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leptin and intake

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932990/the-intracellular-domain-of-the-leptin-receptor-prevents-mitochondrial-depolarization-and-mitophagy
#1
Wauman Joris, Tavernier Jan
Hypothalamic leptin receptor (LR) signaling regulates body weight by balancing food intake and energy expenditure. It is well established that the human LR undergoes ectodomain shedding, but little is known about the fate of the remaining cytosolic domain. This study demonstrates that regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) releases the LR intracellular domain (LR ICD), which translocates to the mitochondria where it binds to SOCS6. This LR ICD-SOCS6 interaction stabilizes both proteins on the mitochondrial outer membrane and requires a functional BC box in SOCS6 for mitochondrial association and a central motif in the LR ICD for SOCS6 binding...
June 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922430/long-term-administration-of-olanzapine-induces-adiposity-and-increases-hepatic-fatty-acid-desaturation-protein-in-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#2
Po-Hsun Hou, Geng-Ruei Chang, Chin-Pin Chen, Yen-Ling Lin, I-Shuan Chao, Ting-Ting Shen, Frank Chiahung Mao
Objectives: Weight gain and metabolic disturbances such as dyslipidemia, are frequent side effects of second-generation antipsychotics, including olanzapine. This study examined the metabolic effects of chronic olanzapine exposure. In addition, we investigated the hepatic fatty acid effects of olanzapine in female C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet. Materials and Methods: Female C57BL/6J mice orally received olanzapine or normal saline for 7 weeks. The effects of long-term olanzapine exposure on body weight changes, food efficiency, blood glucose, triglyceride (TG), insulin, and leptin levels were observed...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920783/food-intake-and-energy-expenditure-in-growing-cats-with-and-without-a-predisposition-to-overweight
#3
Vivien Ghielmetti, Brigitta Wichert, Simon Rüegg, Diana Frey, Annette Liesegang
Overweight and obesity are multifactorial diseases caused by an imbalance in energy metabolism. An underlying genetic predisposition is often a factor in these conditions. In the cat breeding family of the Institute of Animal Nutrition at the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, a segregating overweight phenotype with a genetic contribution was observed. From this breeding family, 26 kittens were followed from birth up to 8 months of age. During this time, food intake was measured using an automatic feeding station, and energy expenditure was investigated using indirect calorimetry at the ages of 4 and 6 months...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917063/sodium-intake-is-associated-with-endothelial-damage-biomarkers-and-metabolic-dysregulation
#4
Carmen Campino, Rene Baudrand, Carolina Valdivia, Cristian Carvajal, Andrea Vecchiola, Alejandra Tapia-Castillo, Alejandro Martínez-Aguayo, Hernán Garcia, Lorena García, Fidel Allende, Sandra Solari, Cristóbal Fuentes, Calos F Lagos, Maria Paulina Rojas, Doris Muñoz, Carlos Fardella
Background: Mounting evidence has associated high sodium intake with hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. We investigated whether high sodium intake modulates the parameters of endothelial damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Methods: We used a cross-sectional study design including 223 Chilean subjects (6.9-65.0 years old). We measured aldosterone, renin activity, cortisol, cortisone, adiponectin, leptin, hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, PAI-1, metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 activity and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
June 16, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915363/ghrelin-reductions-following-bariatric-surgery-were-associated-with-decreased-resting-state-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#5
Yi Zhang, Gang Ji, Guanya Li, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Qianqian Meng, Jizheng Zhao, Kai Yuan, Jixn Liu, Karen M von Deneen, Antao Chen, Guangbin Cui, Huaning Wang, Qingchuan Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Jie Tian, Peter Manza, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Yongzhan Nie, Gene-Jack Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity, and involves removal of the gastric fundus where ghrelin is mainly produced. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and regulates food intake through its effect on the hypothalamus and hippocampus (HIPP). While ghrelin's role on the hypothalamus has been explored, little is known about its role on HIPP. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in ghrelin levels would be associated with changes in HIPP activity...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914253/positive-correlation-of-galanin-with-insulin-resistance-and-triglyceride-levels-in-obese-children
#6
Sezer Acar, Ahu Paketçi, Tuncay Küme, Korcan Demir, Özlem Gürsoy Çalan, Ece Böber, Ayhan Abacı
Background/aim: Galanin is a neuropeptide that is shown to be involved in the regulation of food intake and glucose homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of serum galanin levels with anthropometric and metabolic parameters in obese and healthy children. Material and methods: The cross-sectional study consisted of 38 obese children (mean age: 11.9 ± 3.0 years) and 30 healthy children (mean age: 11.4 ± 2.0 years). Clinical and biochemical parameters [glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, galanin, and leptin levels] were assessed...
