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Vesicular stomatitis virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088779/comprehensive-proteome-analysis-of-lysosomes-reveals-the-diverse-function-of-macrophages-in-immune-responses
#1
Yanpan Gao, Yanyu Chen, Shaohua Zhan, Wenhao Zhang, Feng Xiong, Wei Ge
Phagocytosis and autophagy in macrophages have been shown to be essential to both innate and adaptive immunity. Lysosomes are the main catabolic subcellular organelles responsible for degradation and recycling of both extracellular and intracellular material, which are the final steps in phagocytosis and autophagy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lysosomal functions after infection remain obscure. In this study, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis of the changes in constitution and glycosylation of proteins in lysosomes derived from murine RAW 264...
January 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077641/chikungunya-influenza-nipah-and-semliki-forest-chimeric-viruses-with-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-actions-in-the-brain
#2
Anthony N van den Pol, Guochao Mao, Anasuya Chattopadhyay, John K Rose, John N Davis
: Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based chimeric viruses that include genes from other viruses show promise as vaccines and oncolytic viruses. However, the critical safety concern is the neurotropic nature conveyed by the VSV glycoprotein. VSVs that include the VSV glycoprotein gene, even in most recombinant attenuated strains, can still show substantial adverse or lethal actions in the brain. Here we test 4 chimeric viruses in the brain including those in which glycoprotein genes from Nipah, chikungunya, or influenza H5N1 viruses were substituted for the VSV glycoprotein gene...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077601/a-new-rna-based-adjuvant-enhances-virus-specific-vaccine-responses-by-locally-triggering-tlr-and-rlh-dependent-effects
#3
Annett Ziegler, Claudia Soldner, Stefan Lienenklaus, Julia Spanier, Stephanie Trittel, Peggy Riese, Thomas Kramps, Siegfried Weiss, Regina Heidenreich, Edith Jasny, Carlos A Guzmán, Karl-Josef Kallen, Mariola Fotin-Mleczek, Ulrich Kalinke
Among innovative adjuvants conferring a Th1-shift, RNAdjuvant is a promising candidate. This adjuvant consists of a 547-nt uncapped noncoding ssRNA containing polyU repeats that is stabilized by a cationic carrier peptide. Whereas vaccination of mice with an influenza subunit vaccine induced moderate virus-specific IgG1, vaccination together with RNAdjuvant significantly enhanced this IgG1 and additionally promoted the formation of IgG2b/c, which is indicative of Th1 responses. Furthermore, such sera neutralized influenza virus, whereas this effect was not detected upon vaccination with the subunit vaccine alone...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053102/5-phospho-rna-acceptor-specificity-of-gdp-polyribonucleotidyltransferase-of-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-in-mrna-capping
#4
Minako Ogino, Tomoaki Ogino
: The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5' -phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5' -triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5' -cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049150/fosl1-inhibits-type-i-interferon-responses-to-malaria-and-viral-infections-by-blocking-tbk1-and-traf3-trif-interactions
#5
Baowei Cai, Jian Wu, Xiao Yu, Xin-Zhuan Su, Rong-Fu Wang
: Innate immune response plays a critical role in controlling invading pathogens, but such an immune response must be tightly regulated. Insufficient or overactivated immune responses may lead to harmful or even fatal consequences. To dissect the complex host-parasite interactions and the molecular mechanisms underlying innate immune responses to infections, here we investigate the role of FOS-like antigen 1 (FOSL1) in regulating the host type I interferon (IFN-I) response to malaria parasite and viral infections...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045099/cleavage-of-dfna5-by-caspase-3-during-apoptosis-mediates-progression-to-secondary-necrotic-pyroptotic-cell-death
#6
Corey Rogers, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Lindsey Mayes, Diana Alnemri, Gino Cingolani, Emad S Alnemri
Apoptosis is a genetically regulated cell suicide programme mediated by activation of the effector caspases 3, 6 and 7. If apoptotic cells are not scavenged, they progress to a lytic and inflammatory phase called secondary necrosis. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we show that caspase-3 cleaves the GSDMD-related protein DFNA5 after Asp270 to generate a necrotic DFNA5-N fragment that targets the plasma membrane to induce secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. Cells that express DFNA5 progress to secondary necrosis, when stimulated with apoptotic triggers such as etoposide or vesicular stomatitis virus infection, but disassemble into small apoptotic bodies when DFNA5 is deleted...
