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Vesicular stomatitis virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434944/dose-dependent-t-cell-dynamics-and-cytokine-cascade-following-rvsv-zebov-immunization
#1
Christine Dahlke, Rahel Kasonta, Sebastian Lunemann, Verena Krähling, Madeleine E Zinser, Nadine Biedenkopf, Sarah K Fehling, My L Ly, Anne Rechtien, Hans C Stubbe, Flaminia Olearo, Saskia Borregaard, Alen Jambrecina, Felix Stahl, Thomas Strecker, Markus Eickmann, Marc Lütgehetmann, Michael Spohn, Stefan Schmiedel, Ansgar W Lohse, Stephan Becker, Marylyn M Addo
BACKGROUND: The recent West African Ebola epidemic led to accelerated efforts to test Ebola vaccine candidates. As part of the World Health Organisation-led VSV Ebola Consortium (VEBCON), we performed a phase I clinical trial investigating rVSV-ZEBOV (a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored Ebola vaccine), which has recently demonstrated protection from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in phase III clinical trials and is currently in advanced stages of licensing. So far, correlates of immune protection are incompletely understood and the role of cell-mediated immune responses has not been comprehensively investigated to date...
April 5, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433889/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-for-clarification-of-the-crucial-roles-of-lysosomes-in-microbial-infections
#2
Benhong Xu, Yanpan Gao, Shaohua Zhan, Wei Ge
Lysosomes play vital roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. It is widely accepted that lysosomes do not function exclusively as a digestive organelle. It is also involved in the process of immune cells against pathogens. However, the changes in the lysosomal proteome caused by infection with various microbes are still largely unknown, and our understanding of the proteome of the purified lysosome is another obstacle that needs to be resolved. Here, we performed a proteomic study on lysosomes enriched from THP1 cells after infection with Listeria monocytogenes (L...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427845/development-of-a-micro-neutralization-assay-for-ebolaviruses-using-a-replication-competent-vesicular-stomatitis-hybrid-virus-and-a-quantitative-pcr-readout
#3
Stella S Lee, Kathryn Phy, Keith Peden, Li Sheng-Fowler
Development of vaccines against highly pathogenic viruses that could also be used as agents of bioterrorism is both a public health issue and a national security priority. Methods that can quantify neutralizing antibodies will likely be crucial in demonstrating vaccine effectiveness, as most licensed viral vaccines are effective due to their capacity to elicit neutralizing antibodies. Assays to determine whether antibodies are neutralizing traditionally involve infectious virus, and the assay most commonly used is the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
April 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416650/epigenetic-regulator-cxxc5-recruits-dna-demethylase-tet2-to-regulate-tlr7-9-elicited-ifn-response-in-pdcs
#4
Shixin Ma, Xiaoling Wan, Zihou Deng, Lei Shi, Congfang Hao, Zhenyuan Zhou, Chun Zhou, Yiyuan Fang, Jinghua Liu, Jing Yang, Xia Chen, Tiantian Li, Aiping Zang, Shigang Yin, Bin Li, Joel Plumas, Laurence Chaperot, Xiaoming Zhang, Guoliang Xu, Lubin Jiang, Nan Shen, Sidong Xiong, Xiaoming Gao, Yan Zhang, Hui Xiao
TLR7/9 signals are capable of mounting massive interferon (IFN) response in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) immediately after viral infection, yet the involvement of epigenetic regulation in this process has not been documented. Here, we report that zinc finger CXXC family epigenetic regulator CXXC5 is highly expressed in pDCs, where it plays a crucial role in TLR7/9- and virus-induced IFN response. Notably, genetic ablation of CXXC5 resulted in aberrant methylation of the CpG-containing island (CGI) within the Irf7 gene and impaired IRF7 expression in steady-state pDCs...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404856/a-dose-dependent-plasma-signature-of-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-rvsv-ebola-vaccine-in-europe-and-africa
#5
Angela Huttner, Christophe Combescure, Stéphane Grillet, Mariëlle C Haks, Edwin Quinten, Christine Modoux, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Jessica Brosnahan, Julie-Anne Dayer, Ali M Harandi, Laurent Kaiser, Donata Medaglini, Tom Monath, Pascale Roux-Lombard, Peter G Kremsner, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Claire-Anne Siegrist
The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic affected several African countries, claiming more than 11,000 lives and leaving thousands with ongoing sequelae. Safe and effective vaccines could prevent or limit future outbreaks. The recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored Zaire Ebola (rVSV-ZEBOV) vaccine has shown marked immunogenicity and efficacy in humans but is reactogenic at higher doses. To understand its effects, we examined plasma samples from 115 healthy volunteers from Geneva who received low-dose (LD) or high-dose (HD) vaccine or placebo...
