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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092746/supranutritional-selenium-intake-from-enriched-milk-casein-impairs-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-via-attenuated-irs-pi3k-akt-signaling-and-decreased-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Priska Stahel, Julie J Kim, Scott R L Cieslar, Jenny M Warrington, Changting Xiao, John P Cant
Selenium (Se)-enriched milk provides antioxidant benefits and has therapeutic potential against cancer. However, both antidiabetic and prodiabetic effects have been attributed to Se. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Se-enriched milk casein on insulin sensitivity in rats when given at the requirement of 0.25 ppm Se and supranutritionally on both low- and high-fat diets. Two hundred sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low- or high-fat diets containing one, two or eight times the Se requirement in a randomized block design...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090638/late-gestational-intermittent-hypoxia-induces-metabolic-and-epigenetic-changes-in-male-adult-offspring-mice
#2
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Rene Cortese, Zhuanhong Qiao, Honggang Ye, Riyue Bao, Jorge Andrade, David Gozal
Pregnancy, particularly late gestation, has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis, and metabolic function in offspring. We hypothesized that IH during late pregnancy (LG-IH) may increase the propensity for metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adult offspring via epigenetic modifications. Time-pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LG-IH or room air (LG-RA) during days 13-18 of gestation...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089395/royal-jelly-ameliorates-diet-induced-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance-by-promoting-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-in-mice
#3
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Ryuji Kaede, Kazuki Nagaya, Julia Aoyama, Mana Saito, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Kazuhiro Kimura, Akira Terao
INTRODUCTION: Identification of thermogenic food ingredients is potentially a useful strategy for the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders. It has been reported that royal jelly (RJ) supplementation improves insulin sensitivity; however, its impacts on energy expenditure and adiposity remain elusive. We investigated anti-obesity effects of RJ supplementation and their relation to physical activity levels and thermogenic capacities of brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
January 11, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088423/effects-of-rumen-protected-capsicum-oleoresin-on-productivity-and-responses-to-a-glucose-tolerance-test-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#4
J Oh, M Harper, F Giallongo, D M Bravo, E H Wall, A N Hristov
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg RPC/cow per day...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077863/what-have-human-experimental-overfeeding-studies-taught-us-about-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-susceptibility-to-obesity-and-metabolic-complications
#5
REVIEW
D J Cuthbertson, T Steele, J P Wilding, J C G Halford, J A Harrold, M Hamer, F Karpe
Overfeeding experiments, in which we impose short-term positive energy balance, help unravel the cellular, physiological and behavioural adaptations to nutrient excess. These studies mimic longer-term mismatched energy expenditure and intake. There is considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in the magnitude of weight gain when exposed to similar relative caloric excess reflecting variable activation of compensatory adaptive mechanisms. Significantly, given similar relative weight gain, individuals may be protected from/predisposed to metabolic complications (insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074978/-effect-of-meal-frequency-and-carbohydrate-intake-on-the-metabolic-control-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Tamara Leiva, Karen Basfi-Fer, Pamela Rojas, Fernando Carrasco, Manuel Ruz O
BACKGROUND: Increasing meal frequency is commonly used in the clinical practice as part of the nutritional treatment of patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2), although its effect on metabolic control parameters is controversial. AIM: To evaluate the association of energy intake, meal frequency, and amount of carbohydrates with fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in a group of patients with DM2 without insulin therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dietary intake was evaluated in 60 subjects with DM2 through three-day food records...
