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Target of rapamycin, plant

Wolfgang Dröge-Laser, Christoph Weiste
Sustaining energy homeostasis is crucial to every living being. To balance energy supply and demand, plants make use of an evolutionarily conserved management system consisting of two counteracting kinases, TOR (TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN) and SnRK1 (Snf1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 1). SnRK1 is involved in reorganizing enzymatic and transcriptional responses to survive energy-limiting conditions. Recently, members of the bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factor family have been established as SnRK1 downstream mediators...
March 7, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Jean Logan, Megan W Bourassa
There is considerable evidence to support dietary recommendations for prevention of cancer as well as for patients undergoing or recovering from cancer treatment. We consider here implications from human, animal and in-vitro studies of the effects of dietary factors (macronutrients and micronutrients-phytochemicals) on cancer. An important epidemiology study, the China Project found a significant correlation between disease incidence and markers of animal product consumption. Evidence of the role of animal protein in the promotion of cancer also comes from animal studies...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Sousuke Imamura, Yuhta Nomura, Tokiaki Takemura, Imran Pancha, Keiko Taki, Kazuki Toguchi, Yuzuru Tozawa, Kan Tanaka
Chloroplasts are plant organelles that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. Chloroplast biogenesis depends upon chloroplast ribosomes and their translational activity. However, regulation of chloroplast ribosome biogenesis remains an important unanswered question. In this study, we found that inhibition of target of rapamycin (TOR), a general eukaryotic checkpoint kinase, results in a decline in chloroplast ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Upon TOR inhibition, transcriptomics and other analyses revealed increased expression of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast RelA-SpoT homolog (RSH) gene (CmRSH4b), which encodes a homolog of the guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate (ppGpp) synthetases that modulate rRNA synthesis in bacteria...
February 14, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Na Lin, Zhiping Li, Deli Wang, Kewen Zheng, Yiyan Wu, Huiqi Wang
Plant secondary metabolites including alkaloids, demonstrate a complex diversity in their molecular scaffolds and exhibit tremendous pharmacological potential as anti-cancerous therapeutics. The present study aimed to evaluate the anticancer activity of a natural alkaloid, mecambridine, against human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). An MTT assay was used to evaluate cytotoxic effects of mecambridine on HSC-3 oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Effects of mecambridine on autophagy-associated proteins were analyzed by western blotting...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Yutong Li, Wenji Hu, Guanghong Han, Wenqian Lu, Dongxu Jia, Min Hu, Di Wang
Aucubin, an iridoid glycoside found in several plants, such as Eucommia ulmoide and Rehmannia, has various pharmacological effects. Bone formation is a complex process in which osteoblast differentiation plays an important role. This study aimed to investigate the promotion effects of aucubin on osteoblast differentiation in MG63 cells, a human osteoblast-like cell line. Aucubin not only improved osteoblast differentiation, as shown by enhanced ALP (alkaline phosphatase) concentration and mineralization in cells, but increased the expression of various cytokines, including collagen I, osteocalcin, osteopontin, integrin β1, and Osterix...
February 3, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Muhammed K Jamsheer, Manvi Sharma, Dhriti Singh, Chanchal Thomas Mannully, Sunita Jindal, Brihaspati Narayan Shukla, Ashverya Laxmi
SNF1-Related Protein Kinase 1 (SnRK1) is a central regulator of plant growth during energy starvation. The FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) proteins are recently identified adaptor proteins which facilitate the interaction of SnRK1 with other proteins. In this study, we identified that two starvation-induced FLZ genes, FLZ6 and FLZ10, work as repressors of SnRK1 signalling. The reduced expression of these genes resulted in an increase in the level of SnRK1α1, which is the major catalytic subunit of SnRK1. This resulted in a concomitant increase in the phosphorylated protein and SnRK1 activity in the flz6 and flz10 mutants...
