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Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Debra A Fleischman, Sue Leurgans, Jingyun Yang, Robert S Wilson, Julie A Schneider, Zoe Arvanitakis, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and rate of decline in multiple cognitive systems in community-based older persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 354) were older persons initially free of cognitive impairment from two ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic studies of aging. All underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of WMH and gray matter volumes and detailed annual clinical evaluations including 17 cognitive tests...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Leroy L Cooper, Gary F Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. SUMMARY: Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery...
September 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
Y M Zheng, W Z Li, Z X Wang, W Zhang, H Lv, J X Xiao, Y Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To report thigh muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests of four Chinese patients with dystrophinopathy with edema changes in adductor longus muscles that mimics adductor enthesopathy. METHODS: Four boys, who were from four unrelated families and aged from 5 to 11 years, were investigated because of the clinical manifestations including myalgia or muscle weakness or the incidental findings of elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and were diagnosed with dystrophinopathy by gene test of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Hidehito Kimura, Masaaki Taniguchi, Tatsuya Mori, Kohkichi Hosoda, Eiji Kohmura
We present a rare case of a patient suffering temporary aphasia after an extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, which was shown as a transient hypointense lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, evidence of postoperative hyperperfusion. Postoperative hyperperfusion syndrome after EC-IC bypass causing temporary neurological deterioration has been reported rarely as isosignal intensity on DWI with hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted image and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image as an expression of vasogenic edema...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Søren Due Andersen, Torben Bjerregaard Larsen, Anders Gorst-Rasmussen, Yousef Yavarian, Gregory Y H Lip, Flemming W Bach
BACKGROUND: Nearly one in 5 patients with ischemic stroke will invariably experience a second stroke within 5 years. Stroke risk stratification schemes based solely on clinical variables perform only modestly in non-atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and improvement of these schemes will enhance their clinical utility. Cerebral white matter hyperintensities are associated with an increased risk of incident ischemic stroke in the general population, whereas their association with the risk of ischemic stroke recurrence is more ambiguous...
October 18, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Sakiko Chikazawa, Takaaki Hanafusa, Kokoro Ozaki, Takeshi Namiki, Maki Amano, Makiko Ueno, Shown Tokoro, Ken Igawa, Takefumi Sato, Kinya Ishikawa, Takanori Yokota, Hiroo Yokozeki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Navid Elmi Sadr, Bijan Samavat, Payam Mehrian, Alireza Hedayatfar
Introduction. Terson syndrome is described as intraocular hemorrhage in association with any type of intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with higher mortality rate and vision loss. Intraocular hemorrhage in Terson syndrome may be diagnosed using computed tomography but there are false positive results. Silicone oil which is widely used for internal tamponade of complicated retinal detachments has high attenuation on computed tomography and hyperintensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging that can mimic intraocular hemorrhage...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Woo Hee Choi, Won Sang Jung, Yoo Hyun Um, Chang Uk Lee, Young Ha Park, Hyun Kook Lim
BACKGROUND: Although there is substantial evidence of associations between frontal-striatal circuits and cerebral vascular burden in late-onset depression (LOD), relationships between vascular burden and hippocampal subfields are not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between cerebral vascular burden and hippocampal subfield volume in LOD patients. METHODS: Fifty subjects with LOD and 50 group-matched healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Yibin Xie, Young-Jin Kim, Jianing Pang, Jung-Sun Kim, Qi Yang, Janet Wei, Christopher T Nguyen, Zixin Deng, Byoung Wook Choi, Zhaoyang Fan, C Noel Bairey Merz, Prediman K Shah, Daniel S Berman, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Debiao Li
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is the development of coronary atherosclerosis T1-weighted characterization with integrated anatomical reference (CATCH) technique and the validation by comparison with high-risk plaque features (HRPF) observed on intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and invasive coronary angiography. BACKGROUND: T1-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance with or without contrast media has been used for characterizing coronary atherosclerosis showing promising prognostic value...
