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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330449/lithium-chloride-effectively-kills-the-honey-bee-parasite-varroa-destructor-by-a-systemic-mode-of-action
#1
Bettina Ziegelmann, Elisabeth Abele, Stefan Hannus, Michaela Beitzinger, Stefan Berg, Peter Rosenkranz
Honey bees are increasingly important in the pollination of crops and wild plants. Recent reports of the weakening and periodical high losses of managed honey bee colonies have alarmed beekeeper, farmers and scientists. Infestations with the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor in combination with its associated viruses have been identified as a crucial driver of these health problems. Although yearly treatments are required to prevent collapses of honey bee colonies, the number of effective acaricides is small and no new active compounds have been registered in the past 25 years...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301694/influence-of-temperature-on-survival-and-cuticular-chemical-profile-of-social-wasps
#2
REVIEW
Kamylla Balbuena Michelutti, Eva Ramona Pereira Soares, Denise Sguarizi-Antonio, Raul Cremonezi Piva, Yzel Rondon Súarez, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, William Fernando Antonialli-Junior
The cuticle of social insects is a barrier against desiccation and a channel for chemical communication, two characteristics fundamental to the success of this group. The compounds present in the cuticle interact dynamically in order to achieve a balance between these two functions. Thus, viscosity correlates with waterproofing, whereas fluidity correlates with effective communication. Temperature variation can cause the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) layer of the cuticle to change in order to maintain body homeostasis...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297446/the-second-sputum-sample-complicates-tuberculosis-diagnosis-for-women-a-qualitative-study-from-malawi
#3
M Kumwenda, B-T Nyang'wa, B Chikuse, T Biseck, S Maosa, A Chilembwe, A Dimba, J Mpunga, C Shaw, M Brouwer
SETTING: District hospital and peripheral health care facilities in Balaka District, Malawi. OBJECTIVE: To identify barriers encountered by women in submitting a second sputum sample. DESIGN: Focus-group discussions and semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Women encounter barriers at several levels: personal, cultural, socio-economic and health care system. Personal, cultural and socio-economic barriers include the fear of a tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, the perception and condition of the patient, the distance and cost of travel to a health care facility, the subordinate position of women in household decision-making and the social support that women receive...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291449/health-risk-assessment-of-reclaimed-wastewater-a-case-study-of-a-conventional-water-reclamation-plant-in-nanjing-china
#4
Yongfeng Deng, Melvin Bonilla, Hongqiang Ren, Yan Zhang
Contaminated reclaimed wastewater has the potential to induce adverse effects on the health of wastewater workers and residents. However, few studies have focused on these health risks. In this study, we assessed the health risk of samples collected from different treatment processing units used in a typical water reclamation plant in Nanjing, China. Chemical analysis revealed that 40 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and 6 N-nitrosamines (NAs) persisted after wastewater treatment. A health risk assessment revealed that the SVOCs in effluents pose negligible non-carcinogenic risk to wastewater workers and local residents as both the hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were all below 1...
December 29, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288255/assessment-of-indoor-air-quality-at-an-electronic-cigarette-vaping-convention
#5
Rui Chen, Angela Aherrera, Chineye Isichei, Pablo Olmedo, Stephanie Jarmul, Joanna E Cohen, Ana Navas-Acien, Ana M Rule
E-cigarette (vaping) conventions are public events promoting electronic cigarettes, in which indoor use of e-cigarettes is allowed. The large concentration of people using e-cigarettes and poor air ventilation can result in indoor air pollution. In order to estimate this worst-case exposure to e-cigarettes, we evaluated indoor air quality in a vaping convention in Maryland (MD), USA. Real-time concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) and real-time total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), CO2 and NO2 concentrations were measured...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284492/experiences-and-perceptions-of-online-continuing-professional-development-among-clinicians-in-sub-saharan-africa
#6
Caryl Feldacker, Sheena Jacob, Michael H Chung, Anya Nartker, H Nina Kim
BACKGROUND: Limitations in healthcare worker (HCW) capacity compound the burden of dual TB and HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. To fill gaps in knowledge and skills, effective continuing profession development (CPD) initiatives are needed to support practicing HCWs reach high standards of care. e-learning opportunities can bring expert knowledge to HCWs in the field and provide a flexible learning option adaptable to local settings. Few studies provide insight into HCW experiences with online CPD in the developing country context...
December 29, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260472/environmental-and-biological-monitoring-of-exposures-to-vocs-in-a-petrochemical-complex-in-iran
#7
Yaghoub Hajizadeh, Hakimeh Teiri, Shahrokh Nazmara, Iman Parseh
Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can cause cancers in human. This study aimed to measure the concentration of four VOCs including benzene, styrene, ethylbenzene, and phenol in ambient air of a petrochemical complex in Iran. Also, their urinary metabolites including phenol, mandelic acid (MA), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) in the workers were monitored. Urine samples were collected before and after the 8-h workshift according to the NIOSH methods. They were analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID)...