February 6, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Gang Zhang, Xiaohui Gao, Hui Zeng, Yuan Li, Xiaojun Guo
Virosecurinine, a primary alkaloid from Securinega suffruticosa plant is known as a potent differentiation-inducing agent in acute leukemia cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of virosecurinine on human leukemia THP-1 cells in vitro. The effects of virosecurinine on cell proliferation were assessed by CCK-8. The effects on apoptosis and cell cycle were assessed by staining with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide, respectively followed by flow cytometric analysis...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Jing Gao, Huijuan Guo, Yucheng Sun, Feng Ge
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen fertilization directly affects plants and indirectly affects herbivorous insects. Although insect species and even genotypes are known to differ in their responses to nitrogen fertilization, the physiological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The current study assessed the fecundity and related regulatory signaling pathways in the green and red morphs of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) feeding on Medicago truncatula with and without nitrogen fertilization. RESULTS: Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased foliar amino acid concentrations and consequently increased the concentrations of several individual essential amino acids in body tissue of the green morph...
January 31, 2018: Pest Management Science
Lun Zhao, Li Deng, Qing Zhang, Xue Jing, Meng Ma, Bin Yi, Jing Wen, Chaozhi Ma, Jinxing Tu, Tingdong Fu, Jinxiong Shen
Sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides inhibit branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis by targeting acetolactate synthase. Plants have evolved target-site resistance and metabolic tolerance to SU herbicides; the GCN2 (general control non-repressible 2) pathway is also involved in SU tolerance. Here, we report a novel SU tolerance mechanism, autophagy, which we call 'homeostatic tolerance,' is involved in amino acid signaling in Arabidopsis. The activation and reversion of autophagy and GCN2 by the SU herbicide tribenuron-methyl (TM) and exogenous BCAA, respectively, confirmed that TM-induced BCAA starvation is responsible for the activation of autophagy and GCN2...
January 29, 2018: Autophagy
Dariush Mozaffarian, Jason H Y Wu
A growing body of nutritional science highlights the complex mechanisms and pleiotropic pathways of cardiometabolic effects of different foods. Among these, some of the most exciting advances are occurring in the area of flavonoids, bioactive phytochemicals found in plant foods; and in the area of dairy, including milk, yogurt, and cheese. Many of the relevant ingredients and mechanistic pathways are now being clarified, shedding new light on both the ingredients and the pathways for how diet influences health and well-being...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
Jing-Lan He, Xiao-Hui Dong, Zong-Hu Li, Xiao-Ying Wang, Zhi-An Fu, Na Shen
Autophagy is an important self-adaptive mechanism that is involved in inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) in spinal cord neurons. Pterostilbene, a natural plant extract, has been demonstrated to possess antioxidant effects; however, it has not yet been investigated whether pterostilbene could activate autophagy and protect spinal cord neurons from oxidative stress. In the present study, primary spinal cord neurons of Sprague Dawley rats were cultured. Cell counting kit‑8 analysis was used to detect cytotoxicity of pterostilbene...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xuemei Chen, Shuai Wang, Ying Zhou, Yanfei Han, Shengtian Li, Qing Xu, Longyong Xu, Ziqi Zhu, Youming Deng, Lu Yu, Lulu Song, Adele Pin Chen, Juan Song, Eiki Takahashi, Guang He, Lin He, Weidong Li, Charlie Degui Chen
Epigenomic abnormalities caused by genetic mutation in epigenetic regulators can result in neurodevelopmental disorders, deficiency in neural plasticity and mental retardation. As a histone demethylase, plant homeodomain finger protein 8 (Phf8) is a candidate gene for syndromal and non-specific forms of X-chromosome-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Here we report that Phf8 knockout mice displayed impaired learning and memory, and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) without gross morphological defects...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Pengcheng Wang, Yang Zhao, Zhongpeng Li, Chuan-Chih Hsu, Xue Liu, Liwen Fu, Yueh-Ju Hou, Yanyan Du, Shaojun Xie, Chunguang Zhang, Jinghui Gao, Minjie Cao, Xiaosan Huang, Yingfang Zhu, Kai Tang, Xingang Wang, W Andy Tao, Yan Xiong, Jian-Kang Zhu
As sessile organisms, plants must adapt to variations in the environment. Environmental stress triggers various responses, including growth inhibition, mediated by the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanisms that integrate stress responses with growth are poorly understood. Here, we discovered that the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase phosphorylates PYL ABA receptors at a conserved serine residue to prevent activation of the stress response in unstressed plants. This phosphorylation disrupts PYL association with ABA and with PP2C phosphatase effectors, leading to inactivation of SnRK2 kinases...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Cell
Yuhei Mizunoe, Masaki Kobayashi, Yuka Sudo, Shukoh Watanabe, Hiromine Yasukawa, Daiki Natori, Ayana Hoshino, Arisa Negishi, Naoyuki Okita, Masaaki Komatsu, Yoshikazu Higami
Dysfunction of autophagy, which regulates cellular homeostasis by degrading organelles and proteins, is associated with pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and metabolic disease. Trehalose, a naturally occurring nontoxic disaccharide found in plants, insects, microorganisms and invertebrates, but not in mammals, was reported to function as a mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR)-independent inducer of autophagy. In addition, trehalose functions as an antioxidant though its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear...
