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insulin and intake

Christina Pedersen, Trine Porsgaard, Maria Thomsen, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Nikolaj Kulahin Roed
Insulin is a vital part of diabetes treatment, whereas glucagon is primarily used to treat insulin-induced hypoglycemia. However, glucagon is suggested to have a central role in the regulation of body weight, which would be beneficial for diabetic patients. Since the glucagon effect on blood glucose is known to be transient, it is relevant to investigate the pharmacodynamics of glucagon after repeated dosing. In the present study, we used telemetry to continuously measure blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats...
2018: PloS One
Teresa Małecka-Massalska, Aleksandra Majdan
Chronic inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to metabolic changes has an effect on body composition. Up to two thirds of patients may be affected by the loss of body cell mass and, thereby, malnutrition including its most severe form - cachexia. Among patients with RA and malnutrition, the total body weight is not reduced and the muscle loss is partially compensated by an increase in body fat. The excess of visceral and trunk adipose tissue is the main factor of increased prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in RA patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Francesca Pistollato, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Silvia Aparicio, Jorge Crespo, Luis Dzul Lopez, Piera Pia Manna, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Ample epidemiological evidence suggests a strong correlation among diet, lifestyle factors and the onset and consolidation of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been demonstrated that AD, diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease are strongly interconnected pathologies. Preventive strategies and nutritional interventions seem to be promising approaches to delay neurocognitive decline and reduce the risk of AD and other non-psychiatric co-morbidities. In this regard, healthy dietary patterns, characterized by high intake of plant-based foods, probiotics, antioxidants, soy beans, nuts, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a low intake of saturated fats, animal-derived proteins, and refined sugars, have been shown to decrease the risk of neurocognitive impairments and eventually the onset of AD...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Nobuhisa Morimoto, Chikako Kasuga, Airi Tanaka, Keiko Kamachi, Masumi Ai, Kevin Y Urayama, Akira Tanaka
An easily understandable index that measures the quality of carbohydrate may aid people in adopting dietary habits that improve their glucose tolerance. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between a ratio of dietary fibre to carbohydrate intakes (fibre:carbohydrate ratio (F:C-R)) and glucose tolerance cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Subjects were 190 Japanese men and women without type 2 diabetes (mean age 55·4 years) who participated in a 5-month diet and exercise programme. We compared baseline anthropometric, dietary and metabolic profiles between those with higher F:C-R and those with lower ratios...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Chunmei Xu, Junyu Zhao, Xiaojun Zhou, Rui Zhang, Tianyue Xie, Zhiwei Zou, Lin Liao, Jianjun Dong
Background: Liver enzyme abnormalities are common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Currently, the inverse relationship between elevated liver enzymes and antidiabetics intake may be explained by rigorous treatment and good control. However, few studies have directly explored the influence of antidiabetics on abnormal liver function, especially the comparison between two insulin sensitizers-thiazolidinediones and metformin. Materials And Methods: Databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP were searched...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
E A Horst, S K Kvidera, E J Mayorga, C S Shouse, M Al-Qaisi, M J Dickson, J Ydstie, H A Ramirez Ramirez, A F Keating, D J Dickson, K E Griswold, L H Baumgard
Activated immune cells are insulin sensitive and utilize copious amounts of glucose. Because chromium (Cr) increases insulin sensitivity and may be immunomodulatory, our objective was to evaluate the effect of supplemental Cr (KemTrace Cr propionate, 20 g/d; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) on immune system glucose utilization and immune system dynamics following an intravenous endotoxin challenge in lactating Holstein cows. Twenty cows (320 ± 18 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) pair-fed (PF) control (PF-CON; 5 mL of saline; n = 5), (2) PF and Cr supplemented (PF-Cr; 5 mL of saline; n = 5), (3) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-euglycemic clamp and control supplemented (LPS-CON; 0...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Sherly X Li, Fumiaki Imamura, Matthias B Schulze, Jusheng Zheng, Zheng Ye, Antonio Agudo, Eva Ardanaz, Dagfinn Aune, Heiner Boeing, Miren Dorronsoro, Courtney Dow, Guy Fagherazzi, Sara Grioni, Marc J Gunter, José María Huerta, Daniel B Ibsen, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Kay-Tee Khaw, Cecilie Kyrø, Francesca Romana Mancini, Elena Molina-Portillo, Neil Murphy, Peter M Nilsson, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Alaitz Poveda, J Ramón Quirós, Fulvio Ricceri, Ivonne Sluijs, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino, Anna Winkvist, Claudia Langenberg, Stephen J Sharp, Elio Riboli, Robert A Scott, Nita G Forouhi, Nicholas J Wareham
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gene-macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident type 2 diabetes cases)...