December 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240307/use-and-limitations-of-offsite-consequence-analysis-tools-from-south-korea-and-the-united-states-in-hydrogen-fluoride-accidental-release
#8
Min-Uk Kim, Sang-Hoon Byeon
We investigated the characteristics and limitations in the event of hydrofluoric acid (HF) leakage by comparing and analyzing of the offsite consequence analysis (OCA) tools based on the chemical plant operating conditions. We reviewed the tools Korea Offsite Risk Assessment (KORA) from South Korea and RMP*CompTM and Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) from the United States. The scenario studied was based on a leak event from a 50% HF aqueous solution storage tank, and the operating conditions taken into consideration were the operating temperature and dike installation conditions...
December 14, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240044/sinonasal-cancer-in-a-worker-exposed-to-chromium-in-an-unusual-industrial-sector
#9
Vera Comiati, Maria Luisa Scapellato, Enrico Alexandre, Tiziana Volo, Daniele Borsetto, Mariella Carrieri, Enzo Emanuelli, Diego Cazzador
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to chromium is carcinogenic for human respiratory system. Due to the low incidence of sinonasal malignancies, there is still a paucity of evidence to confirm that chromium(VI) exposure is a cause of nasal cancer. OBJECTIVES: To report on a sinonasal cancer (SNC) of rare occupational origin, increasing the awareness on epidemiological knowledge of occupational exposures to chromium compounds. METHODS: We describe a case of a 64-year-old chrome plater who worked in the galvanic industry in the early 1970s...
December 14, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234454/pulmonary-injury-associated-with-spray-of-a-water-based-nano-sized-waterproofing-product-a-case-study
#10
Paul T J Scheepers, Lucie Masen-Poos, Frits G B G J van Rooy, Arné Oerlemans, Eline van Daalen, Robbert Cremers, Hera Lichtenbeld, Bonne Biesma, Jorid B Sørli, Ismo K Koponen, Søren Thor Larsen, Peder Wolkoff, Asger W Nørgaard
Background: In most reported cases of lung trauma with water proofing products, volatile organic compounds (VOC) have a prominent role. Here we report on a case involving ten workers exposed to a sprayed product containing nanoparticles in a water solution with only a few percent VOC. Case presentation: Ten workers suffered from respiratory symptoms following spray impregnation of hardwood furniture using a waterproofing product that contained positively charged fluorinated acrylate copolymer solid cores with a median diameter of 70 nm (1...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231889/exploring-the-caste-specific-multi-layer-defense-mechanism-of-formosan-subterranean-termites-coptotermes-formosanus-shiraki
#11
Abid Hussain, Ming-Yi Tian, Shuo-Yang Wen
The survival and foraging of Coptotermesformosanus Shiraki in a microbe-rich environment reflect the adaptation of an extraordinary, sophisticated defense mechanism by the nest-mates. We aimed to explore the host pathogen interaction by studying caste-specific volatile chemistry and genes encoding the antioxidant defense of winged imagoes, nymphs, soldiers and workers of Formosan subterranean termites. Qualitative analyses of C.formosanus Shiraki performed by HS-SPME/GC-MS showed considerable variations in the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their proportions among all the castes...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228347/exposure-of-mice-to-1-2-dichloropropane-induces-cyp450-dependent-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-cholangiocytes
#12
Xiao Zhang, Cai Zong, Lingyi Zhang, Edwin Garner, Shigeyuki Sugie, Chinyen Huang, Wenting Wu, Jie Chang, Toshihiro Sakurai, Masashi Kato, Sahoko Ichihara, Shinji Kumagai, Gaku Ichihara
1, 2-Dichloropropane (1, 2-DCP) has been used as a paint remover in the industry. The International Agency for Research on Cancer reclassified this compound recently to Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans) based on epidemiological studies of cholangiocarcinoma among offset-color proof-printing workers exposed to 1, 2-DCP in Japan. Two-year rodent carcinogenicity bioassays demonstrated that 1, 2-DCP induced tumors in liver and lung, but not in bile duct. The present study was designed to assess the toxic effects of 1, 2-DCP on proliferation and apoptosis in mice bile duct and the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in any such effect...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217486/aberrant-promoter-methylation-in-genes-related-to-hematopoietic-malignancy-in-workers-exposed-to-a-voc-mixture
#13
Octavio Jiménez-Garza, Liqiong Guo, Hyang-Min Byun, Mariella Carrieri, Giovanni Battista Bartolucci, Briscia Socorro Barrón-Vivanco, Andrea A Baccarelli
Occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may cause hematopoietic malignancy, either by single exposure to benzene or possibly due to a concomitant exposure to several VOCs. Since oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA repair pathways are closely involved in cancer development, the effect of VOC exposure on expression of proteins involved in these pathways has been studied, but epigenetic changes have not been well described. Here, DNA methylation status following occupational exposure to a VOC mixture was assessed by bisulfite sequencing of the promoter regions of seven genes involved in the mentioned pathways...
