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leptin and intake

Virginia Mela, Sara Jimenez, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Vicente Barrios, Eva-María Marco, Ana-Belén Lopez-Rodriguez, Jesús Argente, María-Paz Viveros, Julie A Chowen
The neonatal leptin surge, occurring from postnatal day (PND) 5 to 13 and peaking at PND9 in rodents, is important for the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control and reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that treatment with a leptin antagonist from PND 5 to 9, coincident with peak leptin levels in the neonatal surge, modified trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the hypothalamus of peri-pubertal rats. The kisspeptin system and metabolic neuropeptide and hormone levels were also modified...
October 14, 2016: Peptides
Mariane Curado Borges, Fabiana de Miranda Moura Dos Santos, Rosa Weiss Telles, Marcus Vinícius Melo de Andrade, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson Correia, Cristina Costa Duarte Lanna
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795); 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997) were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080mg EPA+200mg DHA, for 12 weeks) and 27 to the control group...
September 22, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio Paoli
BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
P G F Quaresma, L Weissmann, T M Zanotto, A C Santos, A H B de Matos, I C Furigo, F M Simabuco, J D Junior, J C Bittencourt, I Lopes-Cendes, P O Prada
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the Cdc2-like Kinase 2 (CLK2) is expressed in hypothalamic neurons and if it is, whether the hypothalamic CLK2 has a role in the regulation of energy balance. SUBJECTS: Swiss mice on chow or high fat diet (HFD) and db/db mice on chow diet were used to address the role of CLK2 in the hypothalamus. RESULTS: Hypothalamic CLK2(Thr343) phosphorylation, which induces CLK2 activity, is regulated in vivo by refeeding, insulin and leptin, in a PI3K dependent manner...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Cinthia García-Luna, Paulina Soberanes-Chavez, Patricia de Gortari
Feeding patterns are important factors in obesity evolvement. Time-restricted feeding schedules (tRF) during resting phase change energy homeostasis regulation, disrupting the circadian release of metabolism-regulating hormones, such as leptin, insulin and corticosterone and promoting body weight gain. Thyroid (HPT) and adrenal (HPA) axes exhibit a circadian regulation and are involved in energy expenditure, thus studying their parameters in tRF paradigms will elucidate their role in energy homeostasis impairments under such conditions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Sedigheh Babaei, Alberto Sáez, Albert Caballero-Solares, Felipe Fernández, Isabel V Baanante, Isidoro Metón
Endocrine factors released from the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral organs mediate the regulation of food intake. Although many studies have evaluated the effect of fed-to-starved transition on the expression of appetite-related genes, little is known about how the expression of appetite-regulating peptides is regulated by the macronutrient composition of the diet. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of diet composition and nutritional status on the expression of four peptides involved in food intake control in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): neuropeptide Y (NPY), ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin...
October 7, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Hélène Volkoff, Rafael Esatevan Sabioni, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, José Eurico Possebon Cyrino
The pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus is an omnivorous fish considered a promising species for aquaculture. Little is known about the endocrine regulation of feeding in this species. In this study, transcripts for orexin, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin were isolated in pacu. Orexin, CCK and leptin have widespread mRNA distributions in brain and periphery, CART is limited to the brain. To examine the role of these peptides in the regulation of feeding and energy status, mRNA expression levels were compared between fed and fasted fish and around feeding time...
October 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Katie M Di Sebastiano, Jehonathan H Pinthus, Wilhelmina C M Duivenvoorden, Laurel Patterson, Joel A Dubin, Marina Mourtzakis
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer development is associated with numerous lifestyle factors (i.e., physical activity, nutrition intake) and metabolic perturbations. These factors have been studied independently; here, we used an integrative approach to characterize these lifestyle and metabolic parameters in men undergoing diagnostic prostate biopsies. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 51 consecutive men for body composition, metabolic factors including glucose- and lipid-related measures, as well as lifestyle factors prior to prostate biopsy...
