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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107643/does-psychological-well-being-change-following-treatment-an-exploratory-study-on-outpatients-with-eating-disorders
#1
Elena Tomba, Lucia Tecuta, Romana Schumann, Donatella Ballardini
Psychological well-being changes following cognitive-behavioral therapy-based treatment were investigated in outpatients with eating disorders (ED). While it is known that CBT reduces symptomatology in EDs, less is known about how changes in positive functioning may ensue. One-hundred and eighty five ED outpatients were analyzed for pre-treatment and post-treatment changes in psychological well-being (PWB) by last observation carried forward - Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Significant gains in all PWB dimensions were found, with moderate effect size correlations in environmental mastery (r=-...
January 7, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106920/self-admission-to-inpatient-treatment-for-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa-the-patient-s-perspective
#2
Mattias Strand, Cynthia M Bulik, Yvonne von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Sanna A Gustafsson
The aim of the present study was to explore patients' experiences of participating in a self-admission program at a specialist eating disorders clinic. Sixteen adult program participants with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa were interviewed at 6 months about their experiences in the self-admission program. A qualitative content analysis approach was applied to identify recurring themes. Four themes were identified: Agency and Flexibility, Functions, Barriers, and Applicability. Participants used self-admission to boost healthy behaviors, to prevent deterioration, to forestall the need for longer periods of hospitalizations, and to get a break from overwhelming demands...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106919/body-checking-in-non-clinical-women-experimental-evidence-of-a-specific-impact-on-fear-of-uncontrollable-weight-gain
#3
Natalie Bailey, Glenn Waller
Body checking is used widely among clinical and non-clinical individuals. It is suggested to be a safety behavior, reducing anxiety initially but potentially enhancing eating and shape concerns in the longer term. However, there is little causal evidence of those negative effects. This experimental study tests the potential negative impact of body checking. Fifty non-clinical women took part in a study of the effects of body checking in naturalistic settings. Each checked their wrist size every 15 minutes for eight hours on one day, then did not check the next day (order randomized)...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106917/is-there-an-optimal-length-of-psychological-treatment-for-eating-disorder-pathology
#4
Caroline Bell, Glenn Waller, Roz Shafran, Jaime Delgadillo
Treatment guidelines for eating disorders (ED) are unclear about the optimal length of psychological care. We aimed to investigate associations between treatment duration and changes in ED pathology. Data for 164 outpatients accessing psychological interventions for ED were analyzed using MANOVA. We tested associations between number of therapy sessions and pre-post treatment changes in clinical outcomes (EDE-Q global scores, binge eating, purging); adjusting for baseline measures, diagnoses, and treatment type...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106733/high-prevalence-of-vitamin-b12-deficiency-and-no-folate-deficiency-in-young-children-in-nepal
#5
Bernadette N Ng'eno, Cria G Perrine, Ralph D Whitehead, Giri Raj Subedi, Saba Mebrahtu, Pradiumna Dahal, Maria Elena D Jefferds
Many children in low- and middle-income countries may have inadequate intake of vitamin B12 and folate; data confirming these inadequacies are limited. We used biochemical, demographic, behavioral and anthropometric data to describe the folate and vitamin B12 concentrations among six- to 23-month-old Nepalese children. Vitamin B12 (serum B12 < 150 pmol/L) and folate deficiencies (red blood cell (RBC) folate < 226.5 nmol/L) were assessed. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of vitamin B12 deficiency...
