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Target of rapamycin, plant

Zeng Xiaowei, Liu Cuicui, Han Ning, Bian Hongwu, Zhu Muyuan
Autophagy is an evolutionarily highly conserved catabolic pathway among eukaryotic cells that protects the organisms against environmental stress. Normally, autophagy is mainly involved with autophagy-related proteins(ATGs) and autophagic regulators including a series of cytoplasmic proteins and small molecules. Besides, the selective autophagy, which targets damaged organalles or protein aggregates, is mediated by the additional receptors to help the ATGs recognize different substrates. In this review, we summarize recent advances in autophagic regulators like ROS(Reactive oxygen species), TOR(Target of rapamycin) and receptors like NBR1(Neighbor of BRCA1 gene protein), RPN10(Regulatory particle non-ATPase 10) as well as their functional mechanisms mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Kalpana Nanjareddy, Lourdes Blanco, Manoj Kumar Arthikala, Xochitl Alvarado-Affantranger, Carmen Quinto, Federico Sanchez, Miguel Lara
The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase regulates metabolism, growth and life span in yeast, animals and plants in coordination with nutrient status and environmental conditions. The nutrient-dependent nature of TOR functionality makes this kinase a putative regulator of symbiotic associations involving nutrient acquisition. However, TOR's role in these processes remains to be understood. Here, we uncovered the role of TOR during the Phaseolus vulgaris-Rhizobium symbiotic interaction. TOR was expressed in all tested Phaseolus tissues, with higher expression levels in the root meristems and senesced nodules...
October 3, 2016: Plant Physiology
Chao Nie, Jie Zhou, Xiaokang Qin, Xianming Shi, Qingqi Zeng, Jia Liu, Shihai Yan, Lei Zhang
Diosgenin, a plant steroid compound from Dioscorea nipponica, is an anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitumor, vasodilatory compound, which also reduces blood lipid content and protects against ischemia‑induced neuronal damage. However, a limited number of studies have been performed on the antitumor effect of diosgenin on prostate cancer, the underlying mechanism of which remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the effect and underlying mechanism of diosgenin on DU145 human prostate cancer cells was investigated...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Inmaculada Couso, Bradley Evans, Jia Li, Yu Liu, Fangfang Ma, Spencer Diamond, Doug K Allen, James G Umen
The networks that govern carbon metabolism and control intracellular carbon partitioning in photosynthetic cells are poorly understood. Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved growth regulator that integrates nutrient signals and modulates cell growth in eukaryotes, though the TOR signaling pathway in plants and algae has yet to be completely elucidated. We screened the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas using insertional mutagenesis to find mutants that conferred hypersensitivity to the TOR inhibitor rapamycin...
September 6, 2016: Plant Cell
Fangjie Xiong, Rui Zhang, Zhigang Meng, Kexuan Deng, Yumei Que, Fengping Zhuo, Li Feng, Sundui Guo, Raju Datla, Maozhi Ren
The components of the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway have been well characterized in heterotrophic organisms from yeast to humans. However, because of rapamycin insensitivity, embryonic lethality in tor null mutants and a lack of reliable ways of detecting TOR protein kinase in higher plants, the key players upstream and downstream of TOR remain largely unknown in plants. Using engineered rapamycin-sensitive Binding Protein 12-2 (BP12-2) plants, the present study showed that combined treatment with rapamycin and active-site TOR inhibitors (asTORis) results in synergistic inhibition of TOR activity and plant growth in Arabidopsis...
August 1, 2016: New Phytologist
Jessy Moore, Mark Megaly, Adam J MacNeil, Panagiota Klentrou, Evangelia Tsiani
Compounds of plant origin and food components have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. Rosemary extract contains polyphenols that were shown to have anti-cancer and other health benefits. The survival pathways of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6K, and the apoptotic protein poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) are key modulators of cancer cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of rosemary extract on proliferation, survival and apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its influence on signaling events...
July 28, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Anne Pfeiffer, Denis Janocha, Yihan Dong, Anna Medzihradszky, Stefanie Schöne, Gabor Daum, Takuya Suzaki, Joachim Forner, Tobias Langenecker, Eugen Rempel, Markus Schmid, Markus Wirtz, Rüdiger Hell, Jan U Lohmann
A major feature of embryogenesis is the specification of stem cell systems, but in contrast to the situation in most animals, plant stem cells remain quiescent until the postembryonic phase of development. Here, we dissect how light and metabolic signals are integrated to overcome stem cell dormancy at the shoot apical meristem. We show on the one hand that light is able to activate expression of the stem cell inducer WUSCHEL independently of photosynthesis and that this likely involves inter-regional cytokinin signaling...