June 14, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908751/induction-of-uterine-hyperplasia-after-cafeteria-diet-exposure
#7
María Paula Gastiazoro, Marlise Guerrero Schimpf, Milena Durando, Gisela Paola Lazzarino, María Florencia Andreoli, Oliver Zierau, Enrique Hugo Luque, Jorge Guillermo Ramos, Jorgelina Varayoud
Our aim was to evaluate whether chronic administration of CAF affects the uterus and induces the morphological and molecular changes associated with endometrial hyperplasia. Female Wistar rats exposed to CAF from weaning for 20 weeks displayed increased energy intake, body weight and fat depots, but did not develop metabolic syndrome. The adult uteri showed an increase in glandular volume fraction and stromal area. The epithelial proliferation rate and protein expression of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were also increased...
June 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904569/the-rs2167270-polymorphism-of-leptin-gene-is-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis
#8
Saleem A Banihani, Rawan A Elmadhoun, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that arises because of complex environmental, immunological, and genetic interactions. Adipokines are bioactive mediators secreted from adipocytes of white adipose tissue and are known to have a role in body metabolism and regulation of immune responses. Leptin is a proinflammatory adipokine that functions mainly to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. Few studies have implicated adipokines in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. In this study, we investigated the association of three leptin gene polymorphisms: -2548G>A (rs7799039), -188 C/A (rs791620), and A19G (rs2167270), with the incidence of atopic dermatitis...
2018: Dermato-endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899429/dietary-intake-of-curcumin-improves-eif2-signaling-and-reduces-lipid-levels-in-the-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#9
Masuko Kobori, Yumiko Takahashi, Hiroaki Takeda, Masatomo Takahashi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Yukari Akimoto, Mutsumi Sakurai, Hideaki Oike, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Masanori Itoh, Takeshi Bamba, Toshiyuki Kimura
White adipose tissue (eWAT) plays a crucial role in preventing metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate WAT distribution and gene expression and lipidomic profiles in epididymal WAT (eWAT) in diet-induced obese mice, reflecting a Western-style diet of humans to elucidate the bioactive properties of the dietary antioxidant curcumin in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. For 16 weeks, we fed C57BL/6J mice with a control diet, a high-fat, high-sucrose and high-cholesterol Western diet or Western diet supplemented with 0...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897486/a-clear-difference-emerges-in-hormone-patterns-following-a-standard-midday-meal-in-young-women-who-regularly-eat-or-skip-breakfast
#10
Shavawn M Forester, Adrianne M Widaman, Sridevi Krishnan, Megan G Witbracht, William F Horn, Kevin D Laugero, Nancy L Keim
Background: Multiple hormones are involved in the regulation of food intake and glucose metabolism. Past intervention studies showed a benefit of eating breakfast on satiety, but this was possibly confounded by the disruption of habitual meal patterns. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare hormonal responses, including insulin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY3-36), and cholecystokinin (CCK), between habitual breakfast eaters (Br-Es) and habitual skippers (Br-Ss) to a standard midday meal...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896090/activation-of-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-neurons-promotes-physical-activity-and-decreases-food-intake-and-body-weight-in-zucker-fatty-rats
