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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514644/the-importance-of-hormonal-circadian-rhythms-in-daily-feeding-patterns-an-illustration-with-simulated-pigs
#1
Iris J M M Boumans, Imke J M de Boer, Gert Jan Hofstede, Susanne E la Fleur, Eddie A M Bokkers
The interaction between hormonal circadian rhythms and feeding behaviour is not well understood. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying circadian feeding behaviour in animals, using pigs, Sus scrofa, as a case study. Pigs show an alternans feeding pattern, that is, a small peak of feed intake at the beginning of the day and a larger peak at the end of the day. We simulated the feeding behaviour of pigs over a 24h period. The simulation model contained mechanisms that regulate feeding behaviour of animals, including: processing of feed in the gastrointestinal tract, fluctuation in energy balance, circadian rhythms of melatonin and cortisol and motivational decision-making...
May 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513533/deleterious-metabolic-effects-of-high-fructose-intake-the-preventive-effect-of-lactobacillus-kefiri-administration
#2
María Guillermina Zubiría, Sabrina Eliana Gambaro, María Amanda Rey, Paula Carasi, María de Los Ángeles Serradell, Andrés Giovambattista
Modern lifestyle and diets have been associated with metabolic disorders and an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. Probiotics are widely known for their health beneficial properties targeting the gut microbial ecosystem. The aim of our study was to evaluate the preventive effect of Lactobacillus kefiri (L. kefiri) administration in a fructose-rich diet (FRD) mice model. Mice were provided with tap water or fructose-added (20% w/v) drinking water supplemented or not with L. kefiri. Results showed that probiotic administration prevented weight gain and epidydimal adipose tissue (EAT) expansion, with partial reversion of the adipocyte hypertrophy developed by FRD...
May 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501397/effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-and-acetate-on-milk-fat-synthesis-and-adipose-lipogenesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#3
N Urrutia, K J Harvatine
During biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression (MFD), nutrients are spared from milk fat synthesis and are available for other metabolic uses. Acetate is the major carbon source spared and it may increase lipid synthesis in adipose tissue during MFD. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the amount of acetate spared during CLA-induced MFD on adipose tissue lipogenesis. Nine multiparous, lactating, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (244 ± 107 d in milk; 25 ± 8...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482236/ablation-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-carotene-9-10-oxygenase-2-remodels-the-hypothalamic-metabolome-leading-to-metabolic-disorders-in-mice
#4
Xin Guo, Lei Wu, Yi Lyu, Winyoo Chowanadisai, Stephen L Clarke, Edralin A Lucas, Brenda J Smith, Hui He, Weiqun Wang, Denis M Medeiros, Dingbo Lin
β,β-Carotene-9',10'-oxygenase 2 (BCO2) is a protein localized to the inner membrane of mitochondria. It was initially discovered as an enzyme that catalyzes the asymmetric cleavage of carotenoids. Systemic depletion of BCO2 causes increased food intake and impaired hepatic lipid metabolism in mice. The aim of this current study was to determine the extent to which BCO2 exerts its role in hypothalamic nutrient metabolism and feeding behavior through remodeling the hypothalamic metabolome in mice. Male BCO2 knockout (KO) and the isogenic wild-type 129S6 (WT) mice at 6 weeks of age were used for metabolic and cytokine and hypothalamic metabolomics and biochemical analysis...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481261/attenuating-the-biologic-drive-for-weight-regain-following-weight-loss-must-what-goes-down-always-go-back-up
#5
REVIEW
Christopher L Melby, Hunter L Paris, Rebecca M Foright, James Peth
Metabolic adaptations occur with weight loss that result in increased hunger with discordant simultaneous reductions in energy requirements-producing the so-called energy gap in which more energy is desired than is required. The increased hunger is associated with elevation of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin and decrements in anorexigenic hormones. The lower total daily energy expenditure with diet-induced weight loss results from (1) a disproportionately greater decrease in circulating leptin and resting metabolic rate (RMR) than would be predicted based on the decline in body mass, (2) decreased thermic effect of food (TEF), and (3) increased energy efficiency at work intensities characteristic of activities of daily living...
May 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477305/long-term-obestatin-treatment-of-mice-type-2-diabetes-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-improves-liver-function
#6
Paweł A Kołodziejski, Ewa Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Mathias Z Strowski, Krzysztof W Nowak
PURPOSE: Obestatin and ghrelin are peptides encoded by the preproghrelin gene. Obestatin inhibits food intake, in addition to regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we test the ability of obestatin at improving metabolic control and liver function in type 2 diabetic animals (type 2 diabetes mellitus). METHODS: The effects of chronic obestatin treatment of mice with experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus on serum levels of glucose and lipids, and insulin sensitivity are characterized...