January 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041664/early-gene-activation-initiates-neuroinflammation-prior-to-vsv-neuroinvasion-impact-on-antiviral-responses-and-sleep
#7
Richard P Ciavarra, Patric Lundberg, Mayumi Machida, Marta A Ambrozewicz, Laurie L Wellman, Kimberly Breving, Christina Steel, Larry D Sanford
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is rapidly and persistently suppressed during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) encephalitis in C57Bl/6J (B6) mice. REM sleep suppression was associated with a complex global brain chemokine/cytokine response with bimodal kinetics although regionally distinct cytokine profiles were readily identified. Cytokine mRNA was translated either immediately or suppressed until the pathogen was cleared from the CNS. Innate signaling pathway (TLRs, RIG-I) activation occurred rapidly and sequentially prior to VSV neuroinvasion suggesting that antiviral states are quickly established in the CNS in advance of viral pathogen penetration...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025070/a-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-encoding-ccr5-tropic-hiv-1-receptors-targets-hiv-1-infected-cells-and-controls-hiv-1-infection
#8
Kazu Okuma, Koji Fukagawa, Takuya Kohma, Youichi Takahama, Yukio Hamaguchi, Mamoru Ito, Yuetsu Tanaka, Linda Buonocore, John K Rose, Isao Hamaguchi
Anti-retroviral therapy is useful to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, but has some major problems, such as the generation of multidrug-resistant viruses. To develop a novel supplemental or alternative therapeutic for CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 infection, we generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) in which the gene encoding its envelope glycoprotein (G) was replaced with the genes encoding R5 HIV-1 receptors (human CD4 and CCR5), designated VSVΔG-CC5. Our present data demonstrate that this rVSV specifically infects cells that are transiently expressing R5 HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, but does not infect those expressing CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins...
December 24, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017403/efficacy-and-effectiveness-of-an-rvsv-vectored-vaccine-in-preventing-ebola-virus-disease-final-results-from-the-guinea-ring-vaccination-open-label-cluster-randomised-trial-ebola-%C3%A3-a-suffit
#9
Ana Maria Henao-Restrepo, Anton Camacho, Ira M Longini, Conall H Watson, W John Edmunds, Matthias Egger, Miles W Carroll, Natalie E Dean, Ibrahima Diatta, Moussa Doumbia, Bertrand Draguez, Sophie Duraffour, Godwin Enwere, Rebecca Grais, Stephan Gunther, Pierre-Stéphane Gsell, Stefanie Hossmann, Sara Viksmoen Watle, Mandy Kader Kondé, Sakoba Kéïta, Souleymane Kone, Eewa Kuisma, Myron M Levine, Sema Mandal, Thomas Mauget, Gunnstein Norheim, Ximena Riveros, Aboubacar Soumah, Sven Trelle, Andrea S Vicari, John-Arne Røttingen, Marie-Paule Kieny
BACKGROUND: rVSV-ZEBOV is a recombinant, replication competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based candidate vaccine expressing a surface glycoprotein of Zaire Ebolavirus. We tested the effect of rVSV-ZEBOV in preventing Ebola virus disease in contacts and contacts of contacts of recently confirmed cases in Guinea, west Africa. METHODS: We did an open-label, cluster-randomised ring vaccination trial (Ebola ça Suffit!) in the communities of Conakry and eight surrounding prefectures in the Basse-Guinée region of Guinea, and in Tomkolili and Bombali in Sierra Leone...
