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leptin and intake

Slava Berger, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
Obesity-related sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) cause intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, a powerful trigger of oxidative stress. Obesity also leads to dramatic increases in circulating levels of leptin, a hormone produced in adipose tissue. Leptin acts in the hypothalamus to suppress food intake and increase metabolic rate. However, obese individuals are resistant to metabolic effects of leptin. Leptin also activates the sympathetic nervous system without any evidence of resistance, possibly because these effects occur peripherally without a need to penetrate the blood-brain barrier...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Xiao Xu, Xue Tian, Yuan Chen, Zhi-Kai Yang, Zhen Qu, Jie Dong
BACKGROUND: Although the association between adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, and body composition has been noted, whether they could predict the change of fat mass and lean body mass is unknown. We aimed to examine these associations in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) through a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Body composition (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) including fat mass and lean body mass were examined at baseline and then at year 3. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were measured...
April 19, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Sabine Rohrmann, Yurii B Shvetsov, Yukiko Morimoto, Lynne R Wilkens, Kristine R Monroe, Loïc Le Marchand, Adrian A Franke, Laurence N Kolonel, Gertraud Maskarinec
PURPOSE: To examine if dietary intake of foods rich in flavonoids, which have been shown to be inversely associated with chronic diseases, is associated with inflammatory processes. METHODS: This analysis includes controls of case-control studies nested within the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at cohort entry. Biomarkers were assessed in blood donated during follow-up (mean = 9.6 years). We used multivariate linear regression adjusted for potential confounders to estimate associations between intake of flavanones, flavonols, and isoflavones and levels of adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
M Al-Hinai, A Baylin, M M Tellez-Rojo, A Cantoral, A Ettinger, M Solano-González, K E Peterson, W Perng
This study investigates relations of maternal N-3 and N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake during pregnancy with offspring body mass index (BMI), height z-score and metabolic risk (fasting glucose, C-peptide, leptin, lipid profile) during peripuberty (8-14 years) among 236 mother-child pairs in Mexico. We used food frequency questionnaire data to quantify trimester-specific intake of N-3 alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); N-6 linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (AA); and N-6:N-3 (AA:EPA+DHA), which accounts for the fact that the two PUFA families have opposing effects on physiology...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Mehdi Farokhnia, Mikela B Sheskier, Mary R Lee, April N Le, Erick Singley, Sofia Bouhlal, Timmy Ton, Zhen Zhao, Lorenzo Leggio
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, plays an important role in biobehavioral processes that regulate alcohol seeking, food intake, and stress response. The metabotropic GABA-B receptor has been investigated as a potential therapeutic target for alcohol use disorder, by using orthosteric agonists (e.g., baclofen) and positive allosteric modulators. Whether and how pharmacological manipulation of the GABA-B receptor, in combination with alcohol intake, may affect feeding- and stress-related neuroendocrine pathways remains unknown...
April 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Yuko Maejima, Shoko Yokota, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Kenju Shimomura
<br>Oxytocin was discovered in 1906 as a peptide that promotes delivery and milk ejection; however, its additional physiological functions were determined 100 years later. Many recent articles have reported newly discovered effects of oxytocin on social communication, bonding, reward-related behavior, adipose tissue, and muscle and food intake regulation. Because oxytocin neurons project to various regions in the brain that contribute to both feeding reward (hedonic feeding) and the regulation of energy balance (homeostatic feeding), the mechanisms of oxytocin on food intake regulation are complicated and largely unknown...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Kelly A Higgins, Robert V Considine, Richard D Mattes
Background: Low-calorie sweeteners are often used to moderate energy intake and postprandial glycemia, but some evidence indicates that they may exacerbate these aims. Objective: The trial's primary aim was to assess the effect of daily aspartame ingestion for 12 wk on glycemia. Effects on appetite and body weight were secondary aims. Methods: One hundred lean [body mass index (kg/m2): 18-25] adults aged 18-60 y were randomly assigned to consume 0, 350, or 1050 mg aspartame/d (ASP groups) in a beverage for 12 wk in a parallel-arm design...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Sharon Rachel Ladyman, Zin Khant Aung, David Ross Grattan
During pregnancy and lactation, the maternal body undergoes many changes in the regulation of appetite, body weight and glucose homeostasis to deal with the metabolic demands of the growing fetus and subsequent demands of providing milk for offspring. The aim of the current study was to investigate the consequences of one reproductive cycle of pregnancy and lactation on the long-term regulation of energy homeostasis. After weaning of pups, reproductively experienced (RE) mice maintained a higher body weight compared to age-matched control mice...
