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Vesicular stomatitis virus

Franz Zemp, Jahanara Rajwani, Douglas J Mahoney
The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Guoyan Sun, Xinkui Fang, Hao Wu, Xinchu Zhou, Yong Ke, Tao Sun
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can cause serious vesicular lesions in pigs, and the matrix (M) protein is its predominant virulence factor. Dendritic cells (DCs) act as the bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the susceptibility of porcine DCs to VSV infection and the role of M protein in modulating the function of infected DCs are still poorly defined. Thus, this study aimed to determine the ability of virulent wild-type VSV(wtVSV) and two attenuated M protein variants (VSVΔM51 and VSVMT ) to induce maturation of porcine monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) in vitro...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Xiaoli Wang, Jiao Wang, Wenmei Zhang, Boye Li, Ying Zhu, Qin Hu, Yishu Yang, Xiaoguang Zhang, Hong Yan, Yi Zeng
Here, we report the anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) potency and underlying mechanisms of a Keggin polyoxometalate (PT-1, K₆HPTi₂W10 O40 ). Our findings showed that PT-1 exhibited highly potent effects against a diverse group of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) strains and displayed low cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The time-addition assay revealed that PT-1 acted at an early stage of infection, and these findings were supported by the observation that PT-1 had more potency against Env-pseudotyped virus than vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) pseudotyped virus...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
Luke Russell, Kah-Whye Peng
This review discusses current clinical advancements in oncolytic viral therapy, with a focus on the viral platforms approved for clinical use and highlights the benefits each platform provides. Three oncolytic viruses (OVs), an echovirus, an adenovirus, and a herpes simplex-1 virus, have passed governmental regulatory approval in Latvia, China, and the USA and EU. Numerous other recombinant viruses from diverse families are in clinical testing in cancer patients and we highlight the design features of selected examples, including adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, measles virus, retrovirus, reovirus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Ellen Suder, Wakako Furuyama, Heinz Feldmann, Andrea Marzi, Emmie de Wit
The devastating Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa in 2013-2016 accelerated the progress of several vaccines and antivirals through clinical trials, including the replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine expressing the EBOV glycoprotein (VSV-EBOV). Extensive preclinical testing in animal models demonstrated the prophylactic and post-exposure efficacy of this vaccine, identified the mechanism of protection, and suggested it was safe for human use. Based on these data, VSV-EBOV was extensively tested in phase 1-3 clinical trials in North America, Europe and Africa...
May 14, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Fatima Amanat, James Duehr, Lisa Oestereich, Kathryn M Hastie, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Florian Krammer
Arenaviruses pose a major public health threat and cause numerous infections in humans each year. Although most viruses belonging to this family do not cause disease in humans, some arenaviruses, such as Lassa virus and Machupo virus, are the etiological agents of lethal hemorrhagic fevers. The absence of a currently licensed vaccine and the highly pathogenic nature of these viruses both make the necessity of developing viable vaccines and therapeutics all the more urgent. Arenaviruses have a single glycoprotein on the surface of virions, the glycoprotein complex (GPC), and this protein can be used as a target for vaccine development...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Yuto Suda, John Chamberlain, Stuart Dowall, Masayuki Saijo, Taisuke Horimoto, Roger Hewson, Masayuki Shimojima
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus is a risk group 4 pathogen, which mandates the use of maximum containment facilities, often called biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) or containment level 4 (CL-4) laboratories when working with infectious materials. Diagnostic and research work involving live viruses in such laboratories is time-consuming and awkward resulting in delays. We herein show that the serum neutralising activity against the virus can be measured in low-containment laboratories using a pseudotyped virus...
