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Simon Rodier, Guillaume Saint-Lorant, Jean-Marc Guilloit, Agnès Palix, Fabienne Divanon, François Sichel, Raphaël Delépée
BACKGROUND: During hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), caregivers are exposed by different routes to cytotoxic drugs. This review proposes an overview of the safety of HIPEC by assessing existing data on protection procedures, biological and non-biological samples. Based on these data, relevant good practices, eventual irrelevant overprotection procedures and missing data to implement adapted protections are highlighted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were extracted from a systematic review of literature from 1980 till 2016: number and type of surgical procedure, healthcare professionals present, protective equipment, samples, pre-analytical method and analytical method...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
Roberto Menicagli, Gianni Bolla, Laura Menicagli, Anastassia Esseiridou
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma represents 0.7% of the total cancer cases in the world with an ASR index of 1.7 and is widely associated with Epstein-Barr virus. It is not common in Italy (ASR index of 0.5) while in China (ASR 1.9), one third of the clinical cases are observed in Guangdong (ASR index 11.3). It is also quite common in Malaysia and Indonesia. The activation of the cancerogenesis process happens after the exposure to some environmental parameters that epidemiological studies have indicated with various dietary habits, mainly for salted fish consumption...
May 2017: Gulf Journal of Oncology
Pau-Chung Chen, Hsin-Yi Peng, Che-Jui Chang, Hsiao-Yu Yang
Breath analyses have attracted substantial attention as screens for occupational environmental lung disease. The objective of this study was to develop breath tests for pneumoconiosis by analysing volatile organic compounds using an electronic nose. A case-control study was designed. We screened 102 subjects from a cohort of stone workers. After excluding three subjects with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and one subject with asthma, 98 subjects were enrolled, including 34 subjects with pneumoconiosis and 64 healthy controls...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Frédéric Cosnier, Hervé Nunge, Élodie Bonfanti, Stéphane Grossmann, Anne-Marie Lambert-Xollin, Samuel Muller, Sylvie Sébillaud, Aurélie Thomas, Laurent Gaté, Pierre Campo
Multiple exposures are ubiquitous in industrial environments. In this article, we highlight the risks faced by workers and complete the data available on the metabolic impact of a common mixture: toluene (TOL) and methylethylketone (MEK). Rats were exposed by inhalation under controlled conditions either to each solvent individually, or to mixtures of the two. How the interaction between the two solvents affected their fate in the blood and brain, their main relevant urinary metabolites (o-cresol, benzylmercapturic acid for TOL and 2,3-butanediols for MEK) and their hepatic metabolism were investigated...
August 7, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Sergey Yu Grebenkin, Arkadiy B Meshalkin
Irradiation with linearly polarized light of azobenzene-containing polymeric matrixes causes reorientation of azobenzene molecules. In this study, the optical light-induced anisotropy of amorphous poly(alkyl methacrylates) (PAMAs) doped with an azo compound was measured at different temperatures and at two irradiation wavelengths. To describe a decrease in the efficiency of anisotropy formation with temperature, a model of molecule reorientation is suggested which includes the probability of molecule reorientation per one isomerization as a basic parameter...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Kaitlin Benedict, Malcolm Richardson, Snigdha Vallabhaneni, Brendan R Jackson, Tom Chiller
Several high-profile outbreaks have drawn attention to invasive fungal infections (IFIs) as an increasingly important public health problem. IFI outbreaks are caused by many different fungal pathogens and are associated with numerous settings and sources. In the community, IFI outbreaks often occur among people without predisposing medical conditions and are frequently precipitated by environmental disruption. Health-care-associated IFI outbreaks have been linked to suboptimal hospital environmental conditions, transmission via health-care workers' hands, contaminated medical products, and transplantation of infected organs...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Cyro Hauaji Zacarias, Claudia Esteban, Gilson Lucio Rodrigues, Elizabeth de Souza Nascimento
The cassava roots used for flour production contain high amounts of cyanogenic glycosides and are, therefore, potential hydrogen cyanide (HCN) releasers. This fact is the cause of an increasing health concern in the sector of cassava processing. Brazilian workers engaged in the flour production may be chronically exposed to HCN in levels above the safety limits. This hypothesis is based on the drastic reduction in cyanide content of cassava roots during a traditional Brazilian method of processing and in the physical properties of the compound, which makes it very susceptible to volatilization and air contamination...