December 23, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993624/introducing-a-cleavable-signal-peptide-enhances-the-packaging-efficiency-of-lentiviral-vectors-pseudotyped-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus-envelope-proteins
#10
Hanyang Liu, Rui Wu, Lei Yuan, Geng Tian, Xiaobo Huang, Yiping Wen, Xiaoping Ma, Yong Huang, Qigui Yan, Qin Zhao, Sanjie Cao, Xintian Wen
Research into the properties of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has been facilitated by use of pseudotyped viruses. The signal peptide is a key determinant for membrane targeting and membrane insertion, which could affect packaging of pseudotyped viruses. In this study, we generated three lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with JEV envelope proteins that co-express either a strong signal peptide from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-G (VSVMEpv) or a weak signal peptide of JEV (SPMEpv), or a virus without a signal peptide in front of the JEV prM/E (MEpv)...
February 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989900/ebola-virus-vaccines-where-do-we-stand
#11
REVIEW
Vincent Pavot
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has led to more than 11,000 deaths, with a peak in mortality from August through December of 2014. A meeting convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 2014, concluded that an urgent unmet need exists for efficacy and safety testing of the Ebola virus vaccine candidates and that clinical trials should be expedited. These vaccines could be used both in an outbreak setting and to provide long-term protection in populations at risk of sporadic outbreaks...
October 28, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984113/development-of-a-novel-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-to-detect-seneca-valley-virus-associated-with-emerging-cases-of-vesicular-disease-in-pigs
#12
Veronica L Fowler, Russell H Ransburgh, Elizabeth G Poulsen, Jemma Wadsworth, Donald P King, Valerie Mioulet, Nick J Knowles, Susanna Williamson, Xuming Liu, Gary A Anderson, Ying Fang, Jianfa Bai
Seneca Valley virus (SVV) can cause vesicular disease that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease. SVV-associated disease has been identified in pigs in several countries, namely USA, Canada, Brazil and China. Diagnostic tests are required to reliably detect this emerging virus, and this report describes the development and evaluation of a novel real-time reverse-transcription (RT) PCR assay (rRT-PCR), targeting the viral polymerase gene (3D) of SVV...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980033/the-brain-parenchyma-has-a-type-i-interferon-response-that-can-limit-virus-spread
#13
Eugene Drokhlyansky, Didem Göz Aytürk, Timothy K Soh, Ryan Chrenek, Elaine O'Loughlin, Charlotte Madore, Oleg Butovsky, Constance L Cepko
The brain has a tightly regulated environment that protects neurons and limits inflammation, designated "immune privilege." However, there is not an absolute lack of an immune response. We tested the ability of the brain to initiate an innate immune response to a virus, which was directly injected into the brain parenchyma, and to determine whether this response could limit viral spread. We injected vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a transsynaptic tracer, or naturally occurring VSV-derived defective interfering particles (DIPs), into the caudate-putamen (CP) and scored for an innate immune response and inhibition of virus spread...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974607/mechanism-of-membrane-fusion-induced-by-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-g-protein
#14
Irene S Kim, Simon Jenni, Megan L Stanifer, Eatai Roth, Sean P J Whelan, Antoine M van Oijen, Stephen C Harrison
The glycoproteins (G proteins) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and related rhabdoviruses (e.g., rabies virus) mediate both cell attachment and membrane fusion. The reversibility of their fusogenic conformational transitions differentiates them from many other low-pH-induced viral fusion proteins. We report single-virion fusion experiments, using methods developed in previous publications to probe fusion of influenza and West Nile viruses. We show that a three-stage model fits VSV single-particle fusion kinetics: (i) reversible, pH-dependent, G-protein conformational change from the known prefusion conformation to an extended, monomeric intermediate; (ii) reversible trimerization and clustering of the G-protein fusion loops, leading to an extended intermediate that inserts the fusion loops into the target-cell membrane; and (iii) folding back of a cluster of extended trimers into their postfusion conformations, bringing together the viral and cellular membranes...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960596/heterologous-boosting-with-recombinant-vsv-846-in-bcg-primed-mice-confers-improved-protection-against-mycobacterium-infection
#15
Ming Zhang, Chunsheng Dong, Sidong Xiong
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide, and the development of effective vaccines is urgently needed. Vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as primer and modified vaccinia virus Ankara strain expressing the mycobacterial antigen Ag85A (MVA85A) as booster may increase the protective efficacy of BCG. In addition, vaccination with the recombinant viral vaccine vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-846 (Rv3615c, Mtb10...