May 5, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465000/long-term-soft-drink-and-aspartame-intake-induces-hepatic-damage-via-dysregulation-of-adipocytokines-and-alteration-of-the-lipid-profile-and-antioxidant-status
#7
Mohamed A Lebda, Hossam G Tohamy, Yasser S El-Sayed
Dietary intake of fructose corn syrup in sweetened beverages is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines play a role in lipid storage and induction of liver injury. Therefore, this study intended to explore the expression of adipocytokines and its link to hepatic damage. Rats were assigned to drink water, cola soft drink (free access) and aspartame (240 mg/kg body weight/day orally) for 2 months. The lipid profiles, liver antioxidants and pathology, and mRNA expression of adipogenic cytokines were evaluated...
April 19, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462074/hypothalamic-growth-hormone-receptor-ghr-%C3%A2-controls-hepatic-glucose-production-in-nutrient-sensing-leptin-receptor-leprb-expressing-neurons
#8
Gillian Cady, Taylor Landeryou, Michael Garratt, John J Kopchick, Nathan Qi, David Garcia-Galiano, Carol F Elias, Martin G Myers, Richard A Miller, Darleen A Sandoval, Marianna Sadagurski
OBJECTIVE: The GH/IGF-1 axis has important roles in growth and metabolism. GH and GH receptor (GHR) are active in the central nervous system (CNS) and are crucial in regulating several aspects of metabolism. In the hypothalamus, there is a high abundance of GH-responsive cells, but the role of GH signaling in hypothalamic neurons is unknown. Previous work has demonstrated that the Ghr gene is highly expressed in LepRb neurons. Given that leptin is a key regulator of energy balance by acting on leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons, we tested the hypothesis that LepRb neurons represent an important site for GHR signaling to control body homeostasis...
May 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461825/effect-of-tuberculosis-treatment-on-leptin-levels-weight-gain-and-percentage-body-fat-in-indonesian-children
#9
Maria Mexitalia, Yesi Oktavia Dewi, Adriyan Pramono, Mohammad Syarofil Anam
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a problem in the community. TB patients usually experience malnutrition, which is characterized by both decreased body weight (BW) and body fat percentage (BFP). Leptin, an important regulator of BW, also plays an important role in cellular immunity, which is integral to defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We analyzed the effect of an anti-TB treatment regimen on the leptin level, BW, and BFP of children with TB. METHODS: The design of this study was a group interrupted time series...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453173/correlation-analysis-of-serum-obestatin-expression-with-insulin-resistance-in-childhood-obesity
#10
M Y Zhang, F Li, J P Wang
Childhood obesity is a serious public health concern condition, as excess body fat can negatively affect a child's health. Obestatin is a hormone that regulates body weight by suppressing appetite and reducing food intake; fasting obestatin level is negatively correlated with basal insulin level. This study aims to investigate the role of obestatin in insulin resistance. A total of 54 children with simple obesity and 57 healthy controls were recruited. Levels of serum insulin, fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were measured...
April 28, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450851/regulation-of-agouti-related-protein-and-pro-opiomelanocortin-gene-expression-in-the-avian-arcuate-nucleus
#11
REVIEW
Timothy Boswell, Ian C Dunn
The arcuate nucleus is generally conserved across vertebrate taxa in its neuroanatomy and neuropeptide expression. Gene expression of agouti-related protein (AGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been established in the arcuate nucleus of several bird species and co-localization demonstrated for AGRP and NPY. The proteins encoded by these genes exert comparable effects on food intake in birds after central administration to those seen in other vertebrates, with AGRP and NPY being orexigenic and CART and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone anorexigenic...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443702/turmeric-supplementation-improves-serum-glucose-indices-and-leptin-levels-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-diseases
#12
Roya Navekar, Maryam Rafraf, Aida Ghaffari, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Manouchehr Khoshbaten
OBJECTIVE: Insulin and leptin resistance are important risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is limited evidence regarding the effects of turmeric on NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of turmeric supplementation on glycemic status and serum leptin levels in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 46 patients with NAFLD (21males and 25 females) aged 20-60 years old and body mass index (BMI) between 24...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442484/low-dose-leptin-infusion-in-the-fourth-ventricle-of-rats-enhances-the-response-to-third-ventricle-leptin-injection
#13
Ruth B S Harris
We previously reported that low dose leptin infusions into the 3(rd) or 4(th) ventricle that do not effect energy balance when given independently cause rapid weight loss when given simultaneously. Therefore, we tested whether hindbrain leptin enhances the response to forebrain leptin, or whether forebrain leptin enhances the response to hindbrain leptin. Rats received 4(th) ventricle infusions of saline, 0.01, 0.1, 0.3 or 0.6 μg leptin/day for 13 days. On days 9 and 13 0.1 μg leptin was injected into the 3(rd) ventricle...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437574/dietary-lactalbumin-and-lactoferrin-interact-with-inulin-to-modulate-energy-balance-in-obese-rats
#14
Arashdeep Singh, Rizaldy C Zapata, Adel Pezeshki, Prasanth K Chelikani
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diets enriched with the whey protein components lactalbumin and lactoferrin interact additively with inulin to improve energy balance by decreasing food intake and body weight (BW). METHODS: In four experiments, diet-induced obese rats were randomized to diets containing either lactalbumin or lactoferrin at low (20% kcal) or high (40% kcal) doses, and inulin at low (7.5% w/w) or high (15% w/w) doses, alone or in combination. Energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), BW, body composition, plasma insulin, and leptin concentrations were measured...