December 4, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209933/evaluating-the-role-of-drone-produced-chemical-signals-in-mediating-social-interactions-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#14
Gabriel Villar, Megan D Wolfson, Abraham Hefetz, Christina M Grozinger
Pheromones play a critical role in shaping societies of social insects, including honey bees, Apis mellifera. While diverse functions have been ascribed to queen- and worker-produced compounds, few studies have explored the identity and function of male-produced (drone) compounds. However, several lines of evidence suggest that drones engage in a variety of social interactions inside and outside of the colony. Here we elucidate the chemical composition of extracts of the drone mandibular gland, and test the hypothesis that compounds produced in these glands, or a synthetic blend consisting of the six main compounds, mediate drone social interactions in and out of the colony...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206963/occupational-exposure-to-alcohol-based-hand-sanitizers-the-diagnostic-role-of-alcohol-biomarkers-in-hair
#15
A Salomone, A Bozzo, D Di Corcia, E Gerace, M Vincenti
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are effective direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion, whose analytical determination can be used to discriminate between chronic and occasional ethanol intake. Ethanol is a compound widely used in some workplaces (e.g., clinics, hospitals) and is present in considerable amounts in mouthwash for oral cleaning, medications, cosmetic products, hydro-alcoholic disinfectants and antiseptics for hands. This study examined the ethyl alcohol exposure derived from hand disinfectants (in gel form) by simulating the typical occupational situation of medical-health workers (healthcare workers, nurses, surgeons, etc...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200490/management-of-nail-bed-injuries-associated-with-fingertip-injuries
#16
Alexander George, Reena Alexander, C Manju
Background: Management of nail injuries can often be a challenging experience, especially in presence of complex fingertips' injuries that include soft tissue loss and distal phalanx injury. Most studies found in the literature focus on individual injuries and describe methods to tackle those injuries, notwithstanding the fact that the nail, nailbed, distal phalanx, soft tissue and skin of the finger tip form a complex and often more than one element of this complex is injured. This retrospective study therefore focuses on the management of nail bed injuries as a part of the complex finger tip injury and outlines the surgical principles and techniques that were used in their management...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187674/nitrative-dna-damage-in-cultured-macrophages-exposed-to-indium-oxide
#17
Tahmina Afroz, Yusuke Hiraku, Ning Ma, Sharif Ahmed, Shinji Oikawa, Shosuke Kawanishi, Mariko Murata
OBJECTIVES: Indium compounds are used in manufacturing displays of mobile phones and televisions. However, these materials cause interstitial pneumonia in exposed workers. Animal experiments demonstrated that indium compounds caused lung cancer. Chronic inflammation is considered to play a role in lung carcinogenesis and fibrosis induced by particulate matters. 8-Nitroguanine (8-nitroG) is a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation and may participate in carcinogenesis. To clarify the mechanism of carcinogenesis, we examined 8-nitroG formation in indium-exposed cultured cells...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187620/ocellar-structure-is-driven-by-the-mode-of-locomotion-and-activity-time-in-myrmecia-ants
#18
Ajay Narendra, Willi A Ribi
Insects have exquisitely adapted their compound eyes to suit the ambient light intensity in the different temporal niches they occupy. In addition to the compound eye, most flying insects have simple eyes known as ocelli, which assist in flight stabilisation, horizon detection and orientation. Among ants, typically the flying alates have ocelli while the pedestrian workers lack this structure. The Australian ant genus Myrmecia is one of the few ant genera in which both workers and alates have three ocellar lenses...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173494/the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-test-in-human-populations-occupationally-exposed-to-vinyl-chloride-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Claudia Bolognesi, Marco Bruzzone, Marcello Ceppi, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
Vinyl chloride (VC) is widely used in industry in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is used to manufacture a large variety of materials. VC was classified as a known (Group 1) human carcinogen by IARC on the basis of increased risk for liver angiosarcoma and hepatocellular cancer, and the carcinogenicity of VC was shown to be mediated by a genotoxic mechanism. Following inhalation, the compound is rapidly absorbed and metabolized in the liver to the electrophilic metabolites chloroethylene-oxide and chloroacetaldehyde, which form DNA adducts that can be processed into point mutations in cancer-related genes detected in humans and rats exposed to VC...
October 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163377/wild-grape-associated-yeasts-as-promising-biocontrol-agents-against-vitis-vinifera-fungal-pathogens
#20
Gustavo Cordero-Bueso, Nicola Mangieri, David Maghradze, Roberto Foschino, Federica Valdetara, Jesús M Cantoral, Ileana Vigentini
The increasing level of hazardous residues in the environment and food chains has led the European Union to restrict the use of chemical fungicides. Thus, exploiting new natural antagonistic microorganisms against fungal diseases could serve the agricultural production to reduce pre- and post-harvest losses, to boost safer practices for workers and to protect the consumers' health. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epiphytic yeasts against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Penicillium expansum pathogen species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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