2016: ELife
Juan Ma, Jing Li, Ke Si Wang, Chunliu Mi, Lian Xun Piao, Guang Hua Xu, Xuezheng Li, Jung Joon Lee, Xuejun Jin
Perillyl alcohol (POH) is a dietary monoterpene present in a variety of plants with a pure or mixed form, and it is one of the very few natural substances with anticancer activity. However, the mechanism by which POH unleashes its anticancer activity in tumor cells remains unclear. We here demonstrated the effect of POH on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activation. POH showed the potent inhibitory activity against HIF-1 activation induced by hypoxia in various human cancer cell lines and efficient scavenging activity of cellular Reactive oxygen species (ROS) by hypoxia in tumor cells...
October 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Zhenzhen Zhang, Jia-Ying Zhu, Jeehee Roh, Chloé Marchive, Seong-Ki Kim, Christian Meyer, Yu Sun, Wenfei Wang, Zhi-Yong Wang
For maintenance of cellular homeostasis, the actions of growth-promoting hormones must be attenuated when nutrient and energy become limiting. The molecular mechanisms that coordinate hormone-dependent growth responses with nutrient availability remain poorly understood in plants [1, 2]. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator that integrates nutrient and energy signaling to regulate growth and homeostasis in both animals and plants [3-7]. Here, we show that sugar signaling through TOR controls the accumulation of the brassinosteroid (BR)-signaling transcription factor BZR1, which is essential for growth promotion by multiple hormonal and environmental signals [8-11]...
July 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Crina Popa, Liang Li, Sergio Gil, Laura Tatjer, Keisuke Hashii, Mitsuaki Tabuchi, Núria S Coll, Joaquín Ariño, Marc Valls
Bacterial pathogens possess complex type III effector (T3E) repertoires that are translocated inside the host cells to cause disease. However, only a minor proportion of these effectors have been assigned a function. Here, we show that the T3E AWR5 from the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of TOR, a central regulator in eukaryotes that controls the switch between cell growth and stress responses in response to nutrient availability. Heterologous expression of AWR5 in yeast caused growth inhibition and autophagy induction coupled to massive transcriptomic changes, unmistakably reminiscent of TOR inhibition by rapamycin or nitrogen starvation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anna S Zvereva, Victor Golyaev, Silvia Turco, Ekaterina G Gubaeva, Rajendran Rajeswaran, Mikhail V Schepetilnikov, Ola Srour, Lyubov A Ryabova, Thomas Boller, Mikhail M Pooggin
Virus interactions with plant silencing and innate immunity pathways can potentially alter the susceptibility of virus-infected plants to secondary infections with nonviral pathogens. We found that Arabidopsis plants infected with Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or transgenic for CaMV silencing suppressor P6 exhibit increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and allow robust growth of the Pst mutant hrcC-, which cannot deploy effectors to suppress innate immunity. The impaired antibacterial defense correlated with the suppressed oxidative burst, reduced accumulation of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA) and diminished SA-dependent autophagy...
August 2016: New Phytologist
Linxiao Sun, Yonghua Yu, Weiqin Hu, Qiming Min, Huiling Kang, Yilu Li, Yue Hong, Xuemin Wang, Yueyun Hong
Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) functions as a key component in the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway involved in multiple processes in eukaryotes. The role and regulation of TOR-S6K in lipid metabolism remained unknown in plants. Here we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that TOR-Raptor2-S6K1 is important for thylakoid galactolipid biosynthesis and thylakoid grana modeling in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Genetic suppression of S6K1 caused pale yellow-green leaves, defective thylakoid grana architecture...