April 27, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Carles Urbiola, Frédéric R Santer, Monika Petersson, Gabri van der Pluijm, Wolfgang Horninger, Patrik Erlmann, Guido Wollmann, Janine Kimpel, Zoran Culig, Dorothee von Laer
Oncolytic viruses, including the oncolytic rhabdovirus VSV-GP tested here, selectively infect and kill cancer cells and are a promising new therapeutic modality. Our aim was to study the efficacy of VSV-GP, a vesicular stomatitis virus carrying the glycoprotein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, against prostate cancer, for which current treatment options still fail to cure metastatic disease. VSV-GP was found to infect 6 of 7 prostate cancer cell lines with great efficacy. However, susceptibility was reduced in one cell line with low virus receptor expression and in 3 cell lines after interferon alpha treatment...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Wen Meng, Shi-Chong Han, Cui-Cui Li, Hui-Jun Dong, Jian-Yu Chang, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang, Xiao-Jia Wang
NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) to remove its K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to attenuation of type I interferon IFN-β. In the present study, we found no obvious translocation of NOP53 in infection by a mutant virus lacking ICP4 (HSV-1/d120, replication inadequate)...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
Mariana González-Hernández, Markus Hoffmann, Constantin Brinkmann, Julia Nehls, Michael Winkler, Michael Schindler, Stefan Pöhlmann
The interferon-induced antiviral host cell protein tetherin can inhibit the release of several enveloped viruses from infected cells. The Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) antagonizes tetherin but the domains and amino acids in GP that are required for tetherin antagonism have not been fully defined. A GXXXA motif within the transmembrane domain (TMD) of EBOV-GP was previously shown to be important for GP-mediated cellular detachment. Here, we investigated whether this motif also contributes to tetherin antagonism...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
Hillary L Shane, Katie L Reagin, Kimberly D Klonowski
Our understanding of memory CD8+ T cells has been largely derived from acute, systemic infection models. However, memory CD8+ T cells generated from mucosal infection exhibit unique properties and, following respiratory infection, are not maintained in the lung long term. To better understand how infection route modifies memory differentiation, we compared murine CD8+ T cell responses to a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) challenge generated intranasally (i.n.) or i.v. The i.n. infection resulted in greater peak expansion of VSV-specific CD8+ T cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Angela Huttner, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Christophe Combescure, José F Fernandes, Emmanuel Bache Bache, Lumeka Kabwende, Francis Maina Ndungu, Jessica Brosnahan, Thomas P Monath, Barbara Lemaître, Stéphane Grillet, Miriam Botto, Olivier Engler, Jasmine Portmann, Denise Siegrist, Philip Bejon, Peter Silvera, Peter Kremsner, Claire-Anne Siegrist
BACKGROUND: The recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine expressing the Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein is efficacious in the weeks following single-dose injection, but duration of immunity is unknown. We aimed to assess antibody persistence at 1 and 2 years in volunteers who received single-dose rVSV-ZEBOV in three previous trials. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we prospectively followed-up participants from the African and European phase 1 rVSV-ZEBOV trials, who were vaccinated once in 2014-15 with 300 000 (low dose) or 10-50 million (high dose) plaque-forming units (pfu) of rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine to assess ZEBOV glycoprotein (IgG) antibody persistence...
April 4, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Miguel Sena-Esteves, Guangping Gao
The titer of a lentivirus vector is often expressed in transducing units per milliliter. This is a functional titer that reflects the lentivirus' ability to transduce a particular cell line under specific conditions. Transduction of other cell lines is likely to be different and will require optimization. 293T cells are used for production of lentivirus stocks, and they can be easily transduced with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) pseudotyped lentivirus vectors. Consequently, this cell line is commonly used to determine the functional titer of lentivirus vector stocks produced with this envelope...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Anapolino Macedo de Oliveira, Antônio Augusto Fonseca, Marcelo Fernandes Camargos, Lívia Maria Orzil, Mateus Laguardia-Nascimento, Anna Gabriella Guimarães Oliveira, Jacqueline Gomes Rodrigues, Mariana Lázaro Sales, Tatiana Flávia Pinheiro de Oliveira, Cristiano Barros de Melo
Vesicular stomatitis is an infectious disease that occurs mainly in countries of the Western Hemisphere and affects cattle, swine and horses. The clinical symptoms in cattle and swine are similar to foot-and-mouth disease and include vesicular ulceration of the tongue and mouth. The disease requires a rapid and accurate differential diagnosis, aiming for immediate implementation of control measures. The objective of the present study was to develop and perform validation tests of multiplex RT-qPCR(s) for the detection of RNA from Alagoas vesiculovirus, considering the parameters of sensitivity and analytical specificity, analytical performance (repeatability and reproducibility criteria) and the uncertainty of the measurement...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Mary Lou Berninger, Emily O'Hearn, Richanne Lomkin, Ken Newens, Karyn A Havas
Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a vesicular disease of horses, cattle, and pigs in the Western Hemisphere caused by viruses in the genus Vesiculovirus. Disease manifests as vesicles and erosions on the oral mucosa, teats, prepuce, and coronary band, and is similar in presentation to foot-and-mouth disease. Laboratory confirmation is therefore required. Conventional assays include competitive (c)ELISA and complement fixation (CF). The cELISA provides more accurate herd-level detection of VSV-exposed cattle, but may lack the ability to capture fluctuating antibody levels in individual animals...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Wei Zhao, Yuping Yang, Lingling Song, Tianyi Kang, Ting Du, Yujiao Wu, Meimei Xiong, Li Luo, Jianlin Long, Ke Men, Lan Zhang, Xiaoxin Chen, Meijuan Huang, Maling Gou
Gene therapy provides a novel method for cancer therapy. This study shows a DNA nanocomplex that is inspired from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) for ovarian cancer therapy. This DNA nanocomplex consists of a cationized monomethoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (d,l-lactide) (MPEG-PLA) nanoparticle and a plasmid encoding the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVMP) that plays a critical role in the VSV-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cationized MPEG-PLA nanoparticle that is self-assembled by MPEG-PLA copolymer and N -[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy) propyl]- N,N,N -trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP) has low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency (>80%)...
March 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Peipei Zhou, Xiaodan Ding, Xiaoling Wan, Lulu Liu, Xiujie Yuan, Wei Zhang, Xinhui Hui, Guangxun Meng, Hui Xiao, Bin Li, Jin Zhong, Fajian Hou, Lihwen Deng, Yan Zhang
Trithorax group protein MLL5 is an important epigenetic modifier that controls cell cycle progression, chromatin architecture maintenance, and hematopoiesis. However, whether MLL5 has a role in innate antiviral immunity is largely unknown. Here we show that MLL5 suppresses the RIG-I-mediated anti-viral immune response. Mll5-deficient mice infected with vesicular stomatitis virus show enhanced anti-viral innate immunity, reduced morbidity, and viral load. Mechanistically, a fraction of MLL5 located in the cytoplasm interacts with both RIG-I and its E3 ubiquitin ligase STUB1, which promotes K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of RIG-I...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
John Yin, Jacob Redovich
When a virus infects a host cell, it hijacks the biosynthetic capacity of the cell to produce virus progeny, a process that may take less than an hour or more than a week. The overall time required for a virus to reproduce depends collectively on the rates of multiple steps in the infection process, including initial binding of the virus particle to the surface of the cell, virus internalization and release of the viral genome within the cell, decoding of the genome to make viral proteins, replication of the genome, assembly of progeny virus particles, and release of these particles into the extracellular environment...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Hoai J Hallam, Steven Hallam, Sergio E Rodriguez, Alan D T Barrett, David W C Beasley, Arlene Chua, Thomas G Ksiazek, Gregg N Milligan, Vaseeharan Sathiyamoorthy, Lisa M Reece
Lassa fever (LF) is a zoonotic disease associated with acute and potentially fatal hemorrhagic illness caused by the Lassa virus (LASV), a member of the family Arenaviridae . It is generally assumed that a single infection with LASV will produce life-long protective immunity. This suggests that protective immunity induced by vaccination is an achievable goal and that cell-mediated immunity may play a more important role in protection, at least following natural infection. Seropositive individuals in endemic regions have been shown to have LASV-specific T cells recognizing epitopes for nucleocapsid protein (NP) and glycoprotein precursor (GPC), suggesting that these will be important vaccine immunogens...
2018: NPJ vaccines
Richard P Ciavarra, Mayumi Machida, Patric S Lundberg, Phillip Gauronskas, Laurie L Wellman, Christina Steel, Justin O Aflatooni, Larry D Sanford
Intranasal instillation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) into mice given controllable stress (modeled by escapable foot shock, ES) resulted in enhanced pathogenicity and decreased survival relative to infected mice given uncontrollable stress (modeled by inescapable foot shock, IS) and non-shocked control mice. Survival likely reflected differential cytokine gene expression that may have been regulated by miR146a, a predicted stress-responsive upstream regulator. Controllability also enhanced the accumulation of brain T resident memory cells that persisted long after viral clearance...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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