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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920181/chikungunya-virus-vaccines-viral-vector-based-approaches
#1
Katrin Ramsauer, Frédéric Tangy
In 2013, a major chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic reached the Americas. In the past 2 years, >1.7 million people have been infected. In light of the current epidemic, with millions of people in North and South America at risk, efforts to rapidly develop effective vaccines have increased. Here, we focus on CHIKV vaccines that use viral-vector technologies. This group of vaccine candidates shares an ability to potently induce humoral and cellular immune responses by use of highly attenuated and safe vaccine backbones...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919066/designed-proteins-induce-the-formation-of-nanocage-containing-extracellular-vesicles
#2
Jörg Votteler, Cassandra Ogohara, Sue Yi, Yang Hsia, Una Nattermann, David M Belnap, Neil P King, Wesley I Sundquist
Complex biological processes are often performed by self-organizing nanostructures comprising multiple classes of macromolecules, such as ribosomes (proteins and RNA) or enveloped viruses (proteins, nucleic acids and lipids). Approaches have been developed for designing self-assembling structures consisting of either nucleic acids or proteins, but strategies for engineering hybrid biological materials are only beginning to emerge. Here we describe the design of self-assembling protein nanocages that direct their own release from human cells inside small vesicles in a manner that resembles some viruses...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916668/development-of-a-novel-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-to-detect-seneca-valley-virus-1-associated-with-emerging-cases-of-vesicular-disease-in-pigs
#3
Veronica L Fowler, Russell H Ransburgh, Elizabeth G Poulsen, Jemma Wadsworth, Donald P King, Valerie Mioulet, Nick J Knowles, Susanna Williamson, Xuming Liu, Gary A Anderson