vu
Ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like proteins, collectively forming the ubiquiton family, regulate nearly all aspects of cellular processes via posttranslational modifications. Studies devoted to specific members suggested a large expansion of this family in plants. However, lack of its systematic analysis hinders the comparison of individual members at both evolutionary history and functional divergence levels, which may provide new insight into biological functions. In this work, we first retrieved in total 5,856 members of 17 known ubiquiton subfamilies in 50 plant genomes by searching both prior annotations and missing loci in each genome...
May 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Tong Zhu, Lijuan Zou, Yan Li, Xiuhong Yao, Fei Xu, Xingguang Deng, Dawei Zhang, Honghui Lin
Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is involved in a large number of plant physiological processes, such as growth, development and stress responses; however, the exact role of AOX in response to drought remains unclear. In our study, we provide solid evidences that the activated AOX capacity positively involved in ethylene-induced drought tolerance, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), accompanied by the changing level of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and autophagy. In AOX1a-RNAi plants, the ethylene-induced drought tolerance was aggravated and associated with decreasing level of autophagy...
May 4, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Angela Tesse, Elena Grossini, Grazia Tamma, Catherine Brenner, Piero Portincasa, Raul A Marinelli, Giuseppe Calamita
Plant-derived bioactive compounds have protective role for plants but may also modulate several physiological processes of plant consumers. In the last years, a wide spectrum of phytochemicals have been found to be beneficial to health interacting with molecular signaling pathways underlying critical functions such as cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation, redox balance, cell volume regulation, metabolic homeostasis, and energy balance. Hence, a large number of biologically active phytocompounds of foods have been isolated, characterized, and eventually modified representing a natural source of novel molecules to prevent, delay or cure several human diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
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