April 12, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404855/genome-wide-screening-uncovers-the-significance-of-n-sulfation-of-heparan-sulfate-as-a-host-cell-factor-for-chikungunya-virus-infection
#6
Atsushi Tanaka, Uranan Tumkosit, Shota Nakamura, Daisuke Motooka, Natsuko Kishishita, Thongkoon Priengprom, Areerat Sa-Ngasang, Taroh Kinoshita, Naokazu Takeda, Yusuke Maeda
The molecular mechanisms underlying chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection are poorly characterized. In this study, we analyzed the host factors involved in CHIKV infection using genome-wide screening. Human haploid HAP1 cells, into which an exon-trapping vector was introduced, were challenged with a vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype bearing the CHIKV E3-E1 envelope proteins. Analysis of genes enriched in the cells resistant to the pseudotyped virus infection unveiled a critical role of N-sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) for the infectivity of a clinically isolated CHIKV Thai #16856 strain to HAP1 cells...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396572/vesicular-stomatitis-virus-n-protein-specific-single-domain-antibody-fragments-inhibit-replication
#7
Leo Hanke, Florian I Schmidt, Kevin E Knockenhauer, Benjamin Morin, Sean Pj Whelan, Thomas U Schwartz, Hidde L Ploegh
The transcription and replication machinery of negative-stranded RNA viruses presents a possible target for interference in the viral life cycle. We demonstrate the validity of this concept through the use of cytosolically expressed single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that protect cells from a lytic infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by targeting the viral nucleoprotein N. We define the binding sites for two such VHHs, 1004 and 1307, by X-ray crystallography to better understand their inhibitory properties...
April 10, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392573/inducible-rubicon-facilitates-viral-replication-by-antagonizing-interferon-production
#8
Yushun Wan, Wei Cao, Tao Han, Sheng Ren, Jian Feng, TieLong Chen, Jun Wang, Ruth Broering, Mengji Lu, Ying Zhu
The RUN domain Beclin-1-interacting cysteine-rich-containing (Rubicon) protein is involved in the maturation step of autophagy and the endocytic pathway as a Beclin-1-binding partner, but little is known regarding the role of Rubicon during viral infection. Here, we performed functional studies of the identified target in interferon (IFN) signaling pathways associated with Rubicon to elucidate the mechanisms of viral resistance to IFN. The Rubicon protein levels were elevated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, sera and liver tissues from patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection relative to those in healthy individuals...