April 11, 2018: Endocrinology
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anuracpreeda, Prasert Sobhon, Yotsawan Tinikul
In the present study, the presence and distribution of leptin receptor (LEP-R) in central nervous system, digestive organs, gonads of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were investigated with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. By Western blot a LEP-R with a molecular weight (MW) of 100 kDa was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, hepatopancreas, all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, ovaries, and testes. In hepatopancreas and foregut, another intense positive band was detected at molecular weight of 30 kDa, which could be an isotype of LEP-R...
April 11, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Fazal Wahab, Bibi Atika, Farhad Ullah, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data has established the hypothalamic kisspeptin (KP) and its receptor, KISS1R, as major players in the activation of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis at the time of puberty and maintenance of reproductive capacity in the adult. Due to its strategic location, this ligand-receptor pair acts as an integrator of cues from gonadal steroids as well as of circadian and seasonal variation-related information on the reproductive axis. Besides these cues, the activity of the hypothalamic KP signaling is very sensitive to the current metabolic status of the body...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Yuki Yasumoto, Hirofumi Miyazaki, Masaki Ogata, Yoshiteru Kagawa, Yui Yamamoto, Ariful Islam, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri, Yuji Owada
The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) and median eminence (ME) are the primary hypothalamic sites that sense leptin and nutrients in the blood, thereby mediating food intake. Recently, studies demonstrating a role for non-neuronal cell types, including astrocytes and tanycytes, in these regulatory processes have begun to emerge. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined in detail the localization of fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) in the hypothalamic ARC and sought to determine its role in the hypothalamus...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Nara Szostaczuk, Juana Sánchez, Jadwiga Konieczna, Andreu Palou, Catalina Picó
Introduction: Gestational under nutrition in rats has been shown to decrease expression of sympathetic innervation markers in peripheral tissues of offspring, including the stomach. This has been linked to lower gastric secretion and decreased circulating levels of ghrelin. Considering the critical role of leptin intake during lactation in preventing obesity and reversing adverse developmental programming effects, we aimed to find out whether leptin supplementation may reverse the above mentioned alterations caused by mild gestational calorie restriction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jiunn-Ming Sheen, Hong-Ren Yu, You-Lin Tain, Wan-Long Tsai, Mao-Meng Tiao, I-Chun Lin, Ching-Chou Tsai, Yu-Ju Lin, Li-Tung Huang
This study aimed to study the impact of a combination of maternal and post-weaning high-fat diets and whether resveratrol was beneficial. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed either chow or a high-fat diet, before mating, during pregnancy, and into lactation. At weaning, their offspring were randomly fed chow or a high-fat diet. Four experimental groups were generated: CC (maternal/postnatal chow diet), HC (maternal high-fat/postnatal chow diet), CH (maternal chow/postnatal high-fat diet), and HH (maternal/postnatal high-fat diet)...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gioacchini Giorgia, Ciani Elia, Pessina Andrea, Cecchini Cinzia, Silvi Stefania, Rodiles Ana, Merrifield L Daniel, Olivotto Ike, Carnevali Oliana
In the present study, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus was used as experimental model to study the molecular effects of a new probiotic preparation, Lactogen 13 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® encapsulated with vegetable fat matrices by spray chilling and further indicated as probiotic microgranules), on growth and appetite during larval development. Probiotic microgranules were administered for 30 days to tilapia larvae starting from first feeding. Molecular analysis using high-throughput sequencing revealed that the probiotic could populate the gastrointestinal tract and modulate the microbial communities by significantly increasing the proportion of Lactobacillus as well as reducing the proportion of potential pathogens such as members of the Family Microbacteriaceae, Legionellaceae, and Weeksellaceae...
