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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724055/bone-turnover-after-bariatric-surgery
#1
Thalita Lima Melo, Leila Froeder, Leandro da Cunha Baia, Ita Pfeferman Heilberg
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate parameters of bone and mineral metabolism after bariatric surgery. Subjects and methods: This sectional study included data from medical records from 61 bariatric surgery (BS) patients (minimum period of 6 months after the procedure) and from 30 class II and III obese patients as a control group (Cont), consisting of daily dietary intake of macronutrients, calcium and sodium, serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and other biochemical serum and urinary parameters...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723611/parent-reported-nutritional-risk-and-laboratory-indices-of-cardiometabolic-risk-and-in-preschool-aged-children
#2
Navindra Persaud, Hedyeh Ziai, Gerald Lebovic, Jonathon L Maguire, Marina Khovratovich, Janis A Randall Simpson, Khosrow Adeli, Jill Hamilton, Brian W McCrindle, Patricia C Parkin, Catherine S Birken
BACKGROUND: Eating habits formed during childhood may contribute to the increasing prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders. Assessing nutritional risk in young children may help to prevent later cardiometabolic disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether parent-reported nutritional risk in preschool-aged children was associated with laboratory indices of cardiometabolic risk, namely leptin and insulin. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the relationship between nutritional risk as determined by the parent-completed NutriSTEP® questionnaire was assessed and compared to the serum leptin and insulin concentrations, hormones involved in regulation of food intake and biomarkers of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719892/cinnamaldehyde-ameliorates-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-by-inducing-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue
#3
Jiacheng Zuo, Dandan Zhao, Na Yu, Xin Fang, Qianqian Mu, Yue Ma, Fangfang Mo, Rui Wu, Rufeng Ma, Lili Wang, Ruyuan Zhu, Haixia Liu, Dongwei Zhang, Sihua Gao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity has become a major health concern with few effective medications. Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has been reported to exhibit anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether CA shows anti-obesity activity remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential anti-obesity effects of CA on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice fed an HFD for 12 weeks were supplemented with CA (40 mg/kg/day) via gavage for an additional 8 weeks...
July 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715671/adipose-triglyceride-lipase-protein-abundance-and-translocation-to-the-lipid-droplet-increase-during-leptin-induced-lipolysis-in-bovine-adipocytes
#4
D A Koltes, M E Spurlock, D M Spurlock
Proper regulation of lipid metabolism is critical for preventing the development of metabolic diseases. It is clear that leptin plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by regulating energy intake. However, leptin can also regulate energy homeostasis by inducing lipolysis in adipocytes, but it is unclear how the major lipases are involved in leptin-stimulated lipolysis. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if (1) leptin acts directly to induce lipolysis in bovine adipocytes, (2) the potential lipases involved in leptin-induced lipolysis in bovine adipocytes, and (3) increases translocation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) during leptin-stimulated lipolysis in bovine stromal vascular cell-derived adipocytes...
June 8, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711599/arachidonic-acid-sex-dependently-affects-obesity-through-linking-gut-microbiota-driven-inflammation-to-hypothalamus-adipose-liver-axis
#5
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Yanhua Lu, Guangfa Wang, Jieni Qiu, Jun Wang, Lilin He, Jingnan Chen, Jingjing Jiao, Yu Zhang
Unraveling the role of dietary lipids is beneficial to treat obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, how dietary lipids affect existing obesity remains unknown. Arachidonic acid (AA), a derivative of linoleic acid, is one of the crucial n-6 fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AA affects obesity through associating microbiota-driven inflammation with hypothalamus-adipose-liver axis. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 10 weeks to induce obesity, and then fed a HFD enriched with 10 g/kg of AA or a continuous HFD in the following 15 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706476/long-term-sex-dependent-vulnerability-to-metabolic-challenges-in-prenatally-stressed-rats
#6
Pamela Panetta, Alessandra Berry, Veronica Bellisario, Sara Capoccia, Carla Raggi, Alessia Luoni, Linda Longo, Marco A Riva, Francesca Cirulli
Prenatal stress (PNS) might affect the developmental programming of adult chronic diseases such as metabolic and mood disorders. The molecular mechanisms underlying such regulations may rely upon long-term changes in stress-responsive effectors such as Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) that can affect neuronal plasticity underlying mood disorders and may also play a role in metabolic regulation. Based upon previous data, we hypothesized that PNS might lead to greater vulnerability to an obesogenic challenge experienced at adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694663/inhibition-of-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-gastric-tumorigenesis-by-liuwei-dihuang-pill-in-db-db-mice
#7
Shan Zhuang, Yong-Mei Jian, Yong-Ning Sun
AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of Liuwei Dihuang Pill (LDP) on gastric tumorigenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in diabetic mice. METHODS: Four-week-old mice were divided into four groups: A, 12 db/m mice treated with MNU and saline, as the non-diabetic control; B, 12 db/db mice treated with MNU and saline, as the diabetic control; C, 12 db/db mice treated with MNU and metformin, as the positive control; and D, 12 db/db mice treated with MNU and LDP...