October 4, 2016: Prostate
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Yumi Takemura, Masaya Sasaki, Kenichi Goto, Azusa Takaoka, Akiko Ohi, Mika Kurihara, Naoko Nakanishi, Yasutaka Nakano, Jun Hanaoka
This study aimed to investigate the energy metabolism of patients with lung cancer and the relationship between energy metabolism and proinflammatory cytokines. Twenty-eight patients with lung cancer and 18 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The nutritional status upon admission was analyzed using nutritional screening tools and laboratory tests. The resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry, and the predicted resting energy expenditure was calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
C Farmer, M Comi, C R A Duarte, M Vignola, P Charagu, M-F Palin
The goal of this project was to determine if different body conditions in late gestation that are due to varying body conditions at mating affect mammary development and mammary gene expression of gilts. Gilts that were fed ad libitum in the growing period were selected based on their backfat depths to form 3 groups at mating, namely, low backfat (LBF; 12-15 mm; = 14), medium backfat (MBF; 17-19 mm; = 15), and high backfat (HBF; 22-26 mm; = 16). During gestation, LBF, MBF, and HBF gilts were fed approximately 1...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Karl J Kaiyala, Kayoko Ogimoto, Jarrell T Nelson, Kenjiro Muta, Gregory J Morton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role played by leptin in thermoregulation, we studied the effects of physiological leptin replacement in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice on determinants of energy balance, thermogenesis and heat retention under 3 different ambient temperatures. METHODS: The effects of housing at 14 °C, 22 °C or 30 °C on core temperature (telemetry), energy expenditure (respirometry), thermal conductance, body composition, energy intake, and locomotor activity (beam breaks) were measured in ob/ob mice implanted subcutaneously with osmotic minipumps at a dose designed to deliver a physiological replacement dose of leptin or its vehicle-control...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Kavaljit H Chhabra, Jessica M Adams, Graham L Jones, Miho Yamashita, Martin Schlapschy, Arne Skerra, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low
OBJECTIVE: A major challenge for obesity treatment is the maintenance of reduced body weight. Diet-induced obese mice are resistant to achieving normoweight once the obesogenic conditions are reversed, in part because lowered circulating leptin leads to a reduction in metabolic rate and a rebound of hyperphagia that defend the previously elevated body weight set point. Because hypothalamic POMC is a central leptin target, we investigated whether changes in circulating leptin modify Pomc expression to maintain normal energy balance in genetically predisposed obese mice...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
M Ibars, A Ardid-Ruiz, M Suárez, B Muguerza, C Bladé, G Aragonès
OBJECTIVE: Dietary obesity is usually linked with hypothalamic leptin resistance, in which the primary impact is an interference in the homeostatic control of body weight and appetite. Notably, proanthocyanidins (PACs), which are the most abundant phenolic compounds present in human diet, modulate adiposity and food intake. The aim of this study was to assess whether PACs could re-establish appropriate leptin signalling in both the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. DESIGN: Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow diet (STD group, n=7) or a cafeteria diet (CD) for 13 weeks...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Michael A Grandner, Azizi Seixas, Safal Shetty, Sundeep Shenoy
Sleep is important for regulating many physiologic functions that relate to metabolism. Because of this, there is substantial evidence to suggest that sleep habits and sleep disorders are related to diabetes risk. In specific, insufficient sleep duration and/or sleep restriction in the laboratory, poor sleep quality, and sleep disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea have all been associated with diabetes risk. This research spans epidemiologic and laboratory studies. Both physiologic mechanisms such as insulin resistance, decreased leptin, and increased ghrelin and inflammation and behavioral mechanisms such as increased food intake, impaired decision-making, and increased likelihood of other behavioral risk factors such as smoking, sedentary behavior, and alcohol use predispose to both diabetes and obesity, which itself is an important diabetes risk factor...
November 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Sungin Lee, Aeri Lee, Oh-Kyeong Kweon, Wan Hee Kim
The hormone leptin is produced by mature adipocytes and plays an important role in regulating food intake and energy metabolism through its interaction with the leptin receptor. In addition to roles in obesity and obesity-related diseases, leptin has been reported to affect the components and secretion of bile in leptin-deficient mice. Furthermore, gallbladder diseases such as cholelithiasis are known to be associated with serum leptin concentrations in humans. We hypothesized that the canine gallbladder is a source of leptin and that the leptin receptor may be localized in the gallbladder, where it plays a role in regulating the function of this organ...
September 19, 2016: Acta Histochemica
Kristen P Tolson, Christian Garcia, Iris Delgado, Nuha Marooki, Alexander S Kauffman
Kisspeptin regulates reproduction via signaling through the receptor, Kiss1r, in GnRH neurons. However, both kisspeptin and Kiss1r are produced in several peripheral tissues, and recent studies have highlighted a role for kisspeptin signaling in metabolism and glucose homeostasis. We recently reported that Kiss1r KO mice display a sexually-dimorphic metabolic phenotype, with KO females displaying obesity, impaired metabolism, and glucose intolerance at 4-5 months of age. However, it remains unclear when this metabolic phenotype first emerges in development, or which aspects of the pleiotropic phenotype underlie the metabolic defects and which are secondary to the obesity...
September 20, 2016: Endocrinology
Hamdy Shaban, Rory O'Connor, Saak V Ovsepian, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens
Hypothalamic neural circuits are recognised as primary sites of the neuromodulator effect of homeostatic food intake, whereas changes in ventral tegmental area (VTA), hippocampus and amygdala have been implicated in the hedonic, cognitive and emotional aspects of eating. Here, we discuss synaptic transmission and plasticity within brain circuits governing appetite and food intake behaviour, focusing on the metabolic hormones ghrelin and leptin. We discuss functional changes within these circuitries and critically assess the applicability of electrophysiological measurements using in vitro multielectrode array (MEA) systems to identify novel appetite modulators...
September 12, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Stephany P Monsanto, Korry J Hintze, Robert E Ward, Deanna P Larson, Michael Lefevre, Abby D Benninghoff
In this study, we determined the impact of the total Western diet (TWD) for rodents and its macro- and micronutrient components on weight gain and biomarkers of metabolic function in mice compared to a 45% fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet and the standard AIN93G diet. We hypothesized that mice fed the TWD would have increased body fat with indicators of metabolic syndrome similar to mice consuming the DIO diet. As expected, DIO-fed mice acquired a metabolic syndrome phenotype typified by increased energy intake, increased body weight gain, increased fat mass, higher fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and higher plasma leptin relative to the AIN93G diet...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Ingunn Narverud, Mari C W Myhrstad, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Toni Karhu, Tuva B Dahl, Bente Halvorsen, Stine M Ulven, Kirsten B Holven
Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
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