October 6, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Yash V Tiwari, Jianfei Lu, Qiang Shen, Bianca Cerqueira, Timothy Q Duong
Diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed to quantify the rate of water exchange (Kw) across the blood-brain barrier in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the blood-brain barrier disruption in transient (60 min) ischemic stroke using Kw magnetic resonance imaging with cross-validation by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology in the same rats. The major findings were: (i) at 90 min after stroke (30 min after reperfusion), group Kw magnetic resonance imaging data showed no significant blood-brain barrier permeability changes, although a few animals showed slightly abnormal Kw Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding in the same animals...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Junkoh Yamamoto, Shohei Shimajiri, Daisuke Akiba, Yoshiteru Nakano, Shigeru Nishizawa
BACKGROUND: An intracranial neurenteric cyst (NC) is a rare congenital benign lesion that usually has a well-demarcated cystic appearance without contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In particular, an intracranial NC with an enhanced mural nodule is extremely rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 20-year-old man presented with left-sided hearing disturbance and headache. On MRI, a cystic mass was seen in the prepontine cistern that significantly compressed the brain stem...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
James A McCracken, Michael F Gonzales, Pramit M Phal, Katharine J Drummond
Angiocentric glioma (AG) is a low grade glioma, that was first described in 2002. Since this description, 83 patients with AG have been described, including ours. AG typically presents in childhood with medically refractory seizures that are cured with gross surgical resection. Whilst the natural history is that of a benign tumour, there have been reports of recurrence, transformation, and malignant features that suggest that AG is potentially malignant. We add to the literature a case of a 16-year-old girl who presented in May 2011 with a 3-month history of complex partial seizures, with MRI showing a T2-weighted hyperintense lesion in the left insula and inferior frontal lobe...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Romain Lefaucheur, Axel Lebas, Emmanuel Gérardin, Lou Grangeon, Ozlem Ozkul-Wermester, Carole Aubier-Girard, Olivier Martinaud, David Maltête
A 29-year-old man was admitted for acute cognitive impairment. Three weeks earlier, he had been admitted for coma due to sniffed heroin abuse responsive to naloxone infusion. At admission, the patient presented with apraxia, severe memory impairment and anosognosia. Brain MRI revealed symmetric hyperintensities of supratentorial white matter, sparing brainstem and cerebellum, on FLAIR and B1000 sequences. Four months later, repeated neuropsychological assessment revealed dramatic improvement of global cognitive functions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Norihide Yoneda, Osamu Matsui, Azusa Kitao, Kazuto Kozaka, Satoshi Kobayashi, Motoko Sasaki, Kotaro Yoshida, Dai Inoue, Tetsuya Minami, Toshifumi Gabata
Gadoxetic acid is a contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with hepatocyte-specific properties and is becoming increasingly important in detection and characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma and benign hepatocellular nodules, including focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH), hepatocellular adenoma (HCA), and dysplastic nodule. In these hepatocellular nodules, a positive correlation between the grade of membranous uptake transporter organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3 expression and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary (HB) phase has been verified...
October 14, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Yusuke Hori, Masahiko Seki, Tadao Tsujio, Masatoshi Hoshino, Koji Mandai, Hiroaki Nakamura
Chondromas are benign tumors that are rarely located in the spine. The authors present a rare occurrence of a spinal chondroma that developed as an intradural but extramedullary tumor in a 60-year-old woman. The location of the tumor at C4-5 was confirmed by MRI, with hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and isointensity on T1-weighted images. The tumor was completely contained intradurally, with no continuity to any vertebrae. It adhered to the anterior dura, indicative of its likely origin from the dura mater...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Susanne M Kaiser, Oliver Harms, Martin Konar, Anne Staudacher, Anna Langer, Cetina Thiel, Martin Kramer, Sebastian Schaub, Kerstin H von Pückler
OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 16 dogs diagnosed with gastrocnemius musculotendinopathy. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of medical records, radiographs, and MRI results, as well as follow-up completed by telephone questionnaire. RESULTS: Most dogs had chronic hindlimb lameness with no history of trauma or athletic activities. Clinical examination revealed signs of pain on palpation without stifle joint instability...
October 14, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Amir A Borhani, Kenneth E Fasanella, Negaur Iranpour, Amer H Zureikat, Aatur D Singhi, Alessandro Furlan, Anil K Dasyam
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate imaging features as well as pathologic and clinical findings of lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) of pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with surgically resected and pathologically proven LEC, found in a single institution database between 2000 and 2015, were evaluated in a retrospective fashion. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, co-morbidities, imaging features, cytology and histopathology results, and serum/aspirate biomarkers levels were recorded...
October 13, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
T Ravindran, Paneerselvam, Radha, T Allwyn Yabesh
Osmotic demyelination syndrome is an acute shift in serum osmolality causing demyelination, which may be due to rapid correction of hyponatremia, hyperglycaemia, hypokalemia and ketoacidosis. We present a case of 55yr old female and a known diabetic presented with the choreic movements involving left upper and lower limb for 2 days without any weakness.Her blood sugar was 428mg/dl at the time of admission with wide fluctuations.Her CT Brain showed hyperdensity in the right basal ganglia and the MRI brain showed hyperintense lesion in T2 weighted images showing features suggestive of osmotic demyelination...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Neelesh K Nadkarni, Robert M Boudreau, Stephanie A Studenski, Oscar L Lopez, Ge Liu, Stephen Kritchevsky, Kristine Yaffe, Anne B Newman, Caterina Rosano
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gait speed and prior 10 years interleukin-6 (IL-6) burden in older adults. We then assessed whether white matter characteristics influence this relationship. METHODS: In 179 community-dwelling older adults, gait speed was assessed on an automated walkway and serum IL-6 was assayed on ELISA. Concurrently, white matter characteristics were assessed on MRI by quantifying volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a marker of small vessel disease, and normal-appearing white matter on fractional anisotropy (NAWM-FA), a marker of axonal integrity...
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Freddy J Alfaro, Vasileios-Arsenios Lioutas, Daniela A Pimentel, Chen-Chih Chung, Francisco Bedoya, Woo-Kyoung Yoo, Vera Novak
Subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) often show worse cognitive performance compared with the healthy population. We investigated whether microstructural white matter abnormalities are associated with cognitive performance in adults with MetS using diffusion tensor MR imaging. A total of 32 subjects with MetS (age 64.8 ± 7.8, 56.25 % female) and 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3-T MRI. Brain global and regional volumes, white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (LD) were calculated...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neurology
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