May 2018: Redox Biology
Frederikke Gro Malinovsky, Marie-Louise F Thomsen, Sebastian J Nintemann, Lea Møller Jagd, Baptiste Bourgine, Meike Burow, Daniel J Kliebenstein
To optimize fitness a plant should monitor its metabolism to appropriately control growth and defense. Primary metabolism can be measured by the universally conserved TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway to balance growth and development with the available energy and nutrients. Recent work suggests that plants may measure defense metabolites to potentially provide a strategy ensuring fast reallocation of resources to coordinate plant growth and defense. There is little understanding of mechanisms enabling defense metabolite signaling...
December 12, 2017: ELife
Fei Deng, Yue-Xian Ma, Liang Liang, Ping Zhang, Jing Feng
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous histological disease and the most common kidney cancer. The mortality rate of RCC remains high despite the improved treatment. Sinomenine is an isoquinoline extracted from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, famous for its ability to suppress several cancer cell types. Our research aimed to explore the anti-cancer potential of sinomenine in RCC. Results showed that sinomenine reduced the viability by reducing sphere-forming ability and enhancing pro-apoptosis effect in ACHN cells in a dose dependent manner...
November 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mikhail Schepetilnikov, Lyubov A Ryabova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
Hisashi Tatebe, Kazuhiro Shiozaki
Target of rapamycin (TOR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase that controls multiple cellular processes upon various intracellular and extracellular stimuli. Since its first discovery, extensive studies have been conducted both in yeast and animal species including humans. Those studies have revealed that TOR forms two structurally and physiologically distinct protein complexes; TOR complex 1 (TORC1) is ubiquitous among eukaryotes including animals, yeast, protozoa, and plants, while TOR complex 2 (TORC2) is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species other than plants...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules
Xiang-Yong Li, Ying-Hua Liu, Bin Wang, Chih-Yu Chen, Hong-Man Zhang, Jing X Kang
The current system of food production is linked to both the increasing prevalence of chronic disease and the deterioration of the environment, and thereby calls for novel ways of producing nutritious foods in a sustainable manner. In the "longevity village" of Bama, China, we have identified two plant foods, hemp seed and bitter vegetable (Sonchus oleraceus), that are commonly consumed by its residents and grow abundantly in unfarmed land without fertilizers or pesticides. Here, we show that a diet composed of these two foods (the "HB diet") provides a sufficient variety of nutrients and confers significant health benefits...
January 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yihan Dong, Marleen Silbermann, Anna Speiser, Ilaria Forieri, Eric Linster, Gernot Poschet, Arman Allboje Samami, Mutsumi Wanatabe, Carsten Sticht, Aurelio A Teleman, Jean-Marc Deragon, Kazuki Saito, Rüdiger Hell, Markus Wirtz
Growth of eukaryotic cells is regulated by the target of rapamycin (TOR). The strongest activator of TOR in metazoa is amino acid availability. The established transducers of amino acid sensing to TOR in metazoa are absent in plants. Hence, a fundamental question is how amino acid sensing is achieved in photo-autotrophic organisms. Here we demonstrate that the plant Arabidopsis does not sense the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine itself, but its biosynthetic precursors. We identify the kinase GCN2 as a sensor of the carbon/nitrogen precursor availability, whereas limitation of the sulfur precursor is transduced to TOR by downregulation of glucose metabolism...
October 27, 2017: Nature Communications
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