June 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687371/body-weight-loss-effective-satiation-and-absence-of-homeostatic-neuropeptide-compensation-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-schedule-fed%C3%A2-a-protein-crosslinked-diet
#8
Nikki Cassie, Richard L Anderson, Dana Wilson, Anne Pawsey, Julian G Mercer, Perry Barrett
Food structure contributes to the induction of satiation and the maintenance of satiety following intake of a meal. There is evidence from human studies that protein-crosslinking of a milk-protein based meal may enhance satiety, but the mechanism underpinning this effect is unknown. We investigated whether a rat model would respond in a similar manner and might provide mechanistic insight into enhanced satiety by structural modification of a food source. Rats were schedule fed a modified AIN-93M based diet in a liquid form or protein-crosslinked to produce a soft-solid form...
July 5, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687198/neu-p11-a-novel-mt1-mt2-agonist-reverses-diabetes-by-suppressing-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-rats
#9
Jun Zhou, Jin Zhang, XiaoHong Luo, MaoXing Li, Ying Yue, Moshe Laudon, ZhengPing Jia, RuXue Zhang
Excessive glucocorticoid (GC) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) reduces insulin sensitivity, impairs β-cell function, increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, impairs glucose uptake and metabolism, and reduces the insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1. Melatonin, which serves as a physiological regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has been suggested to have anti-diabetic effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the MT1/MT2 melatonin agonist Neu-P11 on glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM rats induced by a high fat diet combined with low doses of streptozotocin...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686191/the-gene-lifestyle-interaction-on-leptin-sensitivity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-adults-a-population-based-study
#10
Harry Freitag Luglio, Dian Caturini Sulistyoningrum, Emy Huriyati, Yi Yi Lee, Wan Abdul Manan Wan Muda
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with leptin resistance and this might be caused by genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene-lifestyle interaction between -866G/A UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) gene polymorphism, dietary intake and leptin in a population based study. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study conducted in adults living at urban area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data of adiposity, lifestyle, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, leptin and UCP2 gene polymorphism were obtained in 380 men and female adults...
July 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685029/does-gastric-bypass-surgery-change-body-weight-set-point
#11
REVIEW
Z Hao, M B Mumphrey, C D Morrison, H Münzberg, J Ye, H R Berthoud
The relatively stable body weight during adulthood is attributed to a homeostatic regulatory mechanism residing in the brain which uses feedback from the body to control energy intake and expenditure. This mechanism guarantees that if perturbed up or down by design, body weight will return to pre-perturbation levels, defined as the defended level or set point. The fact that weight re-gain is common after dieting suggests that obese subjects defend a higher level of body weight. Thus, the set point for body weight is flexible and likely determined by the complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685025/gut-hormones-such-as-amylin-and-glp-1-in-the-control-of-eating-and-energy-expenditure
#12
REVIEW
T A Lutz
The control of meal size is the best studied aspect of the control of energy balance, and manipulation of this system constitutes a promising target to treat obesity. A major part of this control system is based on gastrointestinal hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or amylin, which are released in response to a meal and which limit the size of an ongoing meal. Both amylin and GLP-1 have also been shown to increase energy expenditure in experimental rodents, but mechanistically we know much less how this effect may be mediated, which brain sites may be involved, and what the physiological relevance of these findings may be...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680932/leptin-adiponectin-and-ghrelin-responses-to-endurance-exercise-in-different-ambient-conditions
#13
Terence L Laursen, Roksana B Zak, Robert J Shute, Matthew W S Heesch, Nicholas E Dinan, Matthew P Bubak, D Taylor La Salle, Dustin R Slivka
Excessive positive energy balance is a major factor leading to obesity. The ability to alter the appetite-regulating hormones leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin may help decrease excessive energy intake. Exercise and exposure to extreme temperatures can independently affect these appetite-regulating hormones. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of exercising in different environmental conditions on the circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin. METHODS: Eleven recreationally-trained male participants completed 3 separate 1 h cycling bouts at 60% Wmax in hot, cold, and room temperature conditions (33°C, 7°C, 20°C), followed by a 3 h recovery at room temperature...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678821/a-casein-hydrolysate-based-formulation-attenuates-obesity-and-associated-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-atherosclerosis-in-ldlr-leiden-mice
#14
Marieke H Schoemaker, Robert Kleemann, Martine C Morrison, Joanne Verheij, Kanita Salic, Eric A F van Tol, Teake Kooistra, Peter Y Wielinga