December 14, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933315/immunogenicity-of-self-tumor-associated-proteins-is-enhanced-through-protein-truncation
#16
Tim Kottke, Kevin G Shim, Vanesa Alonso-Camino, Shane Zaidi, Rosa Maria Diaz, Jose Pulido, Jill Thompson, Karishma R Rajani, Laura Evgin, Elizabeth Ilett, Hardev Pandha, Kevin Harrington, Peter Selby, Alan Melcher, Richard Vile
We showed previously that therapy with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) expressing tumor-associated proteins eradicates established tumors. We show here that when cellular cDNA were cloned into VSV which retained their own poly-A signal, viral species emerged in culture which had deleted the cellular poly-A signal and also contained a truncated form of the protein coding sequence. Typically, the truncation occurred such that a Tyrosine-encoding codon was converted into a STOP codon. We believe that the truncation of tumor-associated proteins expressed from VSV in this way occurred to preserve the ability of the virus to replicate efficiently...
2016: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920181/chikungunya-virus-vaccines-viral-vector-based-approaches
#17
Katrin Ramsauer, Frédéric Tangy
In 2013, a major chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic reached the Americas. In the past 2 years, >1.7 million people have been infected. In light of the current epidemic, with millions of people in North and South America at risk, efforts to rapidly develop effective vaccines have increased. Here, we focus on CHIKV vaccines that use viral-vector technologies. This group of vaccine candidates shares an ability to potently induce humoral and cellular immune responses by use of highly attenuated and safe vaccine backbones...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919066/designed-proteins-induce-the-formation-of-nanocage-containing-extracellular-vesicles
#18
Jörg Votteler, Cassandra Ogohara, Sue Yi, Yang Hsia, Una Nattermann, David M Belnap, Neil P King, Wesley I Sundquist
Complex biological processes are often performed by self-organizing nanostructures comprising multiple classes of macromolecules, such as ribosomes (proteins and RNA) or enveloped viruses (proteins, nucleic acids and lipids). Approaches have been developed for designing self-assembling structures consisting of either nucleic acids or proteins, but strategies for engineering hybrid biological materials are only beginning to emerge. Here we describe the design of self-assembling protein nanocages that direct their own release from human cells inside small vesicles in a manner that resembles some viruses...
December 8, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916668/development-of-a-novel-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-to-detect-seneca-valley-virus-1-associated-with-emerging-cases-of-vesicular-disease-in-pigs
#19
Veronica L Fowler, Russell H Ransburgh, Elizabeth G Poulsen, Jemma Wadsworth, Donald P King, Valerie Mioulet, Nick J Knowles, Susanna Williamson, Xuming Liu, Gary A Anderson, Ying Fang, Jianfa Bai
Seneca Valley virus 1 (SVV-1) can cause vesicular disease that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease. SVV-1-associated disease has been identified in pigs in several countries, namely USA, Canada, Brazil and China. Diagnostic tests are required to reliably detect this emerging virus, and this report describes the development and evaluation of a novel real-time (r) reverse-transcription (RT) PCR assay (rRT-PCR), targeting the viral polymerase gene (3D) of SVV-1...
January 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910805/ebola-virus-vaccines-where-do-we-stand
#20
REVIEW
Vincent Pavot
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has led to more than 11,000 deaths, with a peak in mortality from August through December of 2014. A meeting convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 2014, concluded that an urgent unmet need exists for efficacy and safety testing of the Ebola virus vaccine candidates and that clinical trials should be expedited. These vaccines could be used both in an outbreak setting and to provide long-term protection in populations at risk of sporadic outbreaks...
December 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
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