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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212633/cooking-smoke-and-respiratory-symptoms-of-restaurant-workers-in-thailand
#1
Chudchawal Juntarawijit, Yuwayong Juntarawijit
BACKGROUND: Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Pho sub-district of Phitsanulok, a province in Thailand...
February 17, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187990/how-to-contain-artemisinin-and-multidrug-resistant-falciparum-malaria
#2
REVIEW
Arjen M Dondorp, Frank M Smithuis, Charley Woodrow, Lorenz von Seidlein
In the Greater Mekong subregion (GMS), artemisinin resistance is increasingly compounded by partner drug resistance, causing high failure rates of artemisinin combination therapies in some areas. For its containment, an accelerated elimination strategy will be needed. This includes high-quality implementation of conventional malaria control measures: early case management with quality artemisinin combination therapies (avoiding artesunate monotherapies) and single gametocytocidal low dose of primaquine, vector control and surveillance...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178217/flavonoid-composition-and-antitumor-activity-of-bee-bread-collected-in-northeast-portugal
#3
Filipa Sobral, Ricardo C Calhelha, Lillian Barros, Montserrat Dueñas, Andreia Tomás, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Miguel Vilas-Boas, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Bee bread (BB) is a fermented mixture of plant pollen, honey, and bee saliva that worker bees use as food for larvae, and for young bees to produce royal jelly. In the present study, five BB samples, collected from Apis mellifera iberiensis hives located in different apiaries near Bragança, in the northeast region of Portugal, and one BB commercial sample were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) in terms of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoid glycoside derivatives...
February 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163282/potential-objective-biomarkers-for-fatigue-among-working-women
#4
Chie Ebata, Hitomi Tatsuta, Masayuki Tatmeichi
OBJECTIVE: The prediction of health impairment due to work overload is subjectively assessed based on recognized symptoms; however, objective evaluation is primarily ideal in the field of occupational health. Recently, some biomarkers of autonomic function and/or oxidative stress were reported to be associated with fatigue. This study aimed to preliminarily investigate whether these biomarkers could be objective indicators for fatigue and stress among working women. METHOD: Participants included 118 full-time female workers (mean age 37...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141626/update-on-asthma-and-cleaning-agents
#5
Ilenia Folletti, Andrea Siracusa, Giulia Paolocci
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma due to cleaning products has been known for 20 years, and the interest in this topic is still large because of the number of cleaning workers with respiratory problems. In this review, we sought to highlight the most recent findings on the relationship between exposure to cleaning products and asthma and to summarize the specific literature published between 2013 and 2016. RECENT FINDINGS: Women are confirmed as most of workers exposed to cleaning products and have a higher frequency than men of work-related respiratory symptoms and diseases...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136187/particle-induced-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-and-subsequent-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#6
Ernst M Bomhard
This review analyzes the published data on cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in workers inhaling crystalline aluminum, indium, silicon, and titanium particles and possible sequelae, that is, inflammation and fibrosis, and compares these findings with those from animal experiments. In inhalation studies in rodents using crystalline indium and gallium compounds, pronounced PAP followed by inflammation and fibrosis down to very low concentration ranges have been reported. Crystalline aluminum, silicon, and titanium compounds also induced comparable pulmonary changes in animals, though at higher exposure levels...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129360/influenza-vaccination-of-healthcare-workers-critical-analysis-of-the-evidence-for-patient-benefit-underpinning-policies-of-enforcement
#7
Gaston De Serres, Danuta M Skowronski, Brian J Ward, Michael Gardam, Camille Lemieux, Annalee Yassi, David M Patrick, Mel Krajden, Mark Loeb, Peter Collignon, Fabrice Carrat
BACKGROUND: Four cluster randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) conducted in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) have reported reductions in patient risk through increased healthcare worker (HCW) influenza vaccination. This evidence has led to expansive policies of enforcement that include all staff of acute care hospitals and other healthcare settings beyond LTCFs. We critique and quantify the cRCT evidence for indirect patient benefit underpinning policies of mandatory HCW influenza vaccination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126587/co-option-of-the-sphingolipid-metabolism-for-the-production-of-nitroalkene-defensive-chemicals-in-termite-soldiers
#8
Anna Jirošová, Andrej Jančařík, Riya C Menezes, Olga Bazalová, Klára Dolejšová, Heiko Vogel, Pavel Jedlička, Aleš Buček, Jana Brabcová, Pavel Majer, Robert Hanus, Aleš Svatoš
The aliphatic nitroalkene (E)-1-nitropentadec-1-ene (NPD), reported in early seventies in soldiers of the termite genus Prorhinotermes, was the first documented nitro compound produced by insects. Yet, its biosynthetic origin has long remained unknown. Here, we investigated in detail the biosynthesis of NPD in P. simplex soldiers. First, we track the dynamics in major metabolic pathways during soldier ontogeny, with emphasis on likely NPD precursors and intermediates. Second, we propose a hypothesis of NPD formation and verify its individual steps using in vivo incubations of putative precursors and intermediates...
January 23, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115655/assessment-of-dna-chromosome-damage-in-the-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-of-workers-exposed-to-indium-compounds
#9
Nan Liu, Yi Guan, Ling Xue, Yan Yu, Jingwei Xiao, Zhimin Chang, Qingzhao Li, Yuping Bai, Bin Li, Weijun Guan
This study was conducted to investigate possible genotoxic effects resulting from occupational exposure to indium compounds. We performed a cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes gathered from 57 individuals exposed to indium at an indium ingot production plant in Guangxi, China, and compared the results with those obtained from 63 control subjects. The lymphocytes from both groups were examined in the chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, and single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay...
January 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089118/occupational-lung-diseases-from-old-and-novel-exposures-to-effective-preventive-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Paul Cullinan, Xavier Muñoz, Hille Suojalehto, Raymond Agius, Surinder Jindal, Torben Sigsgaard, Anders Blomberg, Denis Charpin, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Mridu Gulati, Yangho Kim, Arthur L Frank, Metin Akgün, David Fishwick, Rafael E de la Hoz, Subhabrata Moitra
Occupational exposure is an important, global cause of respiratory disease. Unlike many other non-communicable lung diseases, the proximal causes of many occupational lung diseases are well understood and they should be amenable to control with use of established and effective approaches. Therefore, the risks arising from exposure to silica and asbestos are well known, as are the means of their prevention. Although the incidence of occupational lung disease has decreased in many countries, in parts of the world undergoing rapid economic transition and population growth-often with large informal and unregulated workforces-occupational exposures continue to impose a heavy burden of disease...
January 6, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071878/occupational-exposure-to-beryllium-final-rule
#11
(no author information available yet)
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to beryllium at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to beryllium are at increased risk of developing chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. This final rule establishes new permissible exposure limits of 0...
9, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064212/impact-of-a-critical-health-workforce-shortage-on-child-health-in-zimbabwe-a-country-case-study-on-progress-in-child-survival-2000-2013
#12
Connie A Haley, Sten H Vermund, Precious Moyo, Aaron M Kipp, Bernard Madzima, Trevor Kanyowa, Teshome Desta, Kasonde Mwinga, Marie A Brault
Despite notable progress reducing global under-five mortality rates, insufficient progress in most sub-Saharan African nations has prevented the achievement of Millennium Development Goal four (MDG#4) to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Country-level assessments of factors underlying why some African countries have not been able to achieve MDG#4 have not been published. Zimbabwe was included in a four-country study examining barriers and facilitators of under-five survival between 2000 and 2013 due to its comparatively slow progress towards MDG#4...
January 7, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043285/-determination-of-relative-elements-of-hard-metal-in-workplace-air-and-urine-by-inductive-coupled-plama
#13
X X Li, Y N Jiao, Y N Luo, Y X Chen, D Tian, F Lou, H D Li, W Li, J D Chen, Y J Yan
Objective: To establish a rapid detection method regarding the air conditions of workplace and the workers' urine included Tungsten, Cobalt, Nickel, Titanium, Cadmium, Manganese, Lead and its compounds based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) . Methods: The experiment adopts ICP-MS to deter-mine those metals in workshop air and workers urine, evaluate the detection's limitation, the precision and accuracy of the method. Using the membrane filter and urine freeze - dried metal standard material to verify this method...
November 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997996/oral-health-interventions-in-australian-aboriginal-communities-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
J Patel, A Durey, L Hearn, L M Slack-Smith
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal Australians experience significant disparities in oral health with even poorer outcomes reported in rural and remote areas. The high rates of preventable dental disease in Aboriginal communities are a serious concern from a social standpoint and in terms of service provision and healthcare expenditure. METHODS: Primary research literature was comprehensively reviewed. Papers were selected if they reported designing or implementing an intervention or oral health program specific to the needs of Aboriginal communities...
December 20, 2016: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997619/intranasal-chromium-induces-acute-brain-and-lung-injuries-in-rats-assessment-of-different-potential-hazardous-effects-of-environmental-and-occupational-exposure-to-chromium-and-introduction-of-a-novel-pharmacological-and-toxicological-animal-model
#15
Abeer Salama, Rehab Hegazy, Azza Hassan
Chromium (Cr) is used in many industries and it is widely distributed in the environment. Exposure to Cr dust has been reported among workers at these industries. Beside its hazardous effects on the lungs, brain injury could be induced, as the absorption of substances through the nasal membrane has been found to provide them a direct delivery to the brain. We investigated the distribution and the effects of Cr in both brain and lung following the intranasal instillation of potassium dichromate (inPDC) in rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973871/unveiling-the-reactivity-of-a-synthetic-mimic-of-the-oxygen-evolving-complex
#16
Umberto Raucci, Ilaria Ciofini, Carlo Adamo, Nadia Rega
We simulated for the first time the oxygen-oxygen bond formation in a synthetic calcium-tetra manganese complex recently developed by Zhang and co-workers. In spite of promising structural similarities to the native oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in Photosystem II, several uncertainties on the mimic stability in water and on its potential catalytic activity still persist. Here, we characterized at density functional theory level the electronic and structural features of the Sn states of the complex, along with the oxygen-oxygen bond formation reaction, proposing a reasonable model for the hydrate complex...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956251/the-simultaneous-detection-of-trivalent-hexavalent-chromium-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-a-feasibility-study-comparing-workers-and-controls
#17
Elizabeth Leese, Jackie Morton, Philip H E Gardiner, Vikki A Carolan
The analytical method outlined in this feasibility study has been used to show that trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) can be detected and measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples. EBC samples and urine samples were collected from a cohort of 58 workers occupationally exposed to hexavalent chromium compounds and 22 unexposed volunteers (control group). Levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were determined in EBC samples and total chromium levels were determined in urine samples...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938363/reasons-for-defaulting-from-childhood-immunization-program-a-qualitative-study-from-hadiya-zone-southern-ethiopia
#18
Asamnew Zewdie, Mekitew Letebo, Tinsae Mekonnen
BACKGROUND: Reduction of mortality and morbidity from vaccine-preventable diseases in developing countries involves successfully implementing strategies that ensure high coverage and minimize drop-outs and missed opportunities. Achieving maximum coverage, however, has been a challenge due to many reasons, including high rates of defaulters from the program. The objective of this study was to explore the reasons behind defaulting from the immunization program. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in two districts of Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia between November 2014 and April 2015...
December 9, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928982/hospitals-soft-target-for-terrorism
#19
Harald De Cauwer, Francis Somville, Marc Sabbe, Luc J Mortelmans
In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels...
February 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924714/biomonitoring-of-mycotoxins-in-urine-pilot-study-in-mill-workers
#20
Wolfram Föllmann, Nurshad Ali, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Gisela H Degen
Contamination of grains with mycotoxins results in a dietary background exposure of the general population. In occupational settings such as during processing of raw materials as in milling, an additional mycotoxin exposure by inhalation is possible. Biomonitoring is an integrative approach to assess human exposure from various sources and by all routes. To investigate possible workplace exposure to mycotoxins, a pilot study was conducted that compared levels of urinary biomarkers in mill workers to those in a control group with dietary mycotoxin intake alone...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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