July 27, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Andrew J Ghio, Michael C Madden
Among the myriad particles the human respiratory tract is exposed to, a significant number are distinctive in that they include humic substances (HS) and humic-like substances (HULIS) as organic components. HS are heterogeneous, amorphous, organic materials which are ubiquitous occurring in all terrestrial and aqueous environments. HULIS are a complex class of organic, macromolecular compounds initially extracted from atmospheric aerosol particles which share some features with HS including an aromatic, polyacidic nature...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Ping Wen, Yanan Cheng, Yufeng Qu, Hongxia Zhang, Jianjun Li, Heather Bell, Ken Tan, James Nieh
While foraging, animals can form inter- and intraspecific social signalling networks to avoid similar predators. We report here that foragers of different native Asian honey bee species can detect and use a specialized alarm pheromone component, benzyl acetate (BA), to avoid danger. We analysed the volatile alarm pheromone produced by attacked workers of the most abundant native Asian honey bee, Apis cerana and tested the responses of other bee species to these alarm signals. As compared to nest guards, A. cerana foragers produced 3...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wilfred S Gwaikolo, Brandon A Kohrt, Janice L Cooper
BACKGROUND: There are increasing efforts and attention focused on the delivery of mental health services in primary care in low resource settings (e.g., mental health Gap Action Programme, mhGAP). However, less attention is devoted to systematic approaches that identify and address barriers to the development and uptake of mental health services within primary care in low-resource settings. Our objective was to prepare for optimal uptake by identifying barriers in rural Liberia. The country's need for mental health services is compounded by a 14-year history of political violence and the largest Ebola virus disease outbreak in history...
July 27, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Yuki Mitaka, Naoki Mori, Kenji Matsuura
Division of labour in eusocial insects is characterized by efficient communication systems based on pheromones. Among such insects, termites have evolved specialized sterile defenders, called soldiers. Because they are incapable of feeding themselves, it has been suggested that soldiers are sustained by workers and emit the pheromone arresting workers. However, such a soldier pheromone has not been identified in any termite species, and the details of the soldier-worker interaction remain to be explored. Here, we identified a soldier-specific volatile sesquiterpene as a worker arrestant, which also acts as a primer pheromone regulating soldier differentiation and fungistatic agent in a termite Reticulitermes speratus Chemical analyses revealed that (-)-β-elemene is the major component of soldier extract, and its authentic standard exhibited arrestant activity to workers and inhibited the differentiation from workers to soldiers...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
(no author information available yet)
Greater numbers of children are on the move than ever before. In 2015, the number of forcibly displaced people across the globe reached 65.3 million. Of the more than 1 million migrants, asylum seekers, and refugees who arrived in Europe in 2015, nearly one third were children, and 90,000 of these children were unaccompanied. Child migrants are among the most vulnerable, even after arriving at their destination. The health of migrant children is related to their health status before their journey, the conditions during their journey and at their destination, and the physical and mental health of their caregivers...
July 23, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
Nana Ama Amissah, Lieke van Dam, Anthony Ablordey, Opoku-Ware Ampomah, Isaac Prah, Caitlin S Tetteh, Tjip S van der Werf, Alexander W Friedrich, John W Rossen, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Ymkje Stienstra
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, hospitalized burn victims are at high risk of nosocomial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Risk factors include poor infection control practices, prolonged hospitalisation and limited capacity for laboratory microbiological analyses. These problems are compounded by widespread use of antibiotics that drives the spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria. METHODS: During the study period (November 2014-June 2015), nasal and invasive S...
