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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913150/juvenile-hormone-titers-ovarian-status-and-epicuticular-hydrocarbons-in-gynes-and-workers-of-the-paper-wasp-belonogaster-longitarsus
#1
Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Nanike Esterhuizen, Theresa C Wossler
The prevailing paradigm for social wasp endocrinology is that of juvenile hormone (JH) functioning pleiotropically in potential and actual queens, where it fuels dominance behaviors, stimulates ovarian growth and/or affects the production of status-linked cuticular compounds. In colonies with annual cycles (e.g., temperate-zone species), female adults produced at the end of the summer (called gynes) are physiologically primed to hibernate. Despite the absence of egg-laying in the pre-overwintering phase, gynes engage in dominance interactions that may affect reproductive potential following hibernation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906394/formal-nucleophilic-borylation-and-borylative-cyclization-of-organic-halides
#2
REVIEW
K Kubota, H Iwamoto, H Ito
This review describes recent advances in direct borylation reactions of organic halides, including both transition-metal-catalyzed and metal-free methods. Since the pioneering work on palladium-catalyzed boryl substitution of aryl halides with a diboron compound reported by Miyaura and co-workers in 1995, various catalytic systems for the borylation of aryl, alkneyl, and alkyl halides have been developed to give a wide range of organoboronate esters that cannot be synthesized using conventional methods. Borylative cyclization of alkyl halides is also discussed...
December 1, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903879/the-analysis-of-qt-interval-and-repolarization-morphology-of-the-heart-in-chronic-exposure-to-lead
#3
J Kiełtucki, M Dobrakowski, N Pawlas, B Średniawa, M Boroń, S Kasperczyk
There are no common recommendations regarding electrocardiographic monitoring in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to lead results in an increase of selected electrocardiography (ECG) pathologies, such as QT interval prolongation and repolarization disorders, in occupationally exposed workers. The study group included 180 workers occupationally exposed to lead compounds. The exposed group was divided according to the median of the mean blood lead level (PbBmean) calculated based on a series of measurements performed during 5-year observation period (35 µg/dl) into two subgroups: low exposure (LE, PbBmean = 20...
November 30, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894694/the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cbmn-assay-in-human-populations-exposed-to-styrene-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Solange Costa, Marcello Ceppi, Carla Costa, Susana Silva, Cristiana Pereira, Blanca Laffon, Stefano Bonassi, João Paulo Teixeira
Styrene is a building-block of several compounds used in a wide array of materials and products. The most important human exposure to this substance occurs in industrial settings, especially among reinforced-plastics industry workers. The effect of occupational exposure to styrene on cytogenetics biomarkers has been previously reviewed with positive association observed for chromosomal aberrations, and inconclusive data for the micronucleus assay. Some limitations were noted in those studies, including inadequate exposure assessment and poor epidemiological design...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894692/the-ex-vivo-l-cbmn-assay-detects-significant-human-exposure-to-butadiene
#5
REVIEW
Claudia Bolognesi, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
1,3-Butadiene (BD), an important industrial chemical used in the production of synthetic rubber and resins and a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, was classified as a human carcinogen by IARC. BD requires metabolic activation to different epoxides that are known to bind to DNA, inducing also DNA-DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks. The DNA damage leading to mutations has been identified as the mode of action of BD. Experimental studies in rodents revealed widely different BD carcinogenic/mutagenic potency in rat and mice, associated to differences in BD metabolism...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894688/dna-and-chromosomal-damage-in-medical-workers-exposed-to-anaesthetic-gases-assessed-by-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cbmn-assay-a-critical-review
#6
REVIEW
Pavel Vodicka, Ludovit Musak, Giovanni Fiorito, Veronika Vymetalkova, Ludmila Vodickova, Alessio Naccarati
The lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay has been applied in hundreds of in vivo biomonitoring studies of humans exposed either environmentally or occupationally to genotoxic chemicals. However, there is an emerging need to re-evaluate the use of MN and other biomarkers within the lymphocyte CBMN cytome assay as quantitative indicators of exposure to main classes of chemical genotoxins. The main aim of the present report is to systematically review published studies investigating the use of the lymphocyte CBMN assay to determine DNA damage in subjects exposed to anaesthetic gases...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894686/the-use-of-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-assay-for-monitoring-pesticide-exposed-populations
#7
REVIEW
Claudia Bolognesi, Nina Holland
Pesticides are widely used around the world, and hundreds of millions of people are exposed annually in occupational and environmental settings. Numerous studies have demonstrated relationships between pesticide exposure and increased risk of cancers, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, respiratory diseases and diabetes. Assessment of genotoxicity of pesticides and biomonitoring their effect in exposed populations is critical for a better regulation and protection, but it can be complicated because pesticides are often used as complex mixtures...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892642/new-approaches-to-non-surgical-sterilization-for-dogs-and-cats-opportunities-and-challenges
#8
Linda Rhodes
Over the last 40 years, researchers have explored methods to non-surgically suppress fertility in animals. Immunocontraception has been used to control wildlife populations but does not confer long-term immunity. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin, formulated as an implant to provide 6-month to 1-year suppression of fertility in male dogs, is available commercially in some countries. Neither of these approaches provide permanent sterility. A single-dose, permanent treatment would be a valuable tool in dog and cat population control...
