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Plant Autophagy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237118/using-photoconvertible-and-extractable-fluorescent-proteins-to-study-autophagy-in-plants
#1
M O Abiodun, K Matsuoka
Several methodologies have been employed to understand the kinetics of induced autophagic degradation in plants, but most of them are not capable of distinguishing the autophagic cargo proteins before and after induction of autophagy in cells. Here, we designed a mass photoconverter that allowed us to simultaneously monitor protein synthesis and degradation in tobacco BY-2 cells using a photoconvertible fluorescence marker protein, Kikume Green Red (KikGR). An example of a new protocol for the analysis of autophagy progression using a fusion protein of cytochrome b5 and KikGR under phosphate starvation is described...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237117/biochemical-methods-to-monitor-autophagic-responses-in-plants
#2
Y Bao, Y Mugume, D C Bassham
The study of autophagy in plants is rapidly increasing, due to its pivotal and fundamental roles in responding to stressful stimuli, recycling nutrients during senescence, and maintaining growth under normal conditions. Assays for detecting autophagy in plants have generally been based on microscopic observations, providing qualitative information on autophagy activity. Here, we discuss biochemical assays for detecting autophagy, which have the potential for providing more quantitative information, with a focus on immunoblotting with antibodies against ATG8, NBR1, or epitope tags fused to ATG proteins...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223514/selective-autophagy-limits-cauliflower-mosaic-virus-infection-by-nbr1-mediated-targeting-of-viral-capsid-protein-and-particles
#3
Anders Hafrén, Jean-Luc Macia, Andrew J Love, Joel J Milner, Martin Drucker, Daniel Hofius
Autophagy plays a paramount role in mammalian antiviral immunity including direct targeting of viruses and their individual components, and many viruses have evolved measures to antagonize or even exploit autophagy mechanisms for the benefit of infection. In plants, however, the functions of autophagy in host immunity and viral pathogenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified both anti- and proviral roles of autophagy in the compatible interaction of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), a double-stranded DNA pararetrovirus, with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana We show that the autophagy cargo receptor NEIGHBOR OF BRCA1 (NBR1) targets nonassembled and virus particle-forming capsid proteins to mediate their autophagy-dependent degradation, thereby restricting the establishment of CaMV infection...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213701/ursolic-acid-mediated-changes-in-glycolytic-pathway-promote-cytotoxic-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-phenotypically-different-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Anna Lewinska, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Ewa Kwasniewicz, Anna Deregowska, Maciej Wnuk
Plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenotids with multiple biological activities are considered as promising candidates for cancer therapy and prevention. However, their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of low dose treatment (5-20 µM) of ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) on breast cancer cells of different receptor status, namely MCF-7 (ER(+), PR(+/-), HER2(-)), MDA-MB-231 (ER(-), PR(-), HER2(-)) and SK-BR-3 (ER(-), PR(-), HER2(+)). UA-mediated response was more potent than BA-mediated response...
February 17, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213625/8-nitro-cgmp-a-novel-protein-reactive-cnmp-and-its-emerging-roles-in-autophagy
#5
Hirokazu Arimoto, Daiki Takahashi
Nitric oxide (NO) raises the intracellular 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level through the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and, in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reacts with biomolecules to produce nitrated cGMP derivatives. 8-Nitro-cGMP was the first endogenous cGMP derivative discovered in mammalian cells (2007) and was later found in plant cells. Among the six nitrogen atoms in this molecule, the one in the nitro group (NO2) comes from NO. This chapter asserts that this newly found cGMP is undoubtedly one of the major physiological cNMPs...
February 18, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190539/corrigendum-to-evodiamine-a-plant-alkaloid-induces-calcium-jnk-mediated-autophagy-and-calcium-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-human-glioblastoma-cells-chem-biol-interact-205-1-2013-sep-5-20-28
#6
Ann-Jeng Liu, Sheng-Hao Wang, Ku-Chung Chen, Hsiu-Ping Kuei, Yung-Luen Shih, Sz-Ying Hou, Wen-Ta Chiu, Sheng-Huang Hsiao, Chwen-Ming Shih
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177687/curcumin-protects-neuronal-cells-against-status-epilepticus-induced-hippocampal-damage-through-induction-of-autophagy-and-inhibition-of-necroptosis
#7
Jin Wang, Yuan Liu, Xiao-Hui Li, Xiang-Chang Zeng, Jian Li, Jun Zhou, Bo Xiao, Kai Hu
Status epilepticus, the most severe form of epilepsy, is characterized by progressive functional and structural damage in the hippocampus, ultimately leading to the development and clinical appearance of spontaneous, recurrent seizures. Though the pathogenesis underlying epileptogenesis processes remains unclear, a substantial body of evidence has shown that status epilepticus acts as an important initial factor in triggering epileptogenesis. Notably, besides classical cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis, two novel regulators of cell fate known as necroptosis and autophagy, are demonstrated to be involved in neuronal damage in various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders...