2017: PloS One
Juha Laitinen, Hanna Koponen, Olli Sippula, Kirsi Korpijärvi, Mika Jumpponen, Sirpa Laitinen, Marjaleena Aatamila, Jarkko Tissari, Tommi Karhunen, Kari Ojanen, Jorma Jokiniemi, Leena Korpinen
Fly and bottom ashes are collected at power plants to reduce the environmental effects of energy production. However, handling the ashes causes health problems for operators, maintenance workers and truck drivers at the power plants. Hence, we evaluated ash loaders' peak inhalation exposures to the chemical components of ash and diesel exhausts in open and closed ash loading stations at biomass-fuelled combined heat and power plants. We also carried out chemical and morphological analyses of the ashes to evaluate their health hazard potential in order to find practical technical measures to reduce workers' exposure...
July 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Guang Cheng, Adam T Zarth, Pramod Upadhyaya, Peter W Villalta, Silvia Balbo, Stephen S Hecht
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental carcinogens implicated as causes of cancer in certain industrial settings and in cigarette smokers. PAH require metabolic activation to exert their carcinogenic effects. One widely accepted pathway of metabolic activation proceeds through formation of "bay region" diol epoxides which are highly reactive with DNA and can cause mutations. Phenanthrene (Phe) is the simplest PAH with a bay region and an excellent model for the study of PAH metabolism. In previous studies in which [D10]Phe was administered to smokers, we observed higher levels of [D10]Phe-tetraols derived from [D10]Phe-diol epoxides in subjects who were null for the glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) gene...
July 8, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Behzad Heibati, Krystal J Godri Pollitt, Ali Karimi, Jamshid Yazdani Charati, Alan Ducatman, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Mahmoud Mohammadyan
The aim of this study was to evaluate benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) exposure among workers at four stations of a major oil distribution company. Personal BTEX exposure samples were collected over working shift (8h) for 50 workers at four stations of a major oil distribution company in Iran. Measured mean values for workers across four sites were benzene (2437, 992, 584, and 2788μg/m(3) respectively), toluene (4415, 2830, 1289, and 9407μg/m(3)), ethylbenzene (781, 522, 187, and 533μg/m(3)), and xylene (1134, 678, 322, and 525μg/m(3))...
June 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jacopo Fostinelli, Simona Catalani, Alice Gaia, Giuseppe De Palma, Pietro Apostoli
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 56 workers employed in 6 electric arc furnace steelmaking plants and 2 secondary aluminum smelting plants located in the highly industrialized area of Brescia, Northern Italy. METHODS: Thirty-four PCB congeners were found in both environmental and biological samples from workers engaged in scrap yards, electric arc furnaces, casting and maintenance departments. RESULTS: The highest airborne PCB levels were found in the aluminum plant, even 100 times those detected in the steelwork plants...
June 28, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
Justin N Cross, Jing Su, Enrique R Batista, Samantha K Cary, William J Evans, Stosh A Kozimor, Veronika Mocko, Brian L Scott, Benjamin W Stein, Cory J Windorff, Ping Yang
Developing a better understanding of covalency (or orbital mixing) is of fundamental importance. Covalency occupies a central role in directing chemical and physical properties for almost any given compound or material. Hence, the concept of covalency has potential to generate broad and substantial scientific advances, ranging from biological applications to condensed matter physics. Given the importance of orbital mixing combined with the difficultly in measuring covalency, estimating or inferring covalency often leads to fiery debate...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Richard D Wood
Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation is used as thermal insulation for residential and commercial buildings. It has many advantages over other forms insulation; however, concerns have been raised related to chemical emissions during and after application. The American Chemistry Council's (ACC's) Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) has gathered previously unpublished industrial hygiene air sampling studies submitted by member companies that were completed during an eight year period from 2007 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Thoranin Kongsuk, Suttha Supanya, Kedsaraporn Kenbubpha, Supranee Phimtra, Supattra Sukhawaha, Jintana Leejongpermpoon
Depression, together with suicide is an important contributor to the burden of disease in Thailand. Until recently, depression has been significantly under-recognized in the country. The lack of response to this health challenge has been compounded by a low level of access to standard care, constraints on mental health personnel and inadequate dissemination of knowledge in caring for people with these disorders. In the past decade, significant work has been undertaken to establish a new evidence-based surveillance and care system for depression and suicide in Thailand that operates at all levels of health-care provision nationwide...
April 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
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