November 28, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844179/-it-s-making-contacts-notions-of-social-capital-and-implications-for-widening-access-to-medical-education
#9
S Nicholson, J A Cleland
In the UK widening access (WA) activities and policies aim to increase the representation from lower socio-economic groups into Higher Education. Whilst linked to a political rhetoric of inclusive education such initiatives have however failed to significantly increase the number of such students entering medicine. This is compounded by a discourse that portrays WA applicants and students as lacking the essential skills or attributes to be successful in medical education. Much of the research in this area to date has been weak and it is critical to better understand how WA applicants and students negotiate medical admissions and education to inform change...
November 14, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837361/analytical-evaluation-of-the-protection-offered-by-sealed-tractor-cabins-during-crop-pulverization-with-fenitrothion
#10
Michelle Barcellos, Milena Michele Faletti, Luiz Augusto Dos Santos Madureira, Fernando Cesar Bauer
The practice of large-scale agriculture requires the use of pesticides in order to maximize production. This activity has gained increasing attention in recent years, especially from rural workers, due to the risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides. To minimize these risks, personal protection equipment (e.g., covers, gloves, and goggles) and collective protection equipment (e.g., agricultural tractors with sealed cabins) have been developed. In general, these approaches are intended to reduce the contact of farmers and agricultural machinery operators with the more toxic and stable compounds, an example of which is fenitrothion...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832346/species-specific-cuticular-hydrocarbon-stability-within-european-myrmica-ants
#11
Rhian M Guillem, Falko P Drijfhout, Stephen J Martin
Recognition is a fundamental process on which all subsequent behaviors are based at every organizational level, from the gene up to the super-organism. At the whole organism level, visual recognition is the best understood. However, chemical communication is far more widespread than visual communication, but despite its importance is much less understood. Ants provide an excellent model system for chemical ecology studies as it is well established that compounds known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are used as recognition cues in ants...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815726/agricultural-exposure-and-risk-of-bladder-cancer-in-the-agriculture-and-cancer-cohort
#12
Mathilde Boulanger, Séverine Tual, Clémentine Lemarchand, Anne-Valérie Guizard, Michel Velten, Elisabeth Marcotullio, Isabelle Baldi, Bénédicte Clin, Pierre Lebailly
PURPOSE: Literature on agricultural activities and bladder cancer risk is scarce. However, farmers can be subjected to carcinogenic exposure (e.g. arsenic, previously used as a pesticide in France). This study aimed at assessing the role of a large range of agricultural activities and tasks on bladder cancer risk. METHODS: The study population was the AGRIculture and CANcer cohort, a large prospective cohort of individuals affiliated to the agricultural health insurance scheme (MSA) in France...
November 4, 2016: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811158/the-influence-of-ph-on-the-in-vitro-permeation-of-rhodium-through-human-skin
#13
Sané Jansen Van Rensburg, Anja Franken, Jeanetta Du Plessis, Johannes Lodewykus Du Plessis
Workers in precious metals refineries are at risk of exposure to salt compounds of the platinum group metals through inhalation, as well as through the skin. Rhodium salt permeation through the skin has previously been proven using rhodium trichloride (RhCl3) dissolved in synthetic sweat at a pH of 6.5. However, the skin surface pH of refinery workers may be lower than 6.5. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pH 6.5 and 4.5 on the in vitro permeation of rhodium through intact Caucasian skin using Franz diffusion cells...
November 3, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792203/cytotoxicity-of-odorous-compounds-from-poultry-manure
#14
Adriana Nowak, Katarzyna Matusiak, Sebastian Borowski, Tadeusz Bakuła, Sebastian Opaliński, Roman Kołacz, Beata Gutarowska
Long-term exposure and inhalation of odorous compounds from poultry manure can be harmful to farm workers and the surrounding residents as well as animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity and IC50 values of common odorous compounds such as ammonium, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, butyric acid, phenol, and indole in the chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH (Leghorn Male Hepatoma), in vitro, using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and PrestoBlue cytotoxicity assays...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789343/mitigating-effect-of-euk-207-on-radiation-induced-cognitive-impairments
#15
J Raber, M J Davis, T Pfankuch, R Rosenthal, S R Doctrow, J E Moulder
The brain could be exposed to irradiation as part of a nuclear accident, radiological terrorism (dirty bomb scenario) or a medical radiological procedure. In the context of accidents or terrorism, there is considerable interest in compounds that can mitigate radiation-induced injury when treatment is initiated a day or more after the radiation exposure. As it will be challenging to determine the radiation exposure an individual has received within a relatively short time frame, it is also critical that the mitigating agent does not negatively affect individuals, including emergency workers, who might be treated, but who were not exposed...
October 24, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784302/addressing-the-intersection-between-alcohol-consumption-and-antiretroviral-treatment-needs-assessment-and-design-of-interventions-for-primary-healthcare-workers-the-western-cape-south-africa
#16
M Schneider, M Chersich, M Temmerman, C D Parry
BACKGROUND: At the points where an infectious disease and risk factors for poor health intersect, while health problems may be compounded, there is also an opportunity to provide health services. Where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and alcohol consumption intersect include infection with HIV, onward transmission of HIV, impact on HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease progression, and premature death. The levels of knowledge and attitudes relating to the health and treatment outcomes of HIV and AIDS and the concurrent consumption of alcohol need to be determined...
October 26, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779540/satisfaction-data-collected-by-e-mail-and-smartphone-for-emergency-department-patients-how-do-responders-compare-with-nonresponders
#17
Jeffery C Strickler, Kenneth K Lopiano
OBJECTIVE: This study profiles an innovative approach to capture patient satisfaction data from emergency department (ED) patients by implementing an electronic survey method. This study compares responders to nonresponders. BACKGROUND: Our hypothesis is that the cohort of survey respondents will be similar to nonresponders in terms of the key characteristics of age, gender, race, ethnicity, ED disposition, and payor status. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional design using secondary data from the database and provides an opportunity for univariate analysis of the key characteristics for each group...
November 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778080/richtwerte-f%C3%A3-r-toluol-und-gesundheitliche-bewertung-von-c7-c8-alkylbenzolen-in-der-innenraumluft-mitteilung-des-ausschusses-f%C3%A3-r-innenraumrichtwerte
#18
(no author information available yet)
The German Committee on Indoor Guide Values issues indoor air guide values to protect public health. For health evaluation of inhaled toluene a number of valid studies in humans is available. Toluene is a neurotoxic substance and the guide values are based on deficits in neurobehavioural tests observed at workers with chronic exposure of 337 mg toluene/m³. For the derivation of guide values the assumed continuous exposure is considered by a factor of 4.2, the interindividual variability by a factor of 10 and the elevated respiratory rate in children as compared to adults by a factor of 2...
November 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777830/cover-picture-acid-responsive-absorption-and-emission-of-5-n-arylaminothiazoles-emission-of-white-light-from-a-single-fluorescent-dye-and-a-lewis-acid-chemistryopen-5-2016
#19
Kirara Yamaguchi, Toshiaki Murai, Jing-Dong Guo, Takahiro Sasamori, Norihiro Tokitoh
The Front Cover picture shows structures of the key compounds and the change in the fluorescence. Although electron-donating and -accepting groups of monocyclic 5-N,N-diarylaminothiazoles are not in the same plane but highly deviated, they show relatively strong fluorescence from blue to orange. In particular, the addition of Brønsted and Lewis acids to 5-N,N-diaryl-2-(4-pyridyl)thiazoles shifts the absorption and emission to longer wavelengths. The thiazoles and acids form 1:1 complexes. Fine tuning of the amount of added B(C6F5)3 enables us to provide a white-light emission with a single fluorescent molecule...
October 2016: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766788/a-mortality-study-of-beryllium-workers
#20
Paolo Boffetta, Tiffani A Fordyce, Jack S Mandel
We aimed at investigating mortality among beryllium-exposed workers, according to solubility of beryllium and beryllium compounds. We conducted an historical cohort study of 16,115 workers employed during 1925-2008 in 15 facilities, including eight entailing exposure to insoluble beryllium and seven entailing exposure to soluble/mixed beryllium compounds, who were followed up for mortality until 2011. Data were analyzed using indirect standardization and Cox regression modeling. Lung cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR, national reference rates) was 1...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Medicine
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