#11
Ni Zhang, Liang Yang, Lanting Guo, Sheng Bi
Previous reports have shown that running wheel activity or voluntary exercise prevents hyperphagia and obesity in various animal models of obesity, but such effects seem only minimal in obese animals lacking leptin or leptin receptors. The mechanisms underlying this ineffectiveness remain unclear. Here, we identified the action of neuronal activation in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in modulating physical activity, food intake and body weight using leptin receptor mutant obese Zucker ( Lepr(fa) , ZF) and Koletsky ( Lepr(fak) , SHROB) rats...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893663/associations-between-obesity-candidate-gene-polymorphisms-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-melanocortin-4-receptor-mc4r-leptin-lep-and-leptin-receptor-lepr-and-dietary-intake-in-pregnant-women
#12
Maisa C Martins, Janet Trujillo, Ana Amélia Freitas-Vilela, Dayana R Farias, Eliane L Rosado, Cláudio J Struchiner, Gilberto Kac
Genetic variants associated with dietary intake may be important as factors underlying the development of obesity. We investigated the associations between the obesity candidate genes (fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor) and total energy intake and percentage of energy from macronutrients and ultra-processed foods before and during pregnancy. A sample of 149 pregnant women was followed up in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A FFQ was administered at 5-13 and 30-36 weeks of gestation...
June 12, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886517/hypothalamic-integration-of-the-endocrine-signaling-related-to-food-intake
#13
Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Hypothalamic integration of gastrointestinal and adipose tissue-derived hormones serves as a key element of neuroendocrine control of food intake. Leptin, adiponectin, oleoylethanolamide, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin, to name a few, are in a constant "cross talk" with the feeding-related brain circuits that encompass hypothalamic populations synthesizing anorexigens (melanocortins, CART, oxytocin) and orexigens (Agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, orexins). While this integrated neuroendocrine circuit successfully ensures that enough energy is acquired, it does not seem to be equally efficient in preventing excessive energy intake, especially in the obesogenic environment in which highly caloric and palatable food is constantly available...
June 10, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883975/short-term-and-long-term-effects-of-bisphenol-a-bpa-exposure-during-breastfeeding-on-the-biochemical-and-endocrine-profiles-in-rats
#14
Ana P Santos-Silva, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Cintia R Pinheiro, Elaine Oliveira, Patricia Cristina Lisboa
Neonates can be exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) through placenta and milk, and BPA is associated with disorders such as precocious puberty and obesity. We evaluated the effects of BPA exposure during breastfeeding on the biochemical and endocrine profiles in young and adult rat progeny. From postnatal day (PND) 3 to 15 dams were divided into low-dose BPA treatment [50 μg/kg/day s.c. (BPA-LD)], high-dose BPA treatment [5 mg/kg/day s.c. (BPA-HD)], and Control (vehicle) groups. Milk was collected at PND15 and 21, which represents the end of exposure and 6 days after withdrawal, respectively...