April 10, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381565/tetherin-inhibits-cell-free-virus-dissemination-and-retards-murine-leukemia-virus-pathogenesis
#9
Rachel A Liberatore, Emily J Mastrocola, Chelsea Powell, Paul D Bieniasz
The relative contributions of cell-free virion circulation versus direct cell-to-cell transmission to retroviral dissemination and pathogenesis are unknown. Tetherin/Bst2 is an antiviral protein that blocks enveloped virion release into the extracellular milieu, but may not inhibit cell-to-cell virus transmission. We developed live-cell imaging assays which show that tetherin does not affect Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) spread, and only minimally affects vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) spread, to adjacent cells in a monolayer...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374251/generating-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-viruses-for-use-as-vaccine-platforms
#10
John B Ruedas, John H Connor
The unique properties of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) make it a promising vaccine platform. With the advent of plasmid-based approaches to generate recombinant VSV viruses that express glycoproteins of other viruses, researchers now have the means to generate vaccine candidates targeting a variety of human pathogens. This chapter gives a general overview of the workings of VSV as a vaccine platform and provides a detailed protocol for the generation of recombinant VSV from plasmids.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348154/mechanisms-of-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-inactivation-by-protoporphyrin-ix-zinc-protoporphyrin-ix-and-mesoporphyrin-ix
#11
Christine Cruz-Oliveira, Andreza F Almeida, João M Freire, Marjolly B Caruso, Maria A Morando, Vivian N S Ferreira, Iranaia Assunção-Miranda, Andre M O Gomes, Miguel A R B Castanho, Andrea T Da Poian
Virus resistance to antiviral therapies is an increasing concern that makes urgent the development of broad spectrum antiviral drugs. Targeting viral envelope, a component shared by a large number of viruses, emerges as a promising strategy to overcome this problem. Natural and synthetic porphyrins, due to their relative hydrophobicity and pro-oxidant character, are good candidates for antivirals' development. In the present work, we characterized the antiviral activity of protoprophyrin IX (PPIX), Zn-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) and mesoporphyrin IX (MPIX) against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and evaluated the mechanisms involved in this activity...
March 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344996/codon-optimization-leads-to-functional-impairment-of-rd114-tr-envelope-glycoprotein
#12
Eleonora Zucchelli, Monika Pema, Anna Stornaiuolo, Claudia Piovan, Cinzia Scavullo, Erica Giuliani, Sergio Bossi, Stefano Corna, Claudia Asperti, Claudio Bordignon, Gian-Paolo Rizzardi, Chiara Bovolenta
Lentiviral vectors (LVs) are a highly valuable tool for gene transfer currently exploited in basic, applied, and clinical studies. Their optimization is therefore very important for the field of vectorology and gene therapy. A key molecule for LV function is the envelope because it guides cell entry. The most commonly used in transiently produced LVs is the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) envelope, whose continuous expression is, however, toxic for stable LV producer cells. In contrast, the feline endogenous retroviral RD114-TR envelope is suitable for stable LV manufacturing, being well tolerated by producer cells under constitutive expression...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343845/curcumin-inhibits-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-infection-by-inhibiting-cell-binding
#13
Bryan C Mounce, Teresa Cesaro, Lucia Carrau, Thomas Vallet, Marco Vignuzzi
Several compounds extracted from spices and herbs exhibit antiviral effects in vitro, suggesting potential pharmacological uses. Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been used as a food additive and herbal supplement due to its potential medicinal properties. Previously, curcumin exhibited antiviral properties against several viruses, including dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, among others. Here, we describe the antiviral effect of curcumin on Zika and chikungunya viruses, two mosquito-borne outbreak viruses...
June 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335205/photosensitizer-embedded-polyacrylonitrile-nanofibers-as-antimicrobial-non-woven-textile
#14
Sarah L Stanley, Frank Scholle, Jiadeng Zhu, Yao Lu, Xiangwu Zhang, Xingci Situ, Reza A Ghiladi
Toward the objective of developing platform technologies for anti-infective materials based upon photodynamic inactivation, we employed electrospinning to prepare a non-woven textile comprised of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers embedded with a porphyrin-based cationic photosensitizer; termed PAN-Por((+)). Photosensitizer loading was determined to be 34.8 nmol/mg material; with thermostability to 300 °C. Antibacterial efficacy was evaluated against four bacteria belonging to the ESKAPE family of pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus; vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium; Acinetobacter baumannii; and Klebsiella pneumonia), as well as Escherichia coli...
