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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346926/microbiota-and-obesity
#1
Erika Isolauri
Obesity is globally the most prevalent nutritional disorder. Multifaceted therapeutic approaches are called for to halt the cascade from neonatal adiposity/high birth weight to childhood excessive weight gain/adult obesity with comorbidities. Recent experimental and clinical data provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked to insulin resistance...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344558/role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-and-orexinergic-system-on-adipose-tissue
#2
REVIEW
Giovanni Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Monica Salerno, Antonio Lonigro, Teresa Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Gaetano Corso, Antonietta Messina, Andrea Viggiano, Antonio I Triggiani, Sergio Chieffi, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli
Adipose tissue, defined as white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), is a biological caloric reservoir; in response to over-nutrition it expands and, in response to energy deficit, it releases lipids. The WAT primarily stores energy as triglycerides, whereas BAT dissipates chemical energy as heat. In mammals, the BAT is a key site for heat production and an attractive target to promote weight loss. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) exerts a direct control at the cellular and molecular levels in adiposity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343312/role-of-acid-base-homeostasis-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Pascale Khairallah, Julia J Scialla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acid-base homeostasis is impaired in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may contribute to disease progression. Diabetes, a major cause of CKD worldwide, may exacerbate acidosis further due to differences in acid production and excretion. Here, we review the role of abnormal acid-base homeostasis in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes and diabetic kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Acidosis and dietary acid loading may contribute to the development and worsening of insulin resistance and hypertension, thereby promoting diabetes and diabetic CKD...
April 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342765/hippocampal-insulin-resistance-and-altered-food-decision-making-as-players-on-obesity-risk
#4
REVIEW
Amanda Brondani Mucellini, Natasha Kim de Oliveira da Fonseca, Gisele Gus Manfro, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
There are increasing evidences that hippocampus can modulate the decision of what, when and how much to eat, in addition to its already recognized role in learning and memory processes. Insulin also has been linked to brain functions such as feeding behavior and the imbalance of its mechanism of action on hippocampus is being related to cognitive dysfunction. The discussion here is whether changes in insulin action could contribute to intake dysregulation and obesogenic behavior as a primary consequence of impairing hippocampal functioning, aside from the role of this hormone on obesity development through peripheral metabolic pathways...
March 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342610/intentionally-induced-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-causes-inflammation-affects-metabolism-and-reduces-productivity-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#5
S K Kvidera, M J Dickson, M Abuajamieh, D B Snider, M V Sanz Fernandez, J S Johnson, A F Keating, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, L H Baumgard
Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of intentionally reduced intestinal barrier function on productivity, metabolism, and inflammatory indices in otherwise healthy dairy cows. Fourteen lactating Holstein cows (parity 2.6 ± 0.3; 117 ± 18 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 (5 d) served as the baseline for period 2 (7 d), during which cows received 1 of 2 i.v. treatments twice per day: sterile saline or a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI; 1.5 mg/kg of body weight). Gamma-secretase inhibitors reduce intestinal barrier function by inhibiting crypt cell differentiation into absorptive enterocytes...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342606/increased-anaplerosis-of-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-decreased-meal-size-and-energy-intake-of-cows-in-the-postpartum-period
#6
Laura B Gualdrón-Duarte, Michael S Allen
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of anaplerosis of the tricarboxylic acid cycle on feeding behavior and energy intake of cows in the postpartum period. We infused propionic acid (PA) and glycerol (GL) continuously into the abomasum and hypothesized that PA will decrease meal size and energy intake compared with GL because PA enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle, likely stimulating oxidation of acetyl CoA and satiety compared with GL. Three experiments (Exp.) were conducted using 20 Holstein cows between 3 and 22 d postpartum (8 cows in Exp...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341844/relevance-of-the-dietary-glycemic-index-glycemic-load-and-genetic-predisposition-for-the-glucose-homeostasis-of-chinese-adults-without-diabetes
#7
Guo Cheng, Hongmei Xue, Jiao Luo, Hong Jia, Lishi Zhang, Junbiao Dai, Anette E Buyken
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and pre-diabetes have become a major public health problem in China. We examined whether a higher dietary glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) was associated with a less favorable glucose homeostasis among Chinese adults and whether these associations were modified by their genetic predisposition or whether combined effects exist with their cereal fiber intake. Multivariable regression analyses were performed in 3918 adults aged 23-69 years for whom three 24-hour dietary recalls and information on glucose homeostasis, genetic background and potential confounders was available...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339731/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-development-of-metabolic-cardiomyopathy2-3
#8
C Y Chen, Y F Huang, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338608/impact-of-high-carbohydrate-diet-on-metabolic-parameters-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
REVIEW
Chan-Hee Jung, Kyung Mook Choi
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whether dietary carbohydrates have beneficial or detrimental effects on cardiometabolic risk factors has drawn attention. Although a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet and a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet have gained popularity for several decades, there is scarce review focusing on the effects of HC diet on glucose, lipids and body weight in patients with T2DM. In this review, we examined recently-published literature on the effects of HC diets on metabolic parameters in T2DM...