June 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880531/deficient-ganglioside-synthesis-restores-responsiveness-to-leptin-and-melanocortin-signaling-in-obese-kkay-mice
#15
Kei-Ichiro Inamori, Hideki Ito, Yumi Tamura, Takahiro Nitta, Xiaohua Yang, Wataru Nihei, Fumi Shishido, Susumu Imazu, Sohei Tsukita, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri, Jin-Ichi Inokuchi
GM3, a precursor for synthesis of a- and b-series gangliosides, is elevated in adipocytes of obese model animals and in sera of obese human patients with type 2 diabetes and/or dyslipidemia. GM3 synthase (GM3S)-knockout C57BL/6 mice display enhanced insulin sensitivity and reduced development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. However, the pathophysiological roles of GM3 and related gangliosides in the central control of feeding and metabolism remain unclear. We found that a mouse model (KKAy GM3S KO) generated by knockout of GM3S gene in the yellow obese strain KKAy displayed significant amelioration of obese phenotype...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878268/the-protein-status-of-rats-affects-the-rewarding-value-of-meals-due-to-their-protein-content
#16
Catherine Chaumontet, Isidra Recio, Gilles Fromentin, Simon Benoit, Julien Piedcoq, Nicolas Darcel, Daniel Tomé
Background: Protein status is controlled by the brain, which modulates feeding behavior to prevent protein deficiency. Objective: This study tested in rats whether protein status modulates feeding behavior through brain reward pathways. Methods: Experiments were conducted in male Wistar rats (mean ± SD weight; 230 ± 16 g). In experiment 1, rats adapted for 2 wk to a low-protein (LP; 6% of energy) or a normal-protein (NP; 14% of energy) diet were offered a choice between 3 cups containing high-protein (HP; 50% of energy), NP, or LP feed; their intake was measured for 24 h...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877321/leptin-cardiovascular-diseases-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
REVIEW
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
Leptin, an adipokine that is implicated in the control of food intake via appetite suppression, may also stimulate oxidative stress, inflammation, thrombosis, arterial stiffness, angiogenesis and atherogenesis. These leptin-induced effects may predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. In the present review we discuss the evidence linking leptin levels with the presence, severity and/or prognosis of both coronary artery disease and non-cardiac vascular diseases such as stroke, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) as well as with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
June 7, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870919/influence-of-postweaning-feeding-management-of-beef-heifers-on-performance-and-physiological-profiles-through-rearing-and-first-lactation
#18
J A Rodríguez-Sánchez, A Sanz, J Ferrer, I Casasús
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 2 postweaning feeding management approaches (FEED: 0.8 [HIGH] vs 0.6 [MOD] kg/d target ADG) on the performance of heifers of 2 beef breeds (BREED: Parda de Montaña [PA] vs Pirenaica) calving at 2 yr. Twenty-five heifers previously creep fed before weaning (6 mo) were assigned to 2 planes of nutrition from 6 to 15 mo of age. At 15 mo, they were inseminated, and then received similar diets until weaning of their first calf (4 mo postcalving). Several parameters were measured to analyze growth and development (BW; ADG; size measures at 6 mo, 15 mo, calving, and weaning), performance at puberty and first breeding, and dam and calf performance in the first lactation (calving traits, ADG, milk yield)...
May 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867578/amp-activated-protein-kinase-mediates-the-effect-of-leptin-on-avian-autophagy-in-a-tissue-specific-manner
#19
Alissa Piekarski, Gurueswar Nagarajan, Peter Ishola, Joshua Flees, Elizabeth S Greene, Wayne J Kuenzel, Takeshi Ohkubo, Helena Maier, Walter G Bottje, Mark A Cline, Sami Dridi
Autophagy, a highly conserved intracellular self-digestion process, plays an integral role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Although emerging evidence indicate that the endocrine system regulates autophagy in mammals, there is still a scarcity of information on autophagy in avian (non-mammalian) species. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular administration of leptin reduces feed intake, modulates the expression of feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides, activates leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription (Ob-Rb/STAT) pathway, and significantly increases the expression of autophagy-related proteins (Atg3, Atg5, Atg7, beclin1, and LC3B) in chicken hypothalamus, liver, and muscle...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867515/npv-bsk805-an-antineoplastic-jak2-inhibitor-effective-in-myeloproliferative-disorders-causes-adiposity-in-mice-by-interfering-with-the-action-of-leptin
#20
Magalie Haissaguerre, Amandine Ferriere, Samantha Clark, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Antoine Tabarin, Daniela Cota
The pathophysiology of body weight gain that is observed in patients suffering from myeloproliferative neoplasms treated with inhibitors of the janus kinase (Jak) 1 and 2 pathway remains unknown. Here we hypothesized that this class of drugs interferes with the metabolic actions of leptin, as this hormone requires functional Jak2 signaling. To test this, C57BL/6J chow-fed mice received either chronic intraperitoneal (ip) or repeated intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of the selective Jak2 inhibitor NVP-BSK805, which was proven efficacious in treating polycythemia in rodents...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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