BACKGROUND: Obesity frequently associates with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) seems to be an important driver of these manifestations. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated a combination of an extensively hydrolyzed casein (eHC), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (ARA), and Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG (LGG) (together referred to as nutritional ingredients, NI) on the development of obesity, metabolic risk factors, WAT inflammation, NAFLD and atherosclerosis in high-fat diet-fed LDLr-/-...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675783/insulin-and-leptin-excite-anorexigenic-proopiomelanocortin-neurons-via-activation-of-trpc5-channels
#15
REVIEW
Jian Qiu, Edward J Wagner, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are vital anorexigenic neurons. Both the insulin receptor and leptin receptor are coupled to activation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) to regulate multiple functions that increase POMC neuronal excitability. Using whole-cell recording in several mammalian species, we have found that both insulin and leptin depolarized POMC neurons via activation of TRPC5 channels. TRPC5 channels have been rigorously characterized as the downstream effector based on their biophysical properties, pharmacological profile and localization by immunocytochemistry and scRT-PCR...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674441/a-high-salt-diet-inhibits-obesity-and-delays-puberty-in-the-female-rat
#16
D Pitynski-Miller, M Ross, M Schmill, R Schambow, T Fuller, F W Flynn, D C Skinner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Processed foods are considered major contributors to the worldwide obesity epidemic. In addition to high sugar and fat contents, processed foods contain large amounts of salt. Due to correlations with rising adiposity, salt has recently been proposed to be obesogenic. This study investigated three hypotheses: i) high salt contributes to weight gain and adiposity in juvenile female rats, ii) puberty onset would be altered because salt is known to affect neuronal systems involved in activating the reproductive system, and iii) enhanced adiposity will act synergistically with salt to drive early puberty onset...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673934/activation-of-sf1-neurons-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-by-dreadd-technology-increases-insulin-sensitivity-in-peripheral-tissues
#17
Eulalia A Coutinho, Shiki Okamoto, Ayako Wendy Ishikawa, Shigefumi Yokota, Nobuhiro Wada, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Kumiko Saito, Tatsuya Sato, Kazuyo Takagi, Chen-Chi Wang, Kenta Kobayashi, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Seiji Shioda, Yumiko Yoshimura, Yasuhiko Minokoshi
The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) regulates glucose and energy metabolism in mammals. Optogenetic stimulation of VMH neurons that express steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) induces hyperglycemia. However, leptin acting via the VMH stimulates whole-body glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in some peripheral tissues, whereas this effect of leptin appears to be mediated by SF1 neurons. We examined the effects of activation of SF1 neurons with DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technology...
July 3, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669754/the-impact-of-gut-hormones-on-the-neural-circuit-of-appetite-and-satiety-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Davide Zanchi, Antoinette Depoorter, Laura Egloff, Sven Haller, Laura Mählmann, Undine E Lang, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, André Schmidt, Stefan Borgwardt
The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety. Of the 349 studies published before July 2016 identified in the database search, 40 were included (27 on healthy and 13 on obese subjects)...
June 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654917/hypertriglyceridemia-in-female-rats-during-pregnancy-induces-obesity-in-male-offspring-via-altering-hypothalamic-leptin-signaling
#19
Tanzil Ur Rahman, Kamran Ullah, Zhang-Hong Ke, Meng-Xi Guo, Lu-Yang Jin, Jun Ren, Yu-Zhong Zhou, Yi Cheng, Xin-Yan Dong, Hai-Yan Pang, Ting-Ting Wang, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
Maternal obesity influence the child's long-term development and health. Though, the mechanism concerned in this process is still uncertain. In the present study, we explored whether overfeeding of a high-fat diet during pregnancy in female rats altered metabolic phenotypes in an F1 generation and authenticated the contribution of hypothalamic leptin signaling. Leptin responsiveness and the number of immunopositive neurons for phosphorylated signal transducer and activator transcription 3 (pSTAT3) were analyzed...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653356/arcuate-nucleus-homeostatic-systems-reflect-blood-leptin-concentration-but-not-feeding-behaviour-during-scheduled-feeding-on-a-high-fat-diet-in-mice
#20
T Bake, J Baron, J S Duncan, D G A Morgan, J G Mercer
Hypothalamic homeostatic and forebrain reward-related genes were examined in the context of scheduled meal feeding without caloric restriction in C57BL/6 mice. Mice fed ad libitum but allowed access to a palatable high fat diet for 2 h a day rapidly adapted their feeding behaviour and consumed approximately 80% of their daily caloric intake during this 2 h scheduled feed. Gene expression levels were examined during either the first or second hour of scheduled feeding vs. 24 h ad libitum feeding on the same high fat diet...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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