July 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jiafa Ren, Jianzhong Li, Xin Liu, Ye Feng, Yuan Gui, Junwei Yang, Weichun He, Chunsun Dai
Quercetin, a flavonoid found in a wide variety of plants and presented in human diet, displays promising potential in preventing kidney fibroblast activation. However, whether quercetin can ameliorate kidney fibrosis in mice with obstructive nephropathy and the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. In this study, we found that administration of quercetin could largely ameliorate kidney interstitial fibrosis and macrophage accumulation in the kidneys with obstructive nephropathy. MTORC1, mTORC2, β-catenin as well as Smad signaling were activated in the obstructive kidneys, whereas quercetin could markedly reduce their abundance except Smad3 phosphorylation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ken Harata, Takumi Nishiuchi, Yasuyuki Kubo
The hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare first establishes a biotrophic infection stage in cucumber (Cucumber sativus) epidermal cells and subsequently transitions to a necrotrophic stage. Here, we found that C. orbiculare established hemibiotrophic infection via C. orbiculare WHI2, a yeast stress regulator homolog, and TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling. Plant defense responses such as callose deposition, H2O2, and antimicrobial proteins were strongly induced by the C. orbiculare whi2Δ mutant, resulting in defective pathogenesis...
June 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Kexuan Deng, Lihua Yu, Xianzhe Zheng, Kang Zhang, Wanjing Wang, Pan Dong, Jiankui Zhang, Maozhi Ren
Target of rapamycin (TOR), a master sensor for growth factors and nutrition availability in eukaryotic species, is a specific target protein of rapamycin. Rapamycin inhibits TOR kinase activity viaFK506 binding protein 12 kDa (FKBP12) in all examined heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms. In Arabidopsis, several independent studies have shown that AtFKBP12 is non-functional under aerobic condition, but one study suggests that AtFKBP12 is functional during anaerobic growth. However, the functions of AtFKBP12 have never been examined in parallel under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions so far...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lu Ren, Qin-Xue Cao, Feng-Rong Zhai, Shao-Qin Yang, Hong-Xia Zhang
Context Asiatic acid, a triterpenoid compound extracted from the tropical medicinal plant Centella asiatica (Family: Apiaceae), has exhibited various biological activities. Objective This study was performed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of asiatic acid on human ovarian cancer cells. Materials and methods SKOV3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells were exposed to different concentrations of asiatic acid (10-100 μg/mL) for 72 or 48 h. Cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle distribution, apoptotic response were examined...
March 17, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Ora Son, Sunghan Kim, Yoon-Sun Hur, Choong-Ill Cheon
TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signaling plays central role as a regulator of growth and proliferation in all eukaryotic cells and its key signaling components and effectors are also conserved in plants. Unlike the mammalian and yeast counterparts, however, we found through yeast two-hybrid analysis that multiple regions of the Arabidopsis Raptor (regulatory associated protein of TOR) are required for binding to its substrate. We also identified that a 44-amino acid region at the N-terminal end of Arabidopsis ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) specifically interacted with AtRaptor1, indicating that this region may contain a functional equivalent of the TOS (TOR-Signaling) motif present in the mammalian TOR substrates...
March 25, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Thomas Dobrenel, Camila Caldana, Johannes Hanson, Christophe Robaglia, Michel Vincentz, Bruce Veit, Christian Meyer
All living organisms rely on nutrients to sustain cell metabolism and energy production, which in turn need to be adjusted based on available resources. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is a central regulatory hub that connects environmental information about the quantity and quality of nutrients to developmental and metabolic processes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. TOR is activated by both nitrogen and carbon metabolites and promotes energy-consuming processes such as cell division, mRNA translation, and anabolism in times of abundance while repressing nutrient remobilization through autophagy...
April 29, 2016: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Yu-Tzu Tsao, Yu-Fen Huang, Chun-Yu Kuo, Yu-Chiang Lin, Wei-Cheng Chiang, Wei-Kuang Wang, Chia-Wei Hsu, Che-Hsin Lee
H inokitiol purified from the heartwood of cupressaceous plants has had various biological functions of cell differentiation and growth. Hinokitiol has been demonstrated as having an important role in anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria effect, suggesting that it is potentially useful in therapies for hyperpigmentation. Previously, hinokitiol inhibited the production of melanin by inhibiting tyrosinase activity. The autophagic signaling pathway can induce hypopigmentation. This study is warranted to investigate the mechanism of hinokitiol-induced hypopigmentation through autophagy in B16F10 melanoma cells...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ken Yokawa, František Baluška
Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is known to be a controller of cell growth and aging, which determines the fine balance between growth rates and energy availabilities. It has been reported that many eukaryotes express TOR genes. In plants, TOR signaling modifies growth and development in response to a plant's energy status. An example of TOR action can be found in the root apices, which are active organs that explore the soil environment via vigorous growth and numerous tropisms. The exploratory nature of root apices requires a large energy supply for signaling, as well as for cell division and elongation...
January 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
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