December 9, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167039/apple-autophagy-related-protein-mdatg3s-afford-tolerance-to-multiple-abiotic-stresses
#8
Ping Wang, Xun Sun, Xin Jia, Fengwang Ma
The efficient degradation system of autophagy in plant cells has important roles in removing and recycling intracellular components during normal development or under environmental stresses. Formation of autophagosomes requires the conjugation of ubiquitin-like protein ATG8 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). We isolated two ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-like ATG3 homologues from Malus domestica - MdATG3a and MdATG3b - that are crucial for ATG8-PE conjugation. Both share a conserved N-terminal, as well as the catalytic and C-terminal domains of ATG3 with HPC and FLKF motifs...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145408/impact-of-salt-stress-cell-death-and-autophagy-on-peroxisomes-quantitative-and-morphological-analyses-using-small-fluorescent-probe-n-bodipy
#9
Deirdre Fahy, Marwa N M E Sanad, Kerstin Duscha, Madison Lyons, Fuquan Liu, Peter Bozhkov, Hans-Henning Kunz, Jianping Hu, H Ekkehard Neuhaus, Patrick G Steel, Andrei Smertenko
Plant peroxisomes maintain a plethora of key life processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, photorespiration, synthesis of hormones, and homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Abundance of peroxisomes in cells is dynamic; however mechanisms controlling peroxisome proliferation remain poorly understood because measuring peroxisome abundance is technically challenging. Counting peroxisomes in individual cells of complex organs by electron or fluorescence microscopy is expensive and time consuming. Here we present a simple technique for quantifying peroxisome abundance using the small probe Nitro-BODIPY, which in vivo fluoresces selectively inside peroxisomes...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142220/glutamate-synthase-moglt1-mediated-glutamate-homeostasis-is-important-for-autophagy-virulence-and-conidiation-in-the-rice-blast-fungus
#10
Wei Zhou, Wei Shi, Xiao-Wen Xu, Zhi-Gang Li, Chang-Fa Yin, Jun-Bo Peng, Song Pan, Xiao-Lin Chen, Wen-Sheng Zhao, Yan Zhang, Jun Yang, You-Liang Peng
Glutamate homeostasis plays vital roles in central nitrogen metabolism and coordinates several key metabolic functions. However, its functions in fungal pathogenesis and development have not been well investigated. In this study, we identified and characterized a glutamate synthase gene MoGLT1 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that was important to glutamate homeostasis. MoGLT1 was constitutively expressed but had the highest expression level in appressoria. Deletion of MoGLT1 resulted in significant reductions in conidiation and virulence...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125285/the-life-and-death-of-a-plant-cell
#11
Mehdi Kabbage, Ryan Kessens, Lyric C Bartholomay, Brett Williams
Like all eukaryotic organisms, plants possess an innate program for controlled cellular demise termed programmed cell death (PCD). Despite the functional conservation of PCD across broad evolutionary distances, an understanding of the molecular machinery underpinning this fundamental program in plants remains largely elusive. As in mammalian PCD, the regulation of plant PCD is critical to development, homeostasis, and proper responses to stress. Evidence is emerging that autophagy is key to the regulation of PCD in plants and that it can dictate the outcomes of PCD execution under various scenarios...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123106/entire-photodamaged-chloroplasts-are-transported-to-the-central-vacuole-by-autophagy
#12
Masanori Izumi, Hiroyuki Ishida, Sakuya Nakamura, Jun Hidema
Turnover of dysfunctional organelles is vital to maintain homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. As photosynthetic organelles, plant chloroplasts can suffer sunlight-induced damage. However, the process for turnover of entire damaged chloroplasts remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that autophagy is responsible for the elimination of sunlight-damaged, collapsed chloroplasts in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that vacuolar transport of entire chloroplasts, termed chlorophagy, was induced by ultraviolet-B (UVB) damage to the chloroplast apparatus...
January 25, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117435/movrp1-a-putative-verprolin-protein-is-required-for-asexual-development-and-infection-in-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#13
Lin Huang, Shengpei Zhang, Ziyi Yin, Muxing Liu, Bing Li, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang
Endocytosis is a crucial cellular process in eukaryotic cells which involves clathrin and/or adaptor proteins, lipid kinases, phosphatases and the actin cytoskeleton. Verprolin proteins, such as Vrp1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are conserved family proteins that regulate actin binding and endocytosis. Here, we identified and characterized MoVrp1 as the yeast Vrp1 homolog in Magnaporthe oryzae. Deletion of the MoVRP1 gene resulted in defects in vegetative growth, asexual development, and infection of the host plant...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078994/modulation-of-tumour-related-signaling-pathways-by-natural-pentacyclic-triterpenoids-and-their-semisynthetic-derivatives
#14
Andrey V Markov, Evgeniya B Logashenko, Marina A Zenkova
Pentacyclic triterpenoids are a large class of natural isoprenoids that are widely biosynthesized in higher plants. These compounds are potent anticancer agents that exhibit antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, antiinflammatory and proapoptotic activities. Although their effects on multiple pathways have been reported, unifying mechanisms of action have not yet been established. To date, a huge number of semisynthetic derivatives have been synthesized in different laboratories on the basis of triterpenoid scaffolds, and many have been assayed for their biological activities...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072818/glucose-abl1-tor-signaling-modulates-cell-cycle-tuning-to-control-terminal-appressorial-cell-differentiation
#15
Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, Guangchao Sun, Richard A Wilson
The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway integrates growth and development with available nutrients, but how cellular glucose controls TOR function and signaling is poorly understood. Here, we provide functional evidence from the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that glucose can mediate TOR activity via the product of a novel carbon-responsive gene, ABL1, in order to tune cell cycle progression during infection-related development. Under nutrient-free conditions, wild type (WT) M. oryzae strains form terminal plant-infecting cells (appressoria) at the tips of germ tubes emerging from three-celled spores (conidia)...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059041/antitumor-activity-of-isosteroidal-alkaloids-from-the-plants-in-the-genus-veratrum-and-fritillaria
#16
Yuanhong Shang, Qingdan Du, Simei Liu, Maksorvor Staadler, Shu Wang, Dongdong Wang
Isosteroidal alkaloids are a category of promising bioactive compounds which mostly exist in plants of genus Veratrum and Fritillaria. The pharmacological activities of isosteroidal alkaloids include antihypertensive, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, antithrombosis, among others. Recently, some studies show that this kind of alkaloids exhibited significant antitumor activity. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review focusing on their antitumor activity and mechanism of their antitumor activity. To fill the gap, in this review, we summarized antitumor effects of the isosteroidal alkaloids from genus Veratrum and Fritillaria on different tumors and the mechanisms of their antitumor activity...
January 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053229/atg9-regulates-autophagosome-progression-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-in-arabidopsis
#17
Xiaohong Zhuang, Kin Pan Chung, Yong Cui, Weili Lin, Caiji Gao, Byung-Ho Kang, Liwen Jiang
Autophagy is a conserved pathway for bulk degradation of cytoplasmic material by a double-membrane structure named the autophagosome. The initiation of autophagosome formation requires the recruitment of autophagy-related protein 9 (ATG9) vesicles to the preautophagosomal structure. However, the functional relationship between ATG9 vesicles and the phagophore is controversial in different systems, and the molecular function of ATG9 remains unknown in plants. Here, we demonstrate that ATG9 is essential for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived autophagosome formation in plants...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038982/atg8-expansion-a-driver-of-selective-autophagy-diversification
#18
REVIEW
Ronny Kellner, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Abbas Maqbool, Sophien Kamoun, Yasin F Dagdas
Selective autophagy is a conserved homeostatic pathway that involves engulfment of specific cargo molecules into specialized organelles called autophagosomes. The ubiquitin-like protein ATG8 is a central player of the autophagy network that decorates autophagosomes and binds to numerous cargo receptors. Although highly conserved across eukaryotes, ATG8 diversified from a single protein in algae to multiple isoforms in higher plants. We present a phylogenetic overview of 376 ATG8 proteins across the green plant lineage that revealed family-specific ATG8 clades...
March 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026826/programmed-cell-death-strategy-for-maintenance-cellular-organisms-homeostasis
#19
Mirosław Godlewski, Agnieszka Kobylińska
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a cellular suicide process, commonly found in organisms, that is important for elimination unnecessary and damaged cells during development and adaptation to abiotic and biotic environmental stresses. PCD is a complex and precise, genetically controlled cellular process, in opposite to non-programmed death, necrosis, in which cells are "killed" by strong abiotic factors. This article shows: the occurrence of PCD during animals and plants ontogenesis, classification of cell death types in these organisms with description of autophagy, apoptosis and necrotic cell death and with discussion on plant cell death by apoptosis...
December 20, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936433/carbon-starvation-induces-lipid-degradation-via-autophagy-in-the-model-alga-micrasterias
#20
Viola Schwarz, Ancuela Andosch, Anja Geretschläger, Matthias Affenzeller, Ursula Lütz-Meindl
Autophagy is regarded as crucial intracellular process in plant development but also in intracellular stress response. It is known to be controlled by the energy level of the cell and consequently can be triggered by energy deprivation. In this study carbon starvation evoked in different ways was investigated in the freshwater algae model system Micrasterias denticulata (Streptophyta) which is closely related to higher plants. Cells exposed to the photosynthesis inhibiting herbicide DCMU, to the glycolysis inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-glucose and to complete darkness over up to 9 weeks for preventing metabolism downstream of glucose supply, were investigated by means of Nile red staining and analyses in CLSM, and TEM after cryo-preparation...
January 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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