October 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073831/deletion-of-protein-kinase-c-lambda-in-pomc-neurons-predisposes-to-diet-induced-obesity
#7
Mauricio D Dorfman, Jordan E Krull, Jarrad M Scarlett, Stephan J Guyenet, Mini P Sajan, Vincent Damian, Hong T Nguyen, Michael Leitges, Gregory J Morton, Robert V Farese, Michael W Schwartz, Joshua P Thaler
Effectors of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway contribute to the hypothalamic regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis in divergent ways. Here we show that CNS action of the PI3K signaling intermediate atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) constrains food intake, weight gain, and glucose intolerance in both rats and mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of CNS aPKC activity acutely increases food intake and worsens glucose tolerance in chow-fed rodents and causes excess weight gain during high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
January 10, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070639/effects-of-a-diet-rich-in-arabinoxylan-and-resistant-starch-compared-with-a-diet-rich-in-refined-carbohydrates-on-postprandial-metabolism-and-features-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#8
Anne Grethe Schioldan, Søren Gregersen, Stine Hald, Ann Bjørnshave, Mette Bohl, Bolette Hartmann, Jens Juul Holst, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Kjeld Hermansen
PURPOSE: Low intake of dietary fibre is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Dyslipidaemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Knowledge of the impact of dietary fibres on postprandial lipaemia is, however, sparse. This study aimed in subjects with metabolic syndrome to assess the impact on postprandial lipaemia and features of the metabolic syndrome of a healthy carbohydrate diet (HCD) rich in cereal fibre, arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared to a refined-carbohydrate western-style diet (WSD)...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069076/effects-of-whole-grain-rye-porridge-with-added-inulin-and-wheat-gluten-on-appetite-gut-fermentation-and-postprandial-glucose-metabolism-a-randomised-cross-over-breakfast-study
#9
Isabella Lee, Lin Shi, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström, Ulf Risérus, Rikard Landberg
Whole-grain rye foods reduce appetite, insulin and sometimes glucose responses. Increased gut fermentation and plant protein may mediate the effect. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the appetite-suppressing effects of whole-grain rye porridge could be enhanced by replacing part of the rye with fermented dietary fibre and plant protein, and to explore the role of gut fermentation on appetite and metabolic responses over 8 h. We conducted a randomised, cross-over study using two rye porridges (40 and 55 g), three 40-g rye porridges with addition of inulin:gluten (9:3; 6:6; 3:9 g) and a refined wheat bread control (55 g), served as part of complete breakfasts...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067391/gene-expression-modulation-of-lipid-and-central-energetic-metabolism-related-genes-by-high-fat-diet-intake-in-the-main-homeostatic-tissues
#10
REVIEW
Bàrbara Reynés, Mariona Palou, Andreu Palou
It is generally assumed that high-fat (HF) diets induce characteristic gene expression regulation, which may cause metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and other health alterations. However, an integrative analysis of the effects in different tissues is lacking, thus preventing new strategies to prevent or counteract permanent consequences. This review particularly focuses on lipid metabolism gene expression modulation in key homeostatic tissues in response to HF diet intake...
January 9, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067302/effects-of-alcohol-abstinence-on-glucose-metabolism-in-japanese-men-with-elevated-fasting-glucose-a-pilot-study
#11
Takashi Funayama, Yoshifumi Tamura, Kageumi Takeno, Minako Kawaguchi, Saori Kakehi, Takahiro Watanabe, Yasuhiko Furukawa, Hideyoshi Kaga, Risako Yamamoto, Akio Kanazawa, Yoshio Fujitani, Ryuzo Kawamori, Hirotaka Watada
It has been demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption provides protection against the development of type 2 diabetes. However, several other reports suggested that moderate alcohol intake may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in non-obese Japanese. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of 1-week alcohol abstinence on hepatic insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in non-obese Japanese men. We recruited 8 non-obese Japanese men with mildly elevated FPG and drinking habits alcohol (mean frequency; 5...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065479/interaction-between-a-variant-of-cdkn2a-b-gene-with-lifestyle-factors-in-determining-dyslipidemia-and-estimated-cardiovascular-risk-a-step-toward-personalized-nutrition
#12
Mehrane Mehramiz, Faeze Ghasemi, Habibollah Esmaily, Maryam Tayefi, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Mahsa Sadeghzade, Fatemeh Sadabadi, Mohsen Moohebati, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Seyed Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Alireza Heidari-Bakavoli, Mohammad Safarian, Mohsen Nematy, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Mikhail Ryzhikov, Gordon A Ferns, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Amir Avan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several genome-wide-association-studies have identified genetic variants in a region on chromosome 9p21 that are associated with an increased risk of Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Here we have explored the interaction of a genetic variant of the CDKN2A/B-rs10811661 gene locus with cardiovascular risk factors and environmental-exposures (e.g., diet and physical activity) in 1165 individuals recruited from the Mashhad-Stroke and Heart-Atherosclerotic-Disorders cohort...
December 28, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062505/cross-sectional-positive-association-of-serum-lipids-and-blood-pressure-with-serum-sodium-within-the-normal-reference-range-of-135-145-mmol-l
#13
Shouguo Gao, Xiangqin Cui, Xujing Wang, Maurice B Burg, Natalia I Dmitrieva
OBJECTIVE: Serum sodium concentration is maintained by osmoregulation within normal range of 135 to 145 mmol/L. Previous analysis of data from the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) showed association of serum sodium with the 10-year risk scores of coronary heart disease and stroke. Current study evaluated the association of within-normal-range serum sodium with cardiovascular risk factors. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Only participants who did not take cholesterol or blood pressure medications and had sodium within normal 135 to 145 mmol/L range were included (n=8615), and the cohort was stratified based on race, sex, and smoking status...
December 29, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062181/epicatechin-downregulates-adipose-tissue-ccl19-expression-and-thereby-ameliorates-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#14
T Sano, S Nagayasu, S Suzuki, M Iwashita, A Yamashita, T Shinjo, T Sanui, A Kushiyama, T Kanematsu, T Asano, F Nishimura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epicatechin (EC) intake has been suggested to be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular disorders, and it is well known that adipose tissue inflammation is one of the major risk factors for coronary heart diseases. The purpose of the present study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo effects of EC on adipose tissue inflammation and obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of EC on gene expression in adipocytes co-cultured with bacterial endotoxin-stimulated macrophages...