April 20, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297751/preparation-of-vsv-g-viral-envelope-glycoprotein-from-pichia-pastoris-enhances-transfection-of-dna-into-animal-cells
#15
Xin Liu, Ying Dong, Jingquan Wang, Long Li, Zhenmin Zhong, Yun-Pan Li, Shao-Jun Chen, Yu-Cai Fu, Wen-Can Xu, Chi-Ju Wei
Vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G) has been widely used for pseudotyping retroviral, lentiviral and artificial viral vectors. The objective of this study was to establish a potential approach for large scale production of VSV-G. To this end, VSV-G was cloned with a N-terminal His-tag into Pichia pastoris expression vector pPIC3.5K. Three clones (Mut(s)) containing the VSV-G expression cassette were identified by PCR. All clones proliferated normally in expansion medium, while the proliferation was reduced significantly under induction conditions...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289159/cutting-edge-innate-immune-augmenting-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-expressing-zika-virus-proteins-confers-protective-immunity
#16
Dillon Betancourt, Nina M G P de Queiroz, Tianli Xia, Jeonghyun Ahn, Glen N Barber
Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a serious public health concern because of its link to brain damage in developing human fetuses. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) was shown to be a highly effective and safe vector for the delivery of foreign immunogens for vaccine purposes. In this study, we generated rVSVs (wild-type and attenuated VSV with mutated matrix protein [VSVm] versions) that express either the full length ZIKV envelope protein (ZENV) alone or include the ZENV precursor to the membrane protein upstream of the envelope protein, and our rVSV-ZIKV constructs showed efficient immunogenicity in murine models...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274313/-establishment-of-esophageal-squamous-carcinoma-cell-lines-stably-over-expressing-llgl2
#17
Qiong Hu, Fu'an Xie, Xiaoqian Hong, Kuancan Liu
Objective To prepare a lentiviral vector expressing LLGL2 and establish KYSE450 and TE-1 cell lines for the stable expression of LLGL2. Methods The full-length LLGL2 sequence was amplified by high-fidelity PCR, and then it was inserted into pCDH-CMV-IRES-GFP-EF1-Puro vectors. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by double enzyme digestion and sequencing. After co-infection of pCDH-CMV-LLGL2-IRES- GFP-EF1-Puro with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) and PHR into HEK293T cells, the lentivirus was harvested and used for infecting esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines including KYSE450 and TE-1 cells...
March 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262484/the-antiviral-rna-interference-response-provides-resistance-to-lethal-arbovirus-infection-and-vertical-transmission-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Don B Gammon, Takao Ishidate, Lichao Li, Weifeng Gu, Neal Silverman, Craig C Mello
The recent discovery of the positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) Orsay virus (OV) as a natural pathogen of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has stimulated interest in exploring virus-nematode interactions. However, OV infection is restricted to a small number of intestinal cells, even in nematodes defective in their antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response, and is neither lethal nor vertically transmitted. Using a fluorescent reporter strain of the negative-sense ssRNA vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we show that microinjection of VSV particles leads to a dose-dependent, muscle tissue-tropic, lethal infection in C...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246125/zmpste24-defends-against-influenza-and-other-pathogenic-viruses
#19
Bishi Fu, Lingyan Wang, Shitao Li, Martin E Dorf
Zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (ZMPSTE24) is a transmembrane metalloprotease whose catalytic activity is critical for processing lamin A on the inner nuclear membrane and clearing clogged translocons on the endoplasmic reticulum. We now report ZMPSTE24 is a virus-specific effector that restricts enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including influenza A, Zika, Ebola, Sindbis, vesicular stomatitis, cowpox, and vaccinia, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. ZMPSTE24-mediated antiviral action is independent of protease activity...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237836/inhibitory-receptors-induced-by-vsv-viroimmunotherapy-are-not-necessarily-targets-for-improving-treatment-efficacy
#20
Kevin G Shim, Shane Zaidi, Jill Thompson, Tim Kottke, Laura Evgin, Karishma R Rajani, Matthew Schuelke, Christopher B Driscoll, Amanda Huff, Jose S Pulido, Richard G Vile
Systemic viroimmunotherapy activates endogenous innate and adaptive immune responses against both viral and tumor antigens. We have shown that therapy with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) engineered to express a tumor-associated antigen activates antigen-specific adoptively transferred T cells (adoptive cell therapy, ACT) in vivo to generate effective therapy. The overall goal of this study was to phenotypically characterize the immune response to VSV+ACT therapy and use the information gained to rationally improve combination therapy...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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