April 4, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Haiming Ma, Guina Zhang, Chunrong Mou, Xiujuan Fu, Yadan Chen
Effect of peripheral cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) blockade by AM6545 in the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced hypometabolic and hypothalamic obesity was observed, and the impact on intraperitoneal adipose tissue and adipokines was investigated. The MSG mice is characterized by excessive abdominal obesity, and combined with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. 3-Week AM6545 treatment dose-dependently decreased the body weight, intraperitoneal fat mass, and rectified the accompanied dyslipidemia include elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, and lowered LDLc level...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jingbo Liu, Shanchuan Cao, Ming Liu, Liang Chen, Hongfu Zhang
The low birth weight (LBW) individual had greater risk of developing metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. The aim of this study was to test whether the LBW individual is more prone to glucose intolerance on a high nutrient dense (HND) diet, and to investigate the associated hypothalamic gene expressions using pigs as model. The intake of digestible energy intake, if calculated on a body weight basis, was greater in LBW pigs than that of normal birth weight (NBW) pigs. The LBW pigs fed the HND diet had greater digestible energy intake than those fed the NND diet at adulthood, which did not occur for NBW pigs...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Magdalena Chełchowska, Katarzyna Szamotulska, Grażyna Rowicka, Witold Klemarczyk, Małgorzata Strucińska, Joanna Gajewska
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) reflect bone status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Biochemical markers, which show global skeletal activity, were validated for the assessment of bone formation and resorption processes. Adipokines also play a significant role in the regulation of bone metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and adipokine levels in relation to vegetarian and omnivorous diets...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
F Coppedè, M Seghieri, A Stoccoro, E Santini, L Giannini, C Rossi, L Migliore, A Solini
PURPOSE: Epigenetic traits are influenced by clinical variables; interaction between DNA methylation (DNAmeth) and bariatric surgery-induced weight loss has been scarcely explored. We investigated whether DNAmeth of genes encoding for molecules/hormones regulating appetite, food intake or obesity could predict successful weight outcome following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Forty-five obese individuals with no known comorbidities were stratified accordingly to weight decrease one-year after RYGB (excess weight loss, EWL ≥ 50%: good responders, GR; EWL < 50%: worse responders, WR)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Wendy K Adams, Anna M D'souza, Jacob L Sussman, Sukhbir Kaur, Timothy J Kieffer, Catharine A Winstanley
Evidence suggests that impulse control deficits contribute to excessive food intake in some individuals with obesity. In addition to its known role in regulating appetite and glucose metabolism, the hormone leptin also directly modulates the activity of central dopamine systems. Although dopamine is involved in regulating impulsivity, the influence of leptin per se on this cognitive domain remains unclear. This study explored the performance of male leptin knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) rats in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time task (5CSRTT) of motor impulsivity and visuospatial attention...
March 27, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Miki Itai, Yuki Kuwano, Tatsuya Nishikawa, Kazuhito Rokutan, Nishida Kensei
Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is a chaperon inducer that protects various types of cell and tissue against stress. We examined whether GGA modulated energy intake and expenditure under stressful conditions. After mice were untreated or treated orally with GGA (0.16 g per kg body weight per day) for 10 days, they were subjected to 2-h restraint stress once or once a day for 5 consecutive days. GGA administration did not affect corticosterone response to the stress. Restraint stress rapidly decreased plasma leptin levels in control mice...
2018: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
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