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Target of rapamycin, plant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752309/sulfur-partitioning-between-glutathione-and-protein-synthesis-determines-plant-growth
#1
Anna Speiser, Marleen Silbermann, Yihan Dong, Stefan Haberland, Veli Vural Uslu, Shanshan Wang, Sajid A K Bangash, Michael Reichelt, Andreas J Meyer, Markus Wirtz, Ruediger Hell
Photoautotrophic organisms must efficiently allocate their resources between stress-response pathways and growth-promoting pathways to be successful in a constantly changing environment. In this study, we addressed the coordination of sulfur flux between biosynthesis of the reactive oxygen species scavenger glutathione (GSH) and protein translation as one example of a central resource allocation switch. We crossed the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GSH synthesis depleted cadmium-sensitive cad2-1 mutant, which lacks glutamate Cys ligase, into the sulfite reductase (SiR) sir1-1 mutant, which suffers from a significantly decreased flux of sulfur into cysteine and is consequently retarded in growth...
May 11, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749427/anti%C3%A2-cancer-effects-of-fisetin-on-mammary-carcinoma-cells-via-regulation-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#2
Xu Sun, Xueman Ma, Qiwei Li, Yong Yang, Xiaolong Xu, Jiaqi Sun, Mingwei Yu, Kexin Cao, Lin Yang, Guowang Yang, Ganlin Zhang, Xiaomin Wang
Fisetin, a natural flavonoid found in a variety of edible and medical plants, has been suggested to inhibit the proliferation of various tumor cells and to induce apoptosis. However, the effects of fisetin on breast cancer have rarely been reported and the underlying mechanism is still undefined. The present study explored the anti‑cancer effects of fisetin on mammary carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms. Following treatment with fisetin, viability of 4T1, MCF‑7 and MDA‑MB‑231 cells were measured by MTT assay...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738770/involvement-of-tor-signaling-motif-in-the-regulation-of-plant-autophagy
#3
Ora Son, Sunghan Kim, Dooil Kim, Yoon-Sun Hur, Jiyoung Kim, Choong-Ill Cheon
In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that a stretch of amino-acid sequences identified from Arabidopsis ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) provided a plant version of the TOS (TOR-signaling) motif, mediating the interaction with the Raptor protein in the TOR (Target of Rapamycin) kinase complex. Here we report the presence of same element in Arabidopsis Autophagy related-13 (AtATG13) protein, which is a key component of the plant autophagy response. Its composition is nearly identical to that found in the AtS6K1 in the five-amino-acid core sequence, and the presence of this five-amino-acid sequence was found to be essential for its interaction with the Raptor protein...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734044/tombusvirus-rna-replication-depends-on-the-tor-pathway-in-yeast-and-plants
#4
Jun-Ichi Inaba, Peter D Nagy
Similar to other (+)RNA viruses, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) utilizes metabolites, lipids, membranes, and co-opted host factors during replication. The coordination of cell metabolism and growth with environmental cues is performed by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in eukaryotic cells. In this paper, we find that TBSV replication partially inhibits TOR activity, likely due to recruitment of glycolytic enzymes to the viral replication compartment, which results in reduced ATP levels in the cytosol...
May 4, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710456/vitexin-reverses-the-autophagy-dysfunction-to-attenuate-mcao-induced-cerebral-ischemic-stroke-via-mtor-ulk1-pathway
#5
Jin Jiang, Jingcun Dai, Hong Cui
Stroke, as a kind of acute cerebrovascular diseases, has greatly influenced the patients' quality of life and left a huge public health burden. Vitexin is a flavone C-glycoside (apigenin-8-C-?-D-glucopyranoside) present in several medicinal and other plants. This study aims to explore the role of vitexin in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemic stroke. The results showed that the MCAO-induced brain infarction was obviously decreased by vitexin. And the abnormal protein levels of Caspase-3, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), antigen identified by monoclonal antibody (Ki-67) and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in MCAO model rats were reversed by vitexin...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692761/ribosome-shunting-polycistronic-translation-and-evasion-of-antiviral-defenses-in-plant-pararetroviruses-and-beyond
#6
REVIEW
Mikhail M Pooggin, Lyubov A Ryabova
Viruses have compact genomes and usually translate more than one protein from polycistronic RNAs using leaky scanning, frameshifting, stop codon suppression or reinitiation mechanisms. Viral (pre-)genomic RNAs often contain long 5'-leader sequences with short upstream open reading frames (uORFs) and secondary structure elements, which control both translation initiation and replication. In plants, viral RNA and DNA are targeted by RNA interference (RNAi) generating small RNAs that silence viral gene expression, while viral proteins are recognized by innate immunity and autophagy that restrict viral infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686055/raptor-controls-developmental-growth-transitions-by-altering-the-hormonal-and-metabolic-balance
#7
Mohamed A Salem, Yan Li, Krzysztof Bajdzienko, Joachim Fisahn, Mutsumi Watanabe, Rainer Hoefgen, Mark Aurel Schöttler, Patrick Giavalisco
Vegetative growth requires the systemic coordination of numerous cellular processes, which are controlled by regulatory proteins that monitor extra- and intra-cellular cues and translate them into growth decisions. In eukaryotes, one of the central factors regulating growth is the Ser/Thr protein kinase Target of Rapamycin (TOR), which forms complexes with regulatory proteins. To understand the function of one such regulatory protein, Regulatory-Associated Protein of TOR 1B (RAPTOR1B) in plants, we analyzed the effect of raptor1b mutations on growth and physiology in Arabidopsis thaliana by detailed phenotyping, metabolomic, lipidomic, and proteomic analysis...