March 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333398/dietary-cholesterol-interacts-with-srebf1-to-modulate-obesity-in-chinese-children
#10
Shixiu Zhang, Xinying Lin, Henry Lynn, Guifa Xu, Jun Li, Changfeng Zhao, Mingmei Li
SCOPE: Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 Gene (SREBF1) is an important candidate gene for obesity that could be affected by cholesterol. Different SREBF1 gene variants may have distinct responses to cholesterol, leading to different risks for obesity and obesity-related metabolic traits. Thus, we performed a gene-by-diet correlation analysis to test whether SREBF1 gene variation modulate the relationship between cholesterol and obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 642 school-aged children in Jinan, China, were selected by stratified cluster nested sampling...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333388/central-regulation-of-glucose-homeostasis
#11
Alexander Tups, Jonas Benzler, Domenico Sergi, Sharon R Ladyman, Lynda M Williams
The ability of the brain to directly control glucose levels in the blood independently of its effects on food intake and body weight has been known ever since 1854 when Claude Bernard, a French physiologist, discovered that lesioning the floor of the fourth ventricle in rabbits led to a rise of sugar in the blood. Despite this outstanding discovery at that time, it took more than 140 years before progress started to be made in identifying the underlying mechanisms of brain-mediated control of glucose homeostasis...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333098/anti-obesity-and-anti-diabetic-effect-of-neoagarooligosaccharides-on-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#12
Sun Joo Hong, Je-Hyeon Lee, Eun Joo Kim, Hea Jung Yang, Jae-Seon Park, Soon-Kwang Hong
Neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOs), mainly comprising neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose, were prepared by hydrolyzing agar with β-agarase DagA from Streptomyces coelicolor, and the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of NAOs on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice were investigated after NAOs-supplementation for 64 days. Compared to the HFD group, the HFD-0.5 group that was fed with HFD + NAOs (0.5%, w/w) showed remarkable reduction of 36% for body weight gain and 37% for food efficiency ratios without abnormal clinical signs...
March 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332577/absence-of-role-of-dietary-protein-sensing-in-the-metabolic-benefits-of-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-in-the-mouse
#13
Aude Barataud, Daisy Goncalves, Jennifer Vinera, Carine Zitoun, Adeline Duchampt, Amandine Gautier-Stein, Gilles Mithieux
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces remission or substantial improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) but underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The beneficial effects of dietary proteins on energy and glucose homeostasis are mediated by the antagonist effects of peptides toward mu-opioid receptors (MORs), which are highly expressed in the distal gut. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of RYGB could depend at least in part on the interaction of peptides from food with intestinal MORs. Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) was performed in obese and lean wild-type (WT) or MOR deficient (MOR(-/-)) mice...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330423/geraniol-a-natural-monoterpene-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-by-attenuating-the-key-enzymes-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#14
Sukumar Babukumar, Veerasamy Vinothkumar, Chandrasekaran Sankaranarayanan, Subramani Srinivasan
CONTEXT: Geraniol, an acyclic monoterpene alcohol is found in medicinal plants, is used traditionally for several medical purposes including diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic potential of geraniol on key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced in experimental rats, by a single intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of STZ [40 mg/kg body weight (b...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327563/health-benefits-and-consequences-of-the-eastern-orthodox-fasting-in-monks-of-mount-athos-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
S N Karras, A Persynaki, A Petróczi, E Barkans, H Mulrooney, M Kypraiou, T Tzotzas, K Tziomalos, K Kotsa, A A Tsioudas, C Pichard, D P Naughton
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Greek Orthodox fasting (OF), which involves 180-200 days of fasting per year, is dictated by the Christian Orthodox religion. For the first time, this cross-sectional study examines the characteristics and the effects of OF on anthropometry, cardiometabolic markers and calcium homeostasis in Athonian monks (AMs). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Daily intakes of energy, macro- and micronutrients of a day during a weekend of Nativity Fast, defined as non-restrictive day (NRD), and a weekday during Great Lent, labeled as restrictive day (RD) were recorded...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326010/impact-of-resveratrol-on-glucose-control-hippocampal-structure-and-connectivity-and-memory-performance-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Theresa Köbe, A Veronica Witte, Ariane Schnelle, Valentina A Tesky, Johannes Pantel, Jan-Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn, Jens Bohlken, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