April 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429187/curcumin-reverses-the-depressive-like-behavior-and-insulin-resistance-induced-by-chronic-mild-stress
#15
Ji-Duo Shen, Yu Wei, Yu-Jie Li, Jing-Yi Qiao, Yu-Cheng Li
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that patients with depression have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has been identified as the key mechanism linking depression and diabetes. The present study established a rat model of depression complicated by insulin resistance using a 12-week exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) and investigated the therapeutic effects of curcumin. Sucrose intake tests were used to evaluate depressive-like behaviors, and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (IPITT) were performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426873/high-fat-diet-induced-leptin-and-wnt-expression-rna-sequencing-and-pathway-analysis-of-mouse-colonic-tissue-and-tumors
#16
Harrison M Penrose, Sandra Heller, Chloe Cable, Hani Nakhoul, Melody Baddoo, Erik Flemington, Susan E Crawford, Suzana D Savkovic
Obesity, an immense epidemic affecting approximately half a billion adults, has doubled in prevalence in the last several decades. Epidemiological data support that obesity, due to intake of a high-fat, western diet, increases the risk of colon cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying this risk remain unclear. Here, utilizing next generation RNA sequencing, we aimed to determine the high-fat diet (HFD) mediated expression profile in mouse colon and the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium model of colon cancer...
March 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422530/physiological-changes-following-competition-in-male-and-female-physique-athletes-a-pilot-study
#17
Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch, Bill I Campbell, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate changes in body composition, metabolic rate, and hormones during post-competition recovery. Data were collected from natural physique athletes (7 male/8 female) within one week before (T1) competition, within one week after (T2), and 4-6 weeks after (T3) competition. Measures included body composition (fat mass [FM] and lean mass [LM] from ultrasongraphy), resting metabolic rate (RMR; indirect calorimetry), and salivary leptin, testosterone, cortisol, ghrelin, and insulin...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414073/metabolic-and-affective-consequences-of-fatherhood-in-male-california-mice
#18
Meng Zhao, Theodore Garland, Mark A Chappell, Jacob R Andrew, Wendy Saltzman
Physiological and affective condition can be modulated by the social environment and parental state in mammals. However, in species in which males assist with rearing offspring, the metabolic and affective effects of pair bonding and fatherhood on males have rarely been explored. In this study we tested the hypothesis that fathers, like mothers, experience energetic costs as well as behavioral and affective changes (e.g., depression, anxiety) associated with parenthood. We tested this hypothesis in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)...
April 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413180/role-of-hormone-sensitive-lipase-in-leptin-promoted-fat-loss-and-glucose-lowering
#19
Mikio Takanashi, Yoshino Taira, Sachiko Okazaki, Satoru Takase, Takeshi Kimura, Cheng Cheng Li, Peng Fei Xu, Akari Noda, Ichiro Sakata, Hidetoshi Kumagai, Yuichi Ikeda, Yoko Iizuka, Naoya Yahagi, Hitoshi Shimano, Jun-Ichi Osuga, Shun Ishibashi, Takashi Kadowaki, Hiroaki Okazaki
AIM: Myriad biological effects of leptin may lead to broad therapeutic applications for various metabolic diseases, including diabetes and its complications; however, in contrast to its anorexic effect, the molecular mechanisms underlying adipopenic and glucose-lowering effects of leptin have not been fully understood. Here we aim to clarify the role of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in leptin's action. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and HSL-deficient (HSLKO) mice were made hyperleptinemic by two commonly-used methods: adenovirus-mediated overexpression of leptin and continuous subcutaneous infusion of leptin by osmotic pumps...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412994/effects-of-high-fat-diet-on-somatic-growth-metabolic-parameters-and-function-of-peritoneal-macrophages-of-young-rats-submitted-to-a-maternal-low-protein-diet
#20
Maria Cláudia Alheiros-Lira, Gabriela Carvalho Jurema-Santos, Helyson Tomaz da-Silva, Amanda Cabral da-Silva, Sueli Moreno Senna, Wylla Tatiana Ferreira E Silva, José Candido Ferraz, Carol Góis Leandro
This study evaluated the effects of a post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on somatic growth, food consumption, metabolic parameters, phagocytic rate and nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages in young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet. Male Wistar rats (aged 60 d) were divided in two groups (n 22/each) according to their maternal diet during gestation and lactation: control (C, dams fed 17 % casein) and LP (dams fed 8 % casein). At weaning, half of the groups were fed HF diet and two more groups were formed (HF and low protein-high fat (LP-HF))...
April 17, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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