January 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105717/beyond-food-the-multiple-pathways-for-inclusion-of-materials-into-ancient-dental-calculus
#6
Anita Radini, Efthymia Nikita, Stephen Buckley, Les Copeland, Karen Hardy
Dental calculus (mineralized dental plaque) was first recognised as a potentially useful archaeological deposit in the 1970s, though interest in human dental calculus as a resource material has increased sharply in the past few years. The majority of recent research has focused on the retrieval of plant microfossils embedded in its matrix and interpretation of these finds as largely the result of deliberate consumption of plant-derived food. However, while most of the material described in published works does represent food, dental calculus is in fact a "depositional environment" as material can enter the mouth from a range of sources...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105067/current-state-and-future-prospects-for-psychosomatic-medicine-in-japan
#7
REVIEW
Masato Murakami, Yoshihide Nakai
In this article, we describe the history and current state of psychosomatic medicine (PSM) in Japan and propose measures that could be considered based on our view of the future prospects of PSM in Japan. The Japanese Society of PSM (JSPM) was established in 1959, and the first Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine in Japan was established at Kyushu University In 1963. PSM in Japan has shown a prominent, unique development, with 3,300 members (as of March 2016), comprised of 71.6% of medical doctors including psychosomatic internal medicine (PIM) specialists, general internists, psychiatrists, pediatricians, obstetricians and gynecologists, dentists, dermatologists, and others...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103297/obesity-in-french-inmates-gender-differences-and-relationship-with-mood-eating-behavior-and-physical-activity
#8
Aude Lagarrigue, Soufiane Ajana, Lucile Capuron, Catherine Féart, Marie-Pierre Moisan
CONTEXT: Inmates, notably women, are at greater risk for obesity and metabolic complications than the general population according to several studies from high income countries. Data regarding French correctional institutions are lacking so far. To fill this gap, we have assessed in a sample from a French prison (33 females and 18 males) the gender-specific effect of incarceration on weight and body mass index (BMI) and examined their current metabolic status. Furthermore, to reveal the possible determinants of increased obesity, we analyzed emotional vulnerability, eating behavior and physical activity using self-reported questionnaires...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103291/the-gut-brain-axis-in-healthy-females-lack-of-significant-association-between-microbial-composition-and-diversity-with-psychiatric-measures
#9
Susan C Kleiman, Emily C Bulik-Sullivan, Elaine M Glenny, Stephanie C Zerwas, Eun Young Huh, Matthew C B Tsilimigras, Anthony A Fodor, Cynthia M Bulik, Ian M Carroll
OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations between the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota and measures of depression, anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, stress, and personality in a group of healthy adult females. METHODS: Female participants (n = 91) ages 19-50 years with BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2 were recruited from central North Carolina between July 2014 and March 2015. Participants provided a single fecal sample and completed an online psychiatric questionnaire that included five measures: (i) Beck Anxiety Inventory; (ii) Beck Depression Inventory-II; (iii) Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; (iv) Perceived Stress Scale; and (v) Mini International Personality Item Pool...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101831/psychometric-properties-of-the-portuguese-version-of-the-yale-food-addiction-scale
#10
Sandra Torres, Marta Camacho, Patrício Costa, Gabriela Ribeiro, Osvaldo Santos, Filipa Mucha Vieira, Isabel Brandão, Daniel Sampaio, Albino J Oliveira-Maia
PURPOSE: Rising rates of obesity have been recently associated to the novel concept of food addiction (FA). The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is the most widely used measure for examining FA (1) and analysis of its reliability and validity is expected to facilitate empirical research on the construct. Here, we tested the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the YFAS (P-YFAS), establishing its factor structure, reliability and construct validity. METHODS: Data were obtained from 468 Portuguese individuals, 278 sampled from non-clinical populations, and 190 among obese candidates for weight-loss surgery...
January 18, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097604/theory-based-explanation-as-intervention
#11
Kara Weisman, Ellen M Markman
Cogent explanations are an indispensable means of providing new information and an essential component of effective education. Beyond this, we argue that there is tremendous untapped potential in using explanations to motivate behavior change. In this article we focus on health interventions. We review four case studies that used carefully tailored explanations to address gaps and misconceptions in people's intuitive theories, providing participants with a conceptual framework for understanding how and why some recommended behavior is an effective way of achieving a health goal...
January 17, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095706/translation-and-pilot-testing-of-a-measure-to-assess-hypertension-self-care-activities-among-hispanics
#12
Jan Warren-Findlow, Maren J Coffman, Celia A Karp
OBJECTIVE: Hispanics in the US have high rates of uncontrolled hypertension in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. This pilot study reports on the translation of a validated measure, the Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects (H-SCALE), for use with Spanish speakers. The H-SCALE assesses Hispanics' adherence to lifestyle activities that contribute to primary and secondary risk reduction of high blood pressure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were collected from Hispanic primary care patients attending a free health clinic in Charlotte, NC...
