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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145162/biomonitoring-based-exposure-assessment-of-benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-and-xylene-among-workers-at-petroleum-distribution-facilities
#1
Behzad Heibati, Krystal J Godri Pollitt, Jamshid Yazdani Charati, Alan Ducatman, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Ali Karimi, Mahmoud Mohammadyan
Elevated emissions of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o, p, and m-xylenes (BTEX), are an occupational health concern at oil transfer stations. This exploratory study investigated personal exposure to BTEX through environmental air and urine samples collected from 50 male workers at a major oil distribution company in Iran. Airborne BTEX exposures were evaluated over 8h periods during work-shift by using personal passive samplers. Urinary BTEX levels were determined using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography mass spectrometry for separation and detection...
November 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124530/fungus-farming-termites-selectively-bury-weedy-fungi-that-smell-different-from-crop-fungi
#2
Lakshya Katariya, Priya B Ramesh, Thejashwini Gopalappa, Sathish Desireddy, Jean-Marie Bessière, Renee M Borges
Mutualistic associations such as the fungal farms of insects are prone to parasitism and are consequently vulnerable to attack by weeds and pests. Therefore, efficient farm management requires quick detection of weeds for their elimination. Furthermore, if the available weedicides are non-specific, then the ability of insects to discriminate between crop and weeds becomes essential for targeted application of such compounds. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in fungus-farming insects, that worker castes of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes obesus discriminate between their crop (Termitomyces) and the weedy (Pseudoxylaria) fungi, even if exposed to only fungal scents...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122313/has-the-question-of-e-waste-opened-a-pandora-s-box-an-overview-of-unpredictable-issues-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Bouchra Bakhiyi, Sabrina Gravel, Diana Ceballos, Michael A Flynn, Joseph Zayed
Despite regulatory efforts and position papers, electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) remains ill-managed as evidenced by the extremely low rates of proper e-waste recycling (e-recycling) worldwide, ongoing illegal shipments to developing countries and constantly reported human health issues and environmental pollution. The objectives of this review are, first, to expose the complexity of e-waste problems, and then to suggest possible upstream and downstream solutions. Exploring e-waste issues is akin to opening a Pandora's box...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117379/inhibitory-effect-of-indole-analogs-against-paenibacillus-larvae-the-causal-agent-of-american-foulbrood-disease
#4
Israel Alvarado, Joseph W Margotta, Mai M Aoki, Fernando Flores, Fresia Agudelo, Guillermo Michel, Michelle M Elekonich, Ernesto Abel-Santos
Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive bacterium, causes American foulbrood (AFB) in honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera Linnaeus [Hymenoptera: Apidae]). P. larvae spores exit dormancy in the gut of bee larvae, the germinated cells proliferate, and ultimately bacteremia kills the host. Hence, spore germination is a required step for establishing AFB disease. We previously found that P. larvae spores germinate in response to l-tyrosine plus uric acid in vitro. Additionally, we determined that indole and phenol blocked spore germination...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105804/comparative-probabilistic-assessment-of-occupational-pesticide-exposures-based-on-regulatory-assessments
#5
Jane G Pouzou, Alison C Cullen, Michael G Yost, John C Kissel, Richard A Fenske
Implementation of probabilistic analyses in exposure assessment can provide valuable insight into the risks of those at the extremes of population distributions, including more vulnerable or sensitive subgroups. Incorporation of these analyses into current regulatory methods for occupational pesticide exposure is enabled by the exposure data sets and associated data currently used in the risk assessment approach of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Monte Carlo simulations were performed on exposure measurements from the Agricultural Handler Exposure Database and the Pesticide Handler Exposure Database along with data from the Exposure Factors Handbook and other sources to calculate exposure rates for three different neurotoxic compounds (azinphos methyl, acetamiprid, emamectin benzoate) across four pesticide-handling scenarios...
November 6, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099928/gland-origin-and-electroantennogram-activity-of-volatile-compounds-in-ghost-ants-tapinoma-melanocephalum-hymenoptera-formicidae-and-behavioral-response-to-z-9-nonadecene
#6
Qingxing Shi, Lihua Lu, Yanyuan Lei, Yurong He, Jian Chen
Volatile compounds in Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Dolichoderinae) workers were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electroantennogram responses of workers to these compounds were investigated using coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection. Among 18 detected compounds, six elicited electroantennogram response, including 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4 iridodials, and (Z)-9-nonadecene. (Z)-9-Nonadecene and iridodials were identified the first time in T...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099087/multipass-target-search-in-natural-environments
#7
Michael J Kuhlman, Michael W Otte, Donald Sofge, Satyandra K Gupta
Consider a disaster scenario where search and rescue workers must search difficult to access buildings during an earthquake or flood. Often, finding survivors a few hours sooner results in a dramatic increase in saved lives, suggesting the use of drones for expedient rescue operations. Entropy can be used to quantify the generation and resolution of uncertainty. When searching for targets, maximizing mutual information of future sensor observations will minimize expected target location uncertainty by minimizing the entropy of the future estimate...
November 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093579/-hygiene-and-legal-aspects-of-occupational-exposure-assessment-to-cytostatics
#8
REVIEW
Małgorzata Kupczewska-Dobecka, Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Sławomir Czerczak, Katarzyna Konieczko
The employers responsibilities for the assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics in the workplace were analyzed in the light of existing legal regulations. Cytostatics may pose a threat to health and life of workers taking care of patients treated oncologically, i.e., pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. The significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics in Poland is confirmed by the data collected in the Central Register of Data on Exposure to Carcinogenic or Mutagenic Substances, Mixtures, Agents or Technological Processes, maintained by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland...
October 26, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081348/health-professionals-views-on-health-literacy-issues-for-culturally-and-linguistically-diverse-women-in-maternity-care-barriers-enablers-and-the-need-for-an-integrated-approach
#9
Jo-Anne Hughson, Fiona Marshall, Justin Oliver Daly, Robyn Woodward-Kron, John Hajek, David Story
Objective To identify health literacy issues when providing maternity care to culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) women, and the strategies needed for health professionals to collaboratively address these issues.Methods A qualitative case study design was undertaken at one large metropolitan Australian hospital serving a highly CALD population. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a range of maternity healthcare staff. The data were analysed thematically. The study is informed by a framework of cultural competence education interventions for health professionals and a health literacy framework...
October 30, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078249/-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections-with-special-focus-on-vascular-surgery
#10
Peter Bischoff, Petra Gastmeier
Background Surgical site infections range between the most commonly and second most commonly reported health-care-associated infections worldwide, depending on the analysis. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Not only for the individual patient, the negative consequences of acquiring a surgical site infection affect the patient's relatives, the hospital and health systems in general. In vascular surgery, gram-positive pathogens of the normal flora of the patient's skin and mucosa (nose/throat) represent the almost half of the number of pathogens detected at the infected surgical site...
October 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074507/systematic-review-of-interventions-for-improving-the-performance-of-community-health-workers-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#11
Madeleine Ballard, Paul Montgomery
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and critically appraise the evidence for the effects of interventions to improve the performance of community health workers (CHWs) for community-based primary healthcare in low- and middle-income countries. DESIGN: Systematic review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. METHODS: 19 electronic databases were searched with a highly sensitive prespecified strategy and the grey literature examined, completed July 2016...
October 25, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070452/physicochemical-risk-factors-for-building-related-symptoms-in-air-conditioned-office-buildings-ambient-particles-and-combined-exposure-to-indoor-air-pollutants
#12
Kenichi Azuma, Koichi Ikeda, Naoki Kagi, U Yanagi, Haruki Osawa
We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study to examine the correlation between indoor air quality (IAQ) and building-related symptoms (BRSs) of office workers in air-conditioned office buildings. We investigated 11 offices during winter and 13 offices during summer in 17 buildings with air-conditioning systems in Tokyo, Osaka, and Fukuoka, and we included 107 office workers during winter and 207 office workers during summer. We conducted environmental sampling for evaluating IAQ and concurrently administered self-reported questionnaires to collect information regarding work-related symptoms...
October 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055334/calculations-of-nuclear-magnetic-shielding-constants-based-on-the-exact-two-component-relativistic-method
#13
Terutaka Yoshizawa, Masahiko Hada
From the matrix representation of the modified Dirac equation based on the restricted magnetically balanced gauge-including atomic orbital (RMB-GIAO) basis, previously one of the authors (Yoshizawa) and co-workers derived the two-component normalized elimination of the small component (2c-NESC) formulas for 2c relativistic calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensors. In the present study, at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level, we numerically confirm that for several molecules the RMB-GIAO-based 2c-NESC method provides gauge-origin independent NMR shielding values...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052146/enzymatic-activity-induction-of-gst-family-isoenzymes-from-pesticide-mixture-used-in-floriculture
#14
Fernando Mejia-Sanchez, Laura Patricia Montenegro-Morales, Julieta Castillo-Cadena
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) comprise a number of genes that codify for a group of isoenzymes that participate in phase II xenobiotic detoxification by means of conjugation with glutathione, producing hydrosoluble compounds. It has been demonstrated that some pesticides are substrates for GST isoenzymes. Floriculture is one of the main economic activities in the municipalities of Villa Guerrero and Atlacomulco; pesticides, applied as mixtures, are intensively used in this activity. In this study, total GST enzymatic activity and glutathione S-transferases theta 1 (GSTT1) enzymatic activity were calculated for a group of floriculture workers exposed to pesticides and for an unexposed group...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051444/the-investigation-of-unexpected-arsenic-compounds-observed-in-routine-biological-monitoring-urinary-speciation-analysis
#15
Elizabeth Leese, Malcolm Clench, Jackie Morton, Philip H E Gardiner, Vikki A Carolan
This study investigates the identity of two unexpected arsenic species found separately in a number of urine samples sent to the Health and Safety Executive's Health and Safety Laboratory for arsenic speciation (arsenobetaine, AB; arsenite, As(3+); arsenate, As(5+); monomethylarsonic acid, MMA(5+); and dimethylarsinic acid, DMA(5+)). Micro liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (µLC-ICP-MS) and electrospray time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS) were used to identify the two arsenic peaks by comparison to several characterized arsenicals: arsenocholine, AC; trimethyl arsine oxide, TMAO; dimethylarsenoacetate, DMAA; dimethylarsenoethanol, DMAE; thio-dimethylarsinate, thio-DMA; thio-dimethylarsenoacetate, thio-DMAA and thio-dimethylarsenoethanol, thio-DMAE...
May 20, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044438/high-total-volatile-organic-compounds-pollution-in-a-hospital-dental-department
#16
Ming-Hui Liu, Tao-Hsin Tung, Fen-Fang Chung, Li-Chuan Chuang, Gwo-Hwa Wan
Bioaerosols produced by dental procedures may affect indoor air quality and cause infections in dental healthcare workers. To provide air quality data that can be used to protect dental healthcare workers, this study evaluated the air quality and its influencing factors in the dental department of the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan. The study was a cross-sectional study design. Indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluations were conducted in six locations: pediatric dentistry, craniofacial orthodontic dentistry, periodontal dentistry, and general practice dentistry, instrument washing room, and patient waiting area...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041938/development-of-breath-test-for-pneumoconiosis-a-case-control-study
#17
Hsiao-Yu Yang, Ruei-Hao Shie, Che-Jui Chang, Pau-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Lipid peroxidation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pneumoconiosis. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated from lipid peroxidation might be used to detect pneumoconiosis. The objective of this study was to develop a breath test for pneumoconiosis. METHODS: A case-control study was designed. Breath and ambient air were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. After blank correction to prevent contamination from ambient air, we used canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) to assess the discrimination accuracy and principal component analysis (PCA) to generate a prediction score...
October 17, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040303/continuing-professional-development-for-medical-nursing-and-midwifery-cadres-in-malawi-tanzania-and-south-africa-a-qualitative-evaluation
#18
Caryl Feldacker, Jillian Pintye, Sheena Jacob, Michael H Chung, Lyn Middleton, Jill Iliffe, H Nina Kim
BACKGROUND: As innovations in the prevention and treatment of HIV and TB advance, continuing professional development (CPD) of health care workers (HCWs) remains a high priority, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where dual TB/HIV epidemics are compounded by severe HCW shortages. There is further need to examine CPD programs to identify challenges and effective solutions to strengthen HIV/TB-related CPD. METHODS: Qualitative evaluations in Malawi, Tanzania and South Africa (RSA) were conducted using key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in each country to identify barriers and enablers of effective HIV/TB-related CPD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035119/response-to-letter-to-the-editor-from-elinder-and-nordberg-concerning-byber-et%C3%A2-al-2016-cadmium-or-cadmium-compounds-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-workers-and-the-general-population-a-systematic-review-crit-rev-toxicol-46-3-191-240-doi-0-3109-10408444-2015
#19
Katarzyna Byber, Dominique Lison, Violaine Verougstraete, Holger Dressel, Philipp Hotz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029069/molting-site-fidelity-in-workers-of-formosan-subterranean-termites-isoptera-rhinotermitidae
#20
G Kakkar, W Osbrink, A Mullins, N-Y Su
Spatial assessment of molting in workers of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was conducted in laboratory-reared colonies using extended foraging arenas. Workers at a premolt stage were found concentrated in the nest or in a planar arena near the nest. However, molting individuals were found exclusively in the central nest and they stayed inside or near the central nest for at least 36 h postmolting. The absence of premolt workers at foraging sites suggests that the workers have an affinity to the nest for molting and the second study on nest-fidelity evaluation suggested that the workers molt in the proximity of eggs...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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