November 23, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060898/proportional-insulin-infusion-in-closed-loop-control-of-blood-glucose
#15
Johan Grasman, Hannah L Callender, Marco Mensink
A differential equation model is formulated that describes the dynamics of glucose concentration in blood circulation. The model accounts for the intake of food, expenditure of calories and the control of glucose levels by insulin and glucagon. These and other hormones affect the blood glucose level in various ways. In this study only main effects are taken into consideration. Moreover, by making a quasi-steady state approximation the model is reduced to a single nonlinear differential equation of which parameters are fit to data from healthy subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060600/influence-of-energy-balance-and-glycemic-index-on-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-healthy-men
#16
Nicolle Breusing, Merit Lagerpusch, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Bergheim, Manfred J Mueller, Anja Bosy-Westphal
OBJECTIVE: Overfeeding with a high-fat and/or high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet is known to increase plasma concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) that may lead to metabolic disturbances like insulin resistance. The impact of CHO quality (i.e., the glycemic index [GI]) independent of fat intake on metabolic endotoxemia remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of changes in energy balance and GI on plasma endotoxin were studied. METHODS: Fifteen healthy young men overconsumed diets containing 65% CHO and 20% fat for 1 week (OF; +50% of energy requirement) followed by 3 weeks of caloric restriction (CR; -50% of energy requirement) and were then randomized to 2 weeks hypercaloric refeeding (RF, +50% of energy requirement) with either a low- or high-GI (40 vs 74) diet...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058800/basal-rate-tests-24-h-fasts-performed-in-type-1-diabetic-subjects-with-either-absolute-fasting-or-snacks-containing-negligible-carbohydrate-amounts-result-in-similar-glucose-profiles-a-randomized-controlled-prospective-trial
#17
Maike Haase, Melanie Kahle, Martin Janert, Juris J Meier, Michael A Nauck
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Basal rate tests (24 h fasting periods) may be necessary to optimize basal insulin replacement in type 1 diabetes. It was the aim to prospectively compare allowing negligible carbohydrate snacks versus absolute fasting. METHODS: 20 patients with type 1 diabetes (age 48 ± 15 years; 9 women, 11 men; BMI 28.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2) ; HbA1c 8.8 ± 2.0 % (73.0 ± 21.9 mmol/mol); insulin dose 0.69 ± 0.31 IU/kg body weight and day) participated in two basal rate tests lasting 24 h in random order with unchanged basal insulin replacement...
January 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053336/leptin-in-the-interplay-of-inflammation-metabolism-and-immune-system-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Vanessa Abella, Morena Scotece, Javier Conde, Jesús Pino, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Gay, Juan J Gómez-Reino, Antonio Mera, Francisca Lago, Rodolfo Gómez, Oreste Gualillo
Leptin is one of the most relevant factors secreted by adipose tissue and the forerunner of a class of molecules collectively called adipokines. Initially discovered in 1994, its crucial role as a central regulator in energy homeostasis has been largely described during the past 20 years. Once secreted into the circulation, leptin reaches the central and peripheral nervous systems and acts by binding and activating the long form of leptin receptor (LEPR), regulating appetite and food intake, bone mass, basal metabolism, reproductive function and insulin secretion, among other processes...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053201/evidence-that-supports-the-prescription-of-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diets-a-narrative-review
#19
Timothy David Noakes, Johann Windt
Low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are a highly contentious current topic in nutrition. This narrative review aims to provide clinicians with a broad overview of the effects of LCHF diets on body weight, glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors while addressing some common concerns and misconceptions. Blood total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations show a variable, highly individual response to LCHF diets, and should be monitored in patients adhering to this diet. In contrast, available evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that LCHF diets consistently improve all other markers of cardiovascular risk-lowering elevated blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, ApoB and saturated fat (especially palmitoleic acid) concentrations, reducing small dense LDL particle numbers, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, blood pressure and body weight while increasing low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reversing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
January 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051329/regulation-of-the-cardioprotective-adiponectin-and-its-receptor-adipor1-by-salt
#20
Nicholas Arnold, Abuzar Mahmood, Maya Ramdas, Paul P Ehlinger, Lakshmi Pulakat
Both circulating adiponectin (APN) and cardiac APN exert cardioprotective effects and improve insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function. Low circulating APN serves as a biomarker for cardiovascular risk. Ablation of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) causes myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction. Although high salt intake is a contributor to cardiovascular disease, how it modulates the expression of APN or AdipoR1 in cardiomyocytes is not known. We report that APN mRNA expression was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner in mouse cardiomyocyte cell line HL-1 exposed to salt concentrations ranging from 0...
November 30, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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