In healthy older adults, resveratrol supplementation has been shown to improve long-term glucose control, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the hippocampus, and memory function. Here, we aimed to investigate if these beneficial effects extend to individuals at high-risk for dementia, i.e., patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a randomized, double-blind interventional study, 40 well-characterized patients with MCI (21 females; 50-80 years) completed 26 weeks of resveratrol (200 mg/d; n = 18) or placebo (1,015 mg/d olive oil; n = 22) intake...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325022/comparing-glucose-and-insulin-data-from-the-two-hour-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-in-metabolic-syndrome-subjects-and-marathon-runners
#17
Miguel Altuve, Gilberto Perpinan, Erika Severeyn, Sara Wong
Glucose is the main energy source of the body's cells and is essential for normal metabolism. Two pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon, are involved in glucose home-ostasis. Alteration in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations could lead to distinct symptoms and diseases, ranging from mental function impairment to coma and even death. Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are typical examples of abnormal glucose metabolism that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324021/endogenous-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-energy-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#18
Tian Liu, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Takayuki Sakurai, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Lei Yang, Megumu Tanaka, Xian Xian, Akira Imai, Liuyu Zhai, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Kun Dai, Keiya Tanimura, Teng Liu, Nanqi Cui, Kyoko Igarashi, Akihiro Yamauchi, Takayuki Shindo
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a bioactive peptide produced by alternative splicing of the primary transcript of the calcitonin/CGRP gene. CGRP is largely distributed in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, where it acts as a regulatory factor. CGRP is also expressed in organs and tissues involved in metabolic regulation, including white adipose tissue (WAT), where its function is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of endogenous CGRP on metabolic function. When we administered a high-fat diet to CGRP knockout (CGRP-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice for 10 weeks, we observed that food intake did not differ between the two groups, but body weight and visceral fat weight were significantly lower in CGRP-/- mice...
January 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320096/a-natural-compound-jaceosidin-ameliorates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-insulin-resistance-via-upregulation-of-serca2b
#19
Zijun Ouyang, Wanshuai Li, Qianqian Meng, Qi Zhang, Xingqi Wang, Ahmed Elgehama, Xudong Wu, Yan Shen, Yang Sun, Xuefeng Wu, Qiang Xu
Increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as a vital contributor to dysregulated glucose homeostasis, and impaired function of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) is one of the central mechanisms underlying ER stress. In this study, we reported that SERCA2b upregulation contributed to the amelioration of ER stress and insulin resistance by a small natural compound jaceosidin. In a model of differentiated C2C12 myotubes, jaceosidin-triggered SERCA2b upregulation enhanced insulin sensitivity and decreased ER stress...
March 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320046/increased-insulin-resistance-and-glucagon-levels-in-mild-inactive-systemic-lupus-patients-despite-normal-glucose-tolerance
#20
Cíntia Nh Miyake, Bruno Gualano, Wagner S Dantas, Renato T Pereira, William Neves, Vanessa O Zambelli, Samuel K Shinjo, Rosa M Pereira, Elizabeth R Silva, Ana Lúcia Sá-Pinto, Eduardo Borba, Hamilton Roschel, Eloisa Bonfá, Fabiana B Benatti
OBJECTIVE: To assess insulin sensitivity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in response to a meal tolerance test (MTT). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 33 adult females mild/inactive SLE and 16 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched female healthy controls (CTRL) underwent a MTT and were assessed for insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. Skeletal muscle protein expressions of total and membrane GLUT-4 were also evaluated (SLE, n=10; CTRL, n=5); muscle biopsies were performed after MTT...
March 20, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
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