January 17, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094121/mealtime-behavior-among-parents-and-their-young-children-with-food-allergy
#13
Linda Jones Herbert, Priya Mehta, Hemant Sharma
BACKGROUND: Food allergies are increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. Balancing allergen avoidance with the promotion of healthy eating behaviors can be challenging for families. OBJECTIVE: To characterize mealtime behaviors among parents of young children with food allergy. METHODS: Seventy-four parents of young children with food allergies (≤7 years of age) completed measures of mealtime behavior, perceptions of food allergy risk and severity, pediatric parenting stress, and food allergy-related quality of life...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093836/incremental-validity-of-weight-suppression-in-predicting-clinical-impairment-in-bulimic-syndromes
#14
Kelsey E Hagan, Kelsey E Clark, Kelsie T Forbush
Research has shown that weight suppression (WS; the difference between a person's highest and current body weight in pounds) is a robust predictor of weight gain and eating-disorder (ED) symptoms among individuals with bulimic syndromes. Given the important prognostic role that WS plays in ED course and outcome, we hypothesized that WS would represent a clinically useful indicator of impairment for bulimic syndromes. We further posited that WS would demonstrate incremental validity above-and-beyond other proposed indicators in explaining clinical impairment in bulimic syndromes...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093835/the-assessment-and-treatment-of-unhealthy-exercise-in-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa-a-delphi-study-to-synthesize-clinical-knowledge
#15
Melissa Noetel, Lisa Dawson, Phillipa Hay, Stephen Touyz
This study aimed to explore and synthesize expert clinical knowledge on defining and managing unhealthy exercise in adolescents with AN. The Delphi methodology was used. Clinicians (n = 25) considered experts in the treatment of AN in adolescents were recruited internationally to form the panel. The first round of the questionnaires was comprised of five open-ended questions regarding defining, assessing, and treating unhealthy exercise in adolescents with AN. Statements were derived from this data using content analysis, and included as Likert-based items in two subsequent rounds, in which panellists were required to rate their level of agreement for each item...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092647/dietary-intake-mediates-the-relationship-of-body-fat-to-pain
#16
Charles F Emery, KayLoni L Olson, Andrew Bodine, Victoria Lee, Diane L Habash
Prior studies have documented an association of obesity with chronic pain, but the mechanism explaining the association remains unknown. This study evaluated the degree to which dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain. Ninety-eight community-residing healthy adults (60% women; mean age = 43.2 ± 15.3 years; range: 20-78 years) participated in a home-based study of home environment, food-related behaviors, health, and adiposity. During a 3-hour home visit evaluation, 3 measures of body fat were collected, including height and weight for calculation of body mass index (BMI)...
February 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092151/issues-in-nutrition-carbohydrates
#17
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090606/hierarchical-span-based-conditional-random-fields-for-labeling-and-segmenting-events-in-wearable-sensor-data-streams
#18
Roy J Adams, Nazir Saleheen, Edison Thomaz, Abhinav Parate, Santosh Kumar, Benjamin M Marlin
The field of mobile health (mHealth) has the potential to yield new insights into health and behavior through the analysis of continuously recorded data from wearable health and activity sensors. In this paper, we present a hierarchical span-based conditional random field model for the key problem of jointly detecting discrete events in such sensor data streams and segmenting these events into high-level activity sessions. Our model includes higher-order cardinality factors and inter-event duration factors to capture domain-specific structure in the label space...
June 2016: Proceedings of the ... International Conference on Machine Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089590/using-the-presurgical-psychological-evaluation-to-predict-5-year-weight-loss-outcomes-in-bariatric-surgery-patients
#19
Ryan J Marek, Yossef S Ben-Porath, Manfred H M van Dulmen, Kathleen Ashton, Leslie J Heinberg
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial factors contribute to poorer weight loss outcomes following bariatric surgery; however, findings on associations between preoperative psychiatric diagnoses, psychological testing, and weight loss are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: Examine associations between presurgical psychiatric diagnoses derived from a semi-structured clinical interview and test scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality-Inventory-2 - Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) and 5-year Body Mass Index (BMI) outcomes...
November 11, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087466/-monkey-see-monkey-do-peers-behaviors-predict-preschoolers-physical-activity-and-dietary-intake-in-childcare-centers
#20
Stéphanie Ward, Mathieu Bélanger, Denise Donovan, Jonathan Boudreau, Hassan Vatanparast, Nazeem Muhajarine, Anne Leis, M Louise Humbert, Natalie Carrier
Preschoolers observe and imitate the behaviors of those who are similar to them. Therefore, peers may be role models for preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity in childcare centers. This study examined whether peers' behaviors predict change in preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity in childcare centers over 9months. A total of 238 preschoolers (3 to 5years old) from 23 childcare centers in two Canadian provinces provided data at the beginning (October 2013 and 2014) and the end (June 2014 and 2015) of a 9-month period for this longitudinal study...
January 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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