March 17, 2018: Diabetologia
Helen J Dranse, T M Zaved Waise, Sophie C Hamr, Paige V Bauer, Mona A Abraham, Brittany A Rasmussen, Tony K T Lam
High protein feeding improves glucose homeostasis in rodents and humans with diabetes, but the mechanisms that underlie this improvement remain elusive. Here we show that acute administration of casein hydrolysate directly into the upper small intestine increases glucose tolerance and inhibits glucose production in rats, independently of changes in plasma amino acids, insulin levels, and food intake. Inhibition of upper small intestinal peptide transporter 1 (PepT1), the primary oligopeptide transporter in the small intestine, reverses the preabsorptive ability of upper small intestinal casein infusion to increase glucose tolerance and suppress glucose production...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Heather R Gilbertson, Kristen Reed, Sarah Clark, Kate L Francis, Fergus J Cameron
To understand what children with type 1 diabetes in a representative tertiary hospital clinic are eating compared to their peers and explore dietary intake impact on HbA1c outcome. An open cross-sectional dietary audit of children and adolescents with diabetes aged 2-17 years attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne was conducted using an age-appropriate validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Total energy, macronutrient intake and diet quality were calculated and compared to dietary advice provided and national intake data...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Martin O Weickert, John G Hattersley, Ioannis Kyrou, Ayman M Arafat, Natalia Rudovich, Michael Roden, Peter Nowotny, Christian von Loeffelholz, Silke Matysik, Gerd Schmitz, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
Bile acids (BA) are potent metabolic regulators influenced by diet. We studied effects of isoenergetic increases in the dietary protein and cereal-fiber contents on circulating BA and insulin resistance (IR) in overweight and obese adults. Randomized controlled nutritional intervention (18 weeks) in 72 non-diabetic participants (overweight/obese: 29/43) with at least one further metabolic risk factor. Participants were group-matched and allocated to four isoenergetic supplemented diets: control; high cereal fiber (HCF); high-protein (HP); or moderately increased cereal fiber and protein (MIX)...
March 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Satoshi Murao, Yasunori Takata, Mitsugi Yasuda, Haruhiko Osawa, Fumikazu Kohi
Background: Considering sex differences, salt sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR), the effect of sodium restriction and increased potassium intake on blood pressure remains unclear in normotensive Asian individuals, compared to that in hypertensive patients. Methods: To assess the influence of sodium and potassium intake in normotensive individuals, we evaluated the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion rate in 3,392 drug-naïve normotensive Japanese individuals (average age: 48...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Galia Spectre, Fariborz Mobarrez, Ragnhild Stålesen, Claes-Göran Östenson, David Varon, Håkan Wallen, Paul Hjemdahl
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with prothrombotic alterations, and postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular complications. We therefore investigated whether a standardized mixed meal alters circulating microparticles (MPs) and their procoagulant activity in DM patients. Patients with DM type 1 (T1DM, n = 11) and type 2 (T2DM; n = 9) were studied before and 90 min after a standardized meal (without premeal insulin). MPs in plasma derived from platelets (PMPs), endothelial cells (EMPs), or monocytes (MMPs) were measured by flow cytometry...
