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Plant Autophagy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548870/vacuolar-digestion-of-entire-damaged-chloroplasts-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-is-accomplished-by-chlorophagy
#1
Masanori Izumi, Sakuya Nakamura
In yeast and mammals, selective vacuolar delivery and degradation of whole mitochondria, or mitophagy, represents an important quality control system and is achieved by a cargo recognition mechanism enabling selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria. As photosynthetic organelles that need light for energy production, plant chloroplasts accumulate sunlight-induced damage. Plants have evolved multiple mechanisms to avoid, relieve, or repair chloroplast photodamage. Our recent study showed that vacuolar degradation of entire chloroplasts, termed chlorophagy, is induced to degrade chloroplasts that are collapsed due to photodamage...
May 26, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545004/autophagy-as-an-emerging-arena-for-plant-pathogen-interactions
#2
REVIEW
Daniel Hofius, Liang Li, Anders Hafrén, Nuria S Coll
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation and recycling process that controls cellular homeostasis, stress adaptation, and programmed cell death in eukaryotes. Emerging evidence indicates that autophagy is a key regulator of plant innate immunity and contributes with both pro-death and pro-survival functions to antimicrobial defences, depending on the pathogenic lifestyle. In turn, several pathogens have co-opted and evolved strategies to manipulate host autophagy pathways to the benefit of infection, while some eukaryotic microbes require their own autophagy machinery for successful pathogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537463/plant-bax-inhibitor-1-interacts-with-atg6-to-regulate-autophagy-and-programmed-cell-death
#3
Guoyong Xu, Shanshan Wang, Shaojie Han, Ke Xie, Yan Wang, Jinlin Li, Yule Liu
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process and is involved in the regulation of programmed cell death during the plant immune response. However, mechanisms regulating autophagy and cell death are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that plant Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), a highly conserved cell death regulator, interacts with ATG6, a core autophagy-related protein. Silencing of BI-1 reduced the autophagic activity induced by both N gene-mediated resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and methyl viologen (MV), and enhanced N gene-mediated cell death...
May 24, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531942/target-signalling-pathways-of-natural-plant-derived-radioprotective-agents-from-treatment-to-potential-candidates-a-reverse-thought-on-anti-tumour-drugs
#4
REVIEW
Ke-Li Yun, Zhen Yu Wang
Radiation damage can occur in nuclear power plant workers when physical protections fail, which results in nuclear leakage through the protective layers. Alternatively, workers may be unable to use physical protection in time (in the case of a sudden nuclear weapons attack). In addition, patients who receive local radiotherapy and are not allowed to adopt local physical protection may experience radiation damage. Thus, protection against chemical radiation has become indispensable. In view of the side effects caused by synthetic radioprotective agents (such as amisfostine), searching for radioprotective agents from plant sources is an alternative strategy...
May 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528166/regulation-of-nutrient-recycling-via-autophagy
#5
REVIEW
Céline Masclaux-Daubresse, Qinwu Chen, Marien Havé
Autophagy is a universal mechanism in eukaryotes that promotes cell longevity and nutrient recycling through the degradation of unwanted organelles, proteins and damaged cytoplasmic compounds. Autophagy is important in plant resistance to stresses and starvations and in remobilization. Autophagy facilitates bulk and selective degradations, through the delivery of cell material to the vacuole where hydrolases and proteases reside. Large metabolite modifications are observed in autophagy mutants showing the important role of autophagy in cell homeostasis...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515021/sulforaphene-an-isothiocyanate-present-in-radish-plants-inhibits-proliferation-of-human-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Anna Pawlik, Marta Wała, Aleksandra Hać, Agnieszka Felczykowska, Anna Herman-Antosiewicz
BACKGROUND: Isothiocyanates derived from the Brassicaceae plants possess chemopreventive and anticancer activities. One of them is sulforaphene (SF), which is abundant in Rhapanus sativus seeds. The underlying mechanism of its anticancer activity is still underexplored. PURPOSE: SF properties make it an interesting candidate for cancer prevention and therapy. Thus, it is crucial to characterize the mechanism of its activity. STUDY DESIGN: We investigated the mechanism of antiproliferative activity of SF in breast cancer cells differing in growth factor receptors status and lacking functional p53...
June 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512289/a-genetic-screen-in-combination-with-biochemical-analysis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-indicates-that-phenazine-1-carboxylic-acid-is-harmful-to-vesicular-trafficking-and-autophagy
#7
Xiaolong Zhu, Yan Zeng, Xiu Zhao, Shenshen Zou, Ya-Wen He, Yongheng Liang
The environmentally friendly antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) protects plants, mammals and humans effectively against various fungal pathogens. However, the mechanism by which PCA inhibits or kills fungal pathogens is not fully understood. We analyzed the effects of PCA on the growth of two fungal model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, and found that PCA inhibited yeast growth in a dose-dependent manner which was inversely dependent on pH. In contrast, the commonly used antibiotic hygromycin B acted in a dose-dependent manner as pH increased...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504367/neuroprotective-natural-products-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease-by-targeting-the-autophagy-lysosome-pathway-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Zi-Ying Wang, Jing-Yi Liu, Chuan-Bin Yang, Sandeep Malampati, Ying-Yu Huang, Mei-Xiang Li, Min Li, Ju-Xian Song
The autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) is a primary means by which damaged organelles and long-lived proteins are removed from cells and their components recycled. Impairment of the ALP has been found to be linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. In recent years, some active compounds derived from plants have been found to regulate the ALP and to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental models of PD, raising the possibility that autophagy enhancement may be an effective therapeutic strategy in PD treatment...
May 15, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500315/network-and-role-analysis-of-autophagy-in-phytophthora-sojae
#9
Linlin Chen, Xiong Zhang, Wen Wang, Xuejing Geng, Yan Shi, Risong Na, Daolong Dou, Honglian Li
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in eukaryotes with roles in development and the virulence of plant fungal pathogens. However, few reports on autophagy in oomycete species have been published. Here, we identified 26 autophagy-related genes (ATGs) belonging to 20 different groups in Phytophthora sojae using a genome-wide survey, and core ATGs in oomycetes were used to construct a preliminary autophagy pathway model. Expression profile analysis revealed that these ATGs are broadly expressed and that the majority of them significantly increase during infection stages, suggesting a central role for autophagy in virulence...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476502/quercetin-suppresses-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-epithelial-cells-triggered-by-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#10
Yansong Xue, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
Inflammatory responses elicited by LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is induced by a wide variety of stress signals including infectious agents and cellular disorders. E. coli O157:H7 causes serious gastrointestinal diseases that results in severe inflammation and oxidative stress, causing host cell damage. In this study, we found that E. coli O157:H7 infection induced NLRP3 assembly, caspase-1 activation and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 release in Caco-2 cells. Infection also resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction with disrupted mitochondrial potential and mitochondrial complex-I activity, as well as the cytosolic release of cytochrome c and altered mitochondrial respiratory chain...
May 2, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451821/genome-wide-analysis-of-autophagy-related-genes-in-banana-highlights-maatg8s-in-cell-death-and-autophagy-in-immune-response-to-fusarium-wilt
#11
Yunxie Wei, Wen Liu, Wei Hu, Guoyin Liu, Chunjie Wu, Wei Liu, Hongqiu Zeng, Chaozu He, Haitao Shi
MaATG8s play important roles in hypersensitive-like cell death and immune response, and autophagy is essential for disease resistance against Foc in banana. Autophagy is responsible for the degradation of damaged cytoplasmic constituents in the lysosomes or vacuoles. Although the effects of autophagy have been extensively revealed in model plants, the possible roles of autophagy-related gene in banana remain unknown. In this study, 32 MaATGs were identified in the draft genome, and the profiles of several MaATGs in response to fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f...
April 27, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441457/autophagy-contributes-to-falcarindiol-induced-cell-death-in-breast-cancer-cells-with-enhanced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#12
Tingting Lu, Ming Gu, Yan Zhao, Xinyu Zheng, Chengzhong Xing
Falcarindiol (FAD) is a natural polyyne have been found in many food and dietary plants. It has been found to have various beneficial biological activities. In this study, we demonstrated its anticancer function and mechanism in breast cancer cells. We found that FAD preferentially induces cell death in breast cancer cells. FAD-induced cell death is caspase-dependent. However, FAD induces autophagy to contribute to the cell death. Blocking autophagy by either chemical inhibitors or genetic knockout of autophagy signaling component inhibits FAD-induced cell death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437167/the-fgvps39-fgvam7-fgsso1-complex-mediates-vesicle-trafficking-and-is-important-for-the-development-and-virulence-of-fusarium-graminearum
#13
Bing Li, Luping Liu, Ying Li, Xin Dong, Haifeng Zhang, Huaigu Chen, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
Vesicle trafficking is an important event in eukaryotic organisms. Many proteins and lipids transported between different organelles or compartments are essential for survival. These processes are mediated by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, Rab-GTPases, and multisubunit tethering complexes such as class C core vacuole or endosome tethering and homotypic fusion or vacuole protein sorting (HOPS). Our previous study has demonstrated that FgVam7, which encodes a SNARE protein involving in vesicle trafficking, plays crucial roles in growth, asexual or sexual development, deoxynivalenol production, and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum...
May 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423628/benzyl-isothiocyanate-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-initiated-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#14
Ji-Fan Lin, Te-Fu Tsai, Shan-Che Yang, Yi-Chia Lin, Hung-En Chen, Kuang-Yu Chou, Thomas I-Sheng Hwang
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) in cruciferous plants, which are part of the human diet, has been shown to induce apoptosis in various types of cancer. In this study, we show that BITC effectively suppresses the growth of cultured human prostate cancer cells (CRW-22Rv1 and PC3) by causing mitochondrial membrane potential loss, caspase 3/7 activation and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, BITC induces ROS generation in these cells. The induction of apoptosis by BITC was significantly attenuated in the presence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and catalase (CAT), well-studied ROS scavengers...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420757/stress-signals-in-plants
#15
Alexandra A Mushegian
Selective autophagy mediates the cross-talk between plant growth and stress signaling pathways.
April 18, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399398/selective-autophagy-of-bes1-mediated-by-dsk2-balances-plant-growth-and-survival
#16
Trevor M Nolan, Benjamin Brennan, Mengran Yang, Jiani Chen, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li, Xuelu Wang, Diane C Bassham, Justin Walley, Yanhai Yin
Plants encounter a variety of stresses and must fine-tune their growth and stress-response programs to best suit their environment. BES1 functions as a master regulator in the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway that promotes plant growth. Here, we show that BES1 interacts with the ubiquitin receptor protein DSK2 and is targeted to the autophagy pathway during stress via the interaction of DSK2 with ATG8, a ubiquitin-like protein directing autophagosome formation and cargo recruitment. Additionally, DSK2 is phosphorylated by the GSK3-like kinase BIN2, a negative regulator in the BR pathway...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390176/cucurbitacin-b-protects-against-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#17
Yang Xiao, Zheng Yang, Qing-Qing Wu, Xiao-Han Jiang, Yuan Yuan, Wei Chang, Zhou Yan Bian, Jin Xiu Zhu, Qi-Zhu Tang
Lack of effective anti-cardiac hypertrophy drugs creates a major cause for the increasing prevalence of heart failure. In the present study, we determined the anti-hypertrophy and anti-fibrosis potential of a natural plant triterpenoid, Cucurbitacin B both in vitro and in vivo. Aortic banding (AB) was performed to induce cardiac hypertrophy. After 1 week of surgery, mice were receive cucurbitacin B treatment (Gavage, 0.2 mg/kg body weight/2 day). After 4 weeks of AB, cucurbitacin B demonstrated a strong anti-hypertrophy and -fibrosis ability as evidenced by decreased of heart weight, myocardial cell cross-sectional area and interstitial fibrosis, ameliorated of systolic and diastolic abnormalities, normalized in gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers, reserved microvascular density in pressure overload induced hypertrophic mice...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367073/natural-compounds-as-modulators-of-non-apoptotic-cell-death-in-cancer-cells
#18
Luis Miguel Guamán-Ortiz, Maria Isabel Ramirez Orellana, Edward A Ratovitski
Cell death is an innate capability of cells to be removed from microenvironment, if and when they are damaged by multiple stresses. Cell death is often regulated by multiple molecular pathways and mechanism, including apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. The molecular network underlying these processes is often intertwined and one pathway can dynamically shift to another one acquiring certain protein components, in particular upon treatment with various drugs. The strategy to treat human cancer ultimately relies on the ability of anticancer therapeutics to induce tumor-specific cell death, while leaving normal adjacent cells undamaged...
April 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364377/autophagy-programmed-cell-death-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-sexual-reproduction-in-plants
#19
Takamitsu Kurusu, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu
Autophagy is one of the major cellular processes of recycling of proteins, metabolites and intracellular organelles, and plays crucial roles in the regulation of innate immunity, stress responses and programmed cell death (PCD) in many eukaryotes. It is also essential in development and sexual reproduction in many animals. In plants, although autophagy-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana show phenotypes in abiotic and biotic stress responses, their life cycle seems normal and thus little had been known until recently about the roles of autophagy in development and reproduction...
May 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360921/the-involvement-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-the-establishment-of-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-infection
#20
REVIEW
Rena Gorovits, Henryk Czosnek
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a begomovirus, induces protein aggregation in infected tomatoes and in its whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. The interactions between TYLCV and HSP70 and HSP90 in plants and vectors are necessity for virus infection to proceed. In infected host cells, HSP70 and HSP90 are redistributed from a soluble to an aggregated state. These aggregates contain, together with viral DNA/proteins and virions, HSPs and components of the protein quality control system such as ubiquitin, 26S proteasome subunits, and the autophagy protein ATG8...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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