April 23, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658590/cucurbitacin-d-impedes-gastric-cancer-cell-survival-via-activation-of-the-inos-no-and-inhibition-of-the-akt-signalling-pathway
#8
Yan Zhen Zhang, Chun Feng Wang, Lian Feng Zhang
Cucurbitacin D (CuD), isolated from plants from the Cucurbitaceae family, is a potential antitumour agent since it inhibits proliferation, migration and metastasis of cancer cells. Despite CuD antitumour activity in cancer cells, the effects of CuD on gastric cancer cell lines remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CuD on gastric cancer cell growth and death. Human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, SNU1 and Hs746T) were cultured and treated with different concentrations of CuD (0, 0...
April 10, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650326/the-plant-target-of-rapamycin-kinase-a-connector-between-sulfur-and-growth
#9
Céline Forzani, Gustavo Turqueto Duarte, Christian Meyer
Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for plants that is incorporated into sulfur-containing amino acids or metabolites crucial for plant growth and stress adaptation. A recent publication shows a connection between sulfur sensing, growth processes, and the conserved eukaryotic target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase signaling pathway.
April 10, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611762/-guaiol-regulates-autophagic-cell-death-depending-on-mtor-signaling-in-nsclc
#10
Xiaohui Yang, Jiabei Zhu, Jianchun Wu, Nan Huang, Zhongqi Cui, Yingbin Luo, Fenyong Sun, Qiuhui Pan, Yan Li, Qingyuan Yang
(-)-Guaiol, a sesquiterpene alcohol with the guaiane skeleton, has been found in many Chinese medicinal plants and been reported to comprise various guaiane natural products that are well known for their antibacterial activities. Previously, we have shown its antitumor activity by inducing autophagy in NSCLC cells. However, its potential mechanism in inducing autophagy is still under our investigation. Here, data from our western blotting assays showed that, in NSCLC cells, (-)-Guaiol significantly blocked the mTORC2-AKT signaling by suppressing mTOR phosphorylation at serine 2481 (S2481) to induce autophagy, illustrated by the increasing ratio of LC3II/I...
April 3, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602224/the-pp2a-interactor-tip41-modulates-aba-responses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Paola Punzo, Alessandra Ruggiero, Marco Possenti, Roberta Nurcato, Antonello Costa, Giorgio Morelli, Stefania Grillo, Giorgia Batelli
Modulation of growth in response to environmental cues is a fundamental aspect of plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. TIP41 (TAP42 INTERACTING PROTEIN OF 41 kDa) is the Arabidopsis thaliana orthologue of proteins isolated in mammals and yeast that participate in the Target-of-Rapamycin (TOR) pathway, which modifies cell growth in response to nutrient status and environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the function of TIP41 in Arabidopsis. Expression analyses showed that TIP41 is constitutively expressed in vascular tissues, and is induced following long-term exposure to NaCl, PEG and ABA, suggesting a role of TIP41 in adaptation to abiotic stress...
March 30, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570051/the-yeast-h-atpase-pma1-promotes-rag-gtr-dependent-torc1-activation-in-response-to-h-coupled-nutrient-uptake
#12
Elie Saliba, Minoas Evangelinos, Christos Gournas, Florent Corrillon, Isabelle Georis, Bruno Andre
The yeast Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) plays a central role in controlling growth. How amino acids and other nutrients stimulate its activity via the Rag/Gtr GTPases remains poorly understood. We here report that the signal triggering Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation upon amino-acid uptake is the coupled H+ influx catalyzed by amino-acid/H+ symporters. H+ -dependent uptake of other nutrients, ionophore-mediated H+ diffusion, and inhibition of the vacuolar V-ATPase also activate TORC1. As the increase in cytosolic H+ elicited by these processes stimulates the compensating H+ -export activity of the plasma membrane H+ -ATPase (Pma1), we have examined whether this major ATP-consuming enzyme might be involved in TORC1 control...
March 23, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567576/the-human-natural-killer-1-hnk-1-glycan-mimetic-ursolic-acid-promotes-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mouse
#13
Sudhanshu Sahu, Rong Li, Praveen Kumar Kadeyala, Shisong Liu, Melitta Schachner
Human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) cell antigen is a glycan epitope involved in several neural events, such as neuritogenesis, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration of the nervous system after injury. We have recently identified the small organic compound ursolic acid (UA) as a HNK-1 mimetic with the aim to test its therapeutic potential in the central nervous system. UA, a plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenoid, is well known for its multiple biological functions, including neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525129/the-c-s-1-bzip-network-a-regulatory-hub-orchestrating-plant-energy-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Wolfgang Dröge-Laser, Christoph Weiste
Sustaining energy homeostasis is crucial to every living being. To balance energy supply and demand, plants make use of an evolutionarily conserved management system consisting of two counteracting kinases, TOR (TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN) and SnRK1 (Snf1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 1). SnRK1 is involved in reorganizing enzymatic and transcriptional responses to survive energy-limiting conditions. Recently, members of the bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factor family have been established as SnRK1 downstream mediators...
May 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461280/the-rationale-for-a-role-for-diet-and-nutrition-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer
#15
Jean Logan, Megan W Bourassa
There is considerable evidence to support dietary recommendations for prevention of cancer as well as for patients undergoing or recovering from cancer treatment. We consider here implications from human, animal and in-vitro studies of the effects of dietary factors (macronutrients and micronutrients-phytochemicals) on cancer. An important epidemiology study, the China Project found a significant correlation between disease incidence and markers of animal product consumption. Evidence of the role of animal protein in the promotion of cancer also comes from animal studies...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441718/the-checkpoint-kinase-tor-target-of-rapamycin-regulates-expression-of-a-nuclear-encoded-chloroplast-rela-spot-homolog-rsh-and-modulates-chloroplast-ribosomal-rna-synthesis-in-a-unicellular-red-alga
#16
Sousuke Imamura, Yuhta Nomura, Tokiaki Takemura, Imran Pancha, Keiko Taki, Kazuki Toguchi, Yuzuru Tozawa, Kan Tanaka
Chloroplasts are plant organelles that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. Chloroplast biogenesis depends upon chloroplast ribosomes and their translational activity. However, regulation of chloroplast ribosome biogenesis remains an important unanswered question. In this study, we found that inhibition of target of rapamycin (TOR), a general eukaryotic checkpoint kinase, results in a decline in chloroplast ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Upon TOR inhibition, transcriptomics and other analyses revealed increased expression of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast RelA-SpoT homolog (RSH) gene (CmRSH4b), which encodes a homolog of the guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate (ppGpp) synthetases that modulate rRNA synthesis in bacteria...
April 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422960/mecambridine-induces-potent-cytotoxic-effects-autophagic-cell-death-and-modulation-of-the-mtor-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-hsc-3-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#17
Na Lin, Zhiping Li, Deli Wang, Kewen Zheng, Yiyan Wu, Huiqi Wang
Plant secondary metabolites including alkaloids, demonstrate a complex diversity in their molecular scaffolds and exhibit tremendous pharmacological potential as anti-cancerous therapeutics. The present study aimed to evaluate the anticancer activity of a natural alkaloid, mecambridine, against human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). An MTT assay was used to evaluate cytotoxic effects of mecambridine on HSC-3 oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Effects of mecambridine on autophagy-associated proteins were analyzed by western blotting...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408431/involvement-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-related-pathways-in-the-effect-of-aucubin-on-the-promotion-of-osteoblast-differentiation-in-mg63-cells
#18
Yutong Li, Wenji Hu, Guanghong Han, Wenqian Lu, Dongxu Jia, Min Hu, Di Wang
Aucubin, an iridoid glycoside found in several plants, such as Eucommia ulmoide and Rehmannia, has various pharmacological effects. Bone formation is a complex process in which osteoblast differentiation plays an important role. This study aimed to investigate the promotion effects of aucubin on osteoblast differentiation in MG63 cells, a human osteoblast-like cell line. Aucubin not only improved osteoblast differentiation, as shown by enhanced ALP (alkaline phosphatase) concentration and mineralization in cells, but increased the expression of various cytokines, including collagen I, osteocalcin, osteopontin, integrin β1, and Osterix...
March 1, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406622/fcs-like-zinc-finger-6-and-10-repress-snrk1-signalling-in-arabidopsis
#19
Muhammed Jamsheer K, Manvi Sharma, Dhriti Singh, Chanchal T Mannully, Sunita Jindal, Brihaspati N Shukla, Ashverya Laxmi
SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) is a central regulator of plant growth during energy starvation. The FCS-like zinc finger (FLZ) proteins have recently been identified as adaptor proteins which facilitate the interaction of SnRK1 with other proteins. In this study, we found that two starvation-induced FLZ genes, FLZ6 and FLZ10, work as repressors of SnRK1 signalling. The reduced expression of these genes resulted in an increase in the level of SnRK1α1, which is the major catalytic subunit of SnRK1. This lead to a concomitant increase in phosphorylated protein and SnRK1 activity in the flz6 and flz10 mutants...
April 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399150/virosecurinine-induces-apoptosis-in-human-leukemia-thp-1-cells-and-other-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#20
Gang Zhang, Xiaohui Gao, Hui Zeng, Yuan Li, Xiaojun Guo
Virosecurinine, a primary alkaloid from Securinega suffruticosa plant is known as a potent differentiation-inducing agent in acute leukemia cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of virosecurinine on human leukemia THP-1 cells in vitro . The effects of virosecurinine on cell proliferation were assessed by CCK-8. The effects on apoptosis and cell cycle were assessed by staining with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide, respectively followed by flow cytometric analysis...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
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