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Plant Autophagy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053817/autophagic-flux-is-required-for-the-synthesis-of-triacylglycerols-and-ribosomal-protein-turnover-in-chlamydomonas
#1
Inmaculada Couso, María Esther Pérez-Pérez, Enrique Martínez-Force, Hee-Sik Kim, Yonghua He, James G Umen, José L Crespo, Peter Bozhkov
Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that allows cells to recycle unneeded or damaged material to maintain cellular homeostasis. This highly dynamic process is characterized by the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, which engulf and deliver the cargo to the vacuole. Flow of material through the autophagy pathway and its degradation in the vacuole is known as autophagic flux, and reflects the autophagic degradation activity. A number of assays have been developed to determine autophagic flux in yeasts, mammals, and plants, but it has not been examined yet in algae...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049987/isoflavones-induce-bex2-dependent-autophagy-to-prevent-atr-induced-neurotoxicity-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#2
Peng Li, Kun Ma, Hao-Yu Wu, Yan-Ping Wu, Bai-Xiang Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atrazine (ATR) is a broad-spectrum herbicide in wide use around the world. However, ATR is neurotoxic and can cause cell death in dopaminergic neurons, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Autophagy is the basic cellular catabolic process involving the degradation of proteins and damaged organelles. Studies have shown that certain plant compounds can induce autophagy and prevent neuronal cell death. This prompted us to investigate plant compounds that might reduce the neurotoxic effects of ATR...
October 19, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043683/fluorescence-imaging-of-autophagy-mediated-er-to-vacuole-trafficking-in-plants
#3
Hadas Peled-Zehavi, Gad Galili
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a conserved mechanism in eukaryotic cells that delivers unneeded cellular components for degradation in the lytic organelle. In plants, as in other eukaryotes, autophagy begins in the formation of cup-shaped double membranes that engulf cytosolic material. The double membrane closes to form autophagosomes that are then transported to the vacuole for degradation. Autophagy can function as a bulk nonselective process or as a selective process targeting specific proteins, protein aggregates, organelles, or other cellular components for degradation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042957/ursolic-acid-inhibits-breast-cancer-growth-by-inhibiting-proliferation-inducing-autophagy-and-apoptosis-and-suppressing-inflammatory-responses-via-the-pi3k-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways-in-vitro
#4
Juan Luo, Yan-Ling Hu, Hong Wang
Breast cancer, which is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women worldwide, develops from breast tissue. Chemotherapy is the most commonly used therapy to treat breast cancer. However, a number of natural plant-derived products have been suggested as alternative therapies to treat different types of cancer, such as breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-tumor effects of ursolic acid and its effect on apoptosis and inflammation in breast cancer cells. The anti-cancer effects of ursolic acid were evaluated in vitro using flow cytometry, western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040052/partial-or-entire-distinct-responses-of-two-types-of-chloroplast-autophagy
#5
Masanori Izumi, Sakuya Nakamura
Autophagy carries out intracellular degradation of cytoplasmic components, which is important for the removal of dysfunctional organelles and for efficient nutrient recycling in eukaryotic cells. Most proteins in plant green tissues are found in chloroplasts, mainly as photosynthetic proteins that constantly accumulate damage caused by sunlight. Our recent study investigated the involvement of autophagy in the turnover of damaged chloroplasts and found that entire photodamaged chloroplasts are transported into the vacuole for degradation via an autophagy process termed chlorophagy...
October 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036428/exocyst-exosomes-and-autophagy-in-the-regulation-of-brassicaceae-pollen-stigma-interactions
#6
Daphne R Goring
Brassicaceae pollen-stigma interactions have been extensively studied in Brassica and Arabidopsis species to identify cellular events triggered in the stigmatic papillae by pollen contact. Compatible pollinations are linked to the activation of basal cellular responses in the stigmatic papillae, which include calcium gradients, actin networks, and polarized secretion. The occurrence of these cellular events in stigmatic papillae coincides with the stages of pollen hydration and pollen tube entry into the stigmatic papillar cell wall...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024631/luteoloside-induces-g0-g1-arrest-and-pro-death-autophagy-through-the-ros-mediated-akt-mtor-p70s6k-signalling-pathway-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-lines
#7
Menglu Zhou, Shuying Shen, Xin Zhao, Xingguo Gong
Autophagy has attracted a great deal of interest in tumour therapy research in recent years. However, the anticancer effect of luteoloside, a naturally occurring flavonoid isolated from the medicinal plant Gentiana macrophylla, on autophagy remains poorly understood in human lung cells. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer effects of luteoloside on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and demonstrated that luteoloside effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation, inducing G0/G1phase arrest associated with reduced expression of CyclinE, CyclinD1 and CDK4; we further found that treatment with luteoloside did not strongly result in apoptotic cell death in NSCLC (A549 and H292) cells...
October 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992297/vacuolar-degradation-of-chloroplast-components-autophagy-and-beyond
#8
Marisa S Otegui
Chloroplast degradation during natural or stress-induced senescence requires the participation of both plastidic and extraplastidic degradative pathways. As part of the extraplastidic pathways, chloroplasts export stroma, envelope, and thylakoid proteins in membrane-bound organelles that are ultimately degraded in vacuoles. Some of these pathways, such as the formation of senescence-associated vacuoles (SAVs) and CV-containing vesicles (CCVs), do not depend on autophagy, whereas delivery of Rubisco-containing bodies (RCBs), ATI1-PS (ATG8-interacting Protein 1) bodies, and small starch-like granule (SSLG) bodies is autophagy dependent...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987943/a-standardized-extract-of-butea-monosperma-lam-flowers-suppresses-the-il-1%C3%AE-induced-expression-of-il-6-and-matrix-metalloproteases-by-activating-autophagy-in-human-osteoarthritis-chondrocytes
#9
Mohammad Y Ansari, Nazir M Khan, Tariq M Haqqi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of joint dysfunction, disability and poor quality of life in the affected population. The underlying mechanism of joint dysfunction involves increased oxidative stress, inflammation, high levels of cartilage extracellular matrix degrading proteases and decline in autophagy-a mechanism of cellular defense. There is no disease modifying therapies currently available for OA. Different parts of the Butea monosperma (Lam.) plant have widely been used in the traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine system for the treatment of various human diseases including inflammatory conditions...
October 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983604/sanggenon%C3%A2-c-protects-against-cardiomyocyte-hypoxia-injury-by-increasing-autophagy
#10
Yang Gu, Lu Gao, Yu Chen, Zhuo Xu, Kun Yu, Dongying Zhang, Gang Zhang, Xiwen Zhang
Sanggenon C is isolated from Morus alba, a plant that has been used for anti‑inflammatory purposes in Oriental medicine. Little is known about the effect of Sanggenon C on cardiomyocyte hypoxia injury. This study, using H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts, was designed to determine the effects of Sanggenon C on cardiomyocyte hypoxia injury. Inflammatory cytokine levels were measured by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction, reactive oxygen species were measured by 2',7'‑dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescent probe, autophagy was detected using the LC3II/I ratio and cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983304/acetolactate-synthase-inhibiting-gametocide-amidosulfuron-causes-chloroplast-destruction-tissue-autophagy-and-elevation-of-ethylene-release-in-rapeseed
#11
Xi-Qiong Liu, Cheng-Yu Yu, Jun-Gang Dong, Sheng-Wu Hu, Ai-Xia Xu
Background: Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides amidosulfuron (Hoestar) is an efficient gametocide that can induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). We conducted an integrated study of cytological, transcriptomic, and physiological analysis to decipher the gametocidal effect of amidosulfuron. Results: In the first several days after exposure to amidosulfuron at a gametocidal dose of ca. 1 μg per plant, the plants showed the earliest symptoms including short retard of raceme elongation, slight chlorosis on leaf, and decrease of photosynthesis rate...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962889/a-new-clerodane-furano-diterpene-glycoside-from-tinospora-cordifolia-triggers-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-hct-116-colon-cancer-cells
#12
Neha Sharma, Ashok Kumar, P R Sharma, Arem Qayum, Shashank K Singh, Prabhu Dutt, Satya Paul, Vivek Gupta, M K Verma, N K Satti, R Vishwakarma
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tinospora cordifolia is a miraculous ayurvedic herb used in the treatment of innumerable diseases such as diabetes, gonorrhea, secondary syphilis, anaemia, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological diseases, cancer, gout, jaundice, asthma, leprosy, in the treatment of bone fractures, liver & intestinal disorders, purifies the blood, gives new life to the whole body; (rejuvenating herb) and many more. Recent studies have revealed the anticancer potential of this plant but not much work has been done on the anticancer chemical constituents actually responsible for its amazing anticancer effects...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961890/cell-growth-and-homeostasis-are-disrupted-in-arabidopsis-rns2-2-mutants-missing-the-main-vacuolar-rnase-activity
#13
Stephanie C Morriss, Xiaoyi Liu, Brice E Floyd, Diane C Bassham, Gustavo C MacIntosh
Background and Aims: Enzymes belonging to the RNase T2 family are essential for normal rRNA turnover in eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this function is performed by RNS2. The null mutant rns2-2 has increased rRNA half-life and constitutive autophagy. The aim of this work was to determine the molecular changes that take place in the rns2-2 mutant that may lead to altered cellular homeostasis, manifested by the observed cellular phenotype. Methods: To determine the effect of defective rRNA turnover on cellular homeostasis, comparative transcriptome and metabolome analyses of 10-day-old wild-type and rns2-2 seedlings were used to identify molecular processes affected in the mutant...
September 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961220/an-insight-into-cotton-leaf-curl-multan-betasatellite-the-most-important-component-of-cotton-leaf-curl-disease-complex
#14
REVIEW
Muhammad Zubair, Syed Shan-E-Ali Zaidi, Sara Shakir, Imran Amin, Shahid Mansoor
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is one of the most economically important diseases and is a constraint to cotton production in major producers, Pakistan and India. CLCuD is caused by monopartite plant viruses belonging to the family Geminiviridae (genus Begomovirus), in association with an essential, disease-specific satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) belonging to a newly-established family Tolecusatellitidae (genus Betasatellite). CLCuMuB has a small genome (ca. 1350 nt) with a satellite conserved region, an adenine-rich region and a single gene that encodes for a multifunctional βC1 protein...
September 29, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960115/nbr1-mediated-antiviral-xenophagy-in-plant-immunity
#15
Anders Hafrén, Daniel Hofius
Macroautophagy/autophagy intersects with metazoan virus infections in highly complex and multifaceted ways. Autophagy mechanisms are part of antiviral immunity, but can be manipulated by several viruses to the benefit of infection. In plants, however, the roles of autophagy in virus infections have only recently started to emerge. Here, we present and discuss our recent study that identified 2 prominent functions of autophagy upon cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) infection in Arabidopsis. We found that "bulk" autophagy significantly extended the life span of infected plants and increased total virus production...
September 29, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947489/the-plastid-and-mitochondrial-peptidase-network-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-a-foundation-for-testing-genetic-interactions-and-functions-in-organellar-proteostasis
#16
Kristina Majsec, Nazmul H Bhuiyan, Qi Sun, Sunita Kumari, Vivek Kumar, Doreen Ware, Klaas Jan van Wijk
Plant plastids and mitochondria have dynamic proteomes. Protein homeostasis in these organelles is maintained by a proteostasis network containing protein chaperones, peptidases and their substrate recognition factors. However, many peptidases, as well as their functional connections and substrates, are poorly characterized. This review provides a systematic insight into the organellar peptidase network in Arabidopsis. We present a compendium of known and putative Arabidopsis peptidases and inhibitors, and compare the distribution of plastid and mitochondrial peptidases to the total peptidase complement...
September 25, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946649/the-incredible-journey-of-begomoviruses-in-their-whitefly-vector
#17
REVIEW
Henryk Czosnek, Aliza Hariton-Shalev, Iris Sobol, Rena Gorovits, Murad Ghanim
Begomoviruses are vectored in a circulative persistent manner by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The insect ingests viral particles with its stylets. Virions pass along the food canal and reach the esophagus and the midgut. They cross the filter chamber and the midgut into the haemolymph, translocate into the primary salivary glands and are egested with the saliva into the plant phloem. Begomoviruses have to cross several barriers and checkpoints successfully, while interacting with would-be receptors and other whitefly proteins...
September 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946008/autophagy-as-a-mediator-of-life-and-death-in-plants
#18
REVIEW
Suayib Üstün, Anders Hafrén, Daniel Hofius
Autophagy is a major pathway for degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic material, including individual proteins, aggregates, and entire organelles. Autophagic processes serve mainly survival functions in cellular homeostasis, stress adaptation and immune responses but can also have death-promoting activities in different eukaryotic organisms. In plants, the role of autophagy in the regulation of programmed cell death (PCD) remained elusive and a subject of debate. More recent evidence, however, has resulted in the consensus that autophagy can either promote or restrict different forms of PCD...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934130/isoliquiritigenin-induces-autophagy-and-inhibits-ovarian-cancer-cell-growth
#19
Hsin-Yuan Chen, Tsui-Chin Huang, Tzong-Ming Shieh, Chi-Hao Wu, Li-Chun Lin, Shih-Min Hsia
Ovarian cancer is one of the commonest gynecologic malignancies, which has a poor prognosis for patients at the advanced stage. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), an active flavonoid component of the licorice plant, previously demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tumor suppressive effects. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of ISL on human ovarian cancer in vitro using the human ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR5 and ES-2, as model systems. Our results show that ISL significantly inhibited the viability of cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933654/commonalities-and-differences-in-plants-deficient-in-autophagy-and-alternative-pathways-of-respiration-on-response-to-extended-darkness
#20
Jessica A S Barros, João Henrique F Cavalcanti, David B Medeiros, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Alisdair R Fernie, Wagner L Araújo
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular mechanism in eukaryotes allowing the degradation of cell constituents. It is of crucial significance in both cellular homeostasis and nutrient recycling. During energy limited conditions plant cells can metabolize alternative respiratory substrates, such as amino acids, providing electrons to the mitochondrial metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or electron transfer flavoprotein/ electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) system...
September 21, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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