March 16, 2018: Platelets
Lianbin Xu, Xueyan Lin, Robin R White, Mark D Hanigan, Zhiyong Hu, Qiuling Hou, Yun Wang, Zhonghua Wang
Background: Circulating amino acid (AA) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and hepatic gluconeogenesis are affected by previous protein intake. However, information about their relations and islet hormone responses is limited. Objective: This study investigated the associations between islet hormone concentrations with circulating AA and NO concentrations as well as with hepatic gluconeogenesis in lactating rats. Methods: At delivery, 18 Wistar rats aged 14 wk were assigned either to low-protein (LP; 9% protein), standard-protein (SP; 21% protein), or high-protein (HP; 35% protein) diets for 15 d in groups of 6 pups/dam...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Laurits J Holm, Martin Haupt-Jorgensen, Jesper Larsen, Jano D Giacobini, Mesut Bilgin, Karsten Buschard
Sphingolipids are a diverse group of lipids with important roles in beta-cell biology regulating insulin folding and controlling apoptosis. Sphingolipid biosynthesis begins with the condensation of L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA. Here we tested the effect of L-serine supplementation on autoimmune diabetes development and blood glucose homeostasis in female NOD mice. We found that continuous supplementation of L-serine reduces diabetes incidence and insulitis score. In addition, L-serine treated mice had an improved glucose tolerance test, reduced HOMA-IR, and reduced blood glucose levels...
2018: PloS One
So Yoon Han, Nan Hee Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seon Mee Kim
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity has significantly increased in Korea. This study aimed to use data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to investigate the association between sodium (Na) intake and insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS: The study population consisted of 578 adolescents aged 12-18 years who were enrolled in the 2010 KNHANES. Subjects were classified into the following four groups based on their body mass index (BMI) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values: normal BMI and HOMA-IR (Group 1), normal BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 2), ≥85% BMI and normal HOMA-IR (Group 3) and ≥85% BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 4)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Omar Ramos-Lopez, Mirian Samblas, Fermin I Milagro, M Angeles Zulet, Maria L Mansego, Jose I Riezu-Boj, J Alfredo Martinez
Folate deficiency has been putatively implicated in the onset of diverse metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, by altering epigenetic processes on key regulatory genes. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) is involved in the regulation of critical metabolic processes such as adiposity and glucose homeostasis. This study hypothesized associations between low folate intakes and lower methylation levels of the CAMKK2 gene, with the presence of metabolic alterations in subjects with obesity...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Isadora C Furigo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Thais T Zampieri, Frederick Wasinski, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Jose Donato
Several metabolic adaptations emerge during pregnancy and continue through lactation, including increases in food intake and body weight, as well as insulin and leptin resistance. These maternal adaptations are thought to play a role in offspring viability and success. Using a model of attenuated maternal metabolic adaptations induced by ablation of the Socs3 gene in leptin receptor expressing cells (SOCS3 KO mice), our study aimed to investigate whether maternal metabolic changes are required for normal offspring development, and if their absence causes metabolic imbalances in adulthood...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Diane L McKay, Misha Eliasziw, C Y Oliver Chen, Jeffrey B Blumberg
Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans ( Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch). We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity...
March 11, 2018: Nutrients
Tandra R Chakraborty, Victoria Gomez, Debasis Adhikari, Sanjoy Chakraborty
OBJECTIVE: To determine the hormonal changes that occur as a result of the long-term intake of a very-high-fat diet (VHFD) that leads to simultaneous changes in the islets of Langerhans and adipocyte cell size. METHODS: Male mice were fed with a normal chow diet (ND, n = 15) and a VHFD (n = 30) for 2, 12, and 24 weeks. Body weight, food intake, caloric intake (fat [saturated and unsaturated], protein, and carbohydrate), hormone levels (leptin and insulin), and islet of Langerhans/adipocyte size were quantitatively recorded...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Yasutake Tanaka, Kiyomi Takahashi, Jun-Ichi Kato, Ai Sawazaki, Taiki Akasaka, Naoko Fujita, Toshihide Kumamaru, Yuhi Saito, Bungo Shirouchi, Masao Sato
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease spreading worldwide that has been reported to worsen the development and progression of other diseases (cancer, vascular diseases and dementia). To establish functional rice lines with anti-postprandial hyperglycaemic effects, we developed mutant rice lines, which lack one or two gene(s) related to starch synthesis, and evaluated their effects. Powder of mutant rice lines or other grains was loaded to rats fasted overnight (oral grain powder loading test). Incremental area under time-concentration curves (iAUC) were calculated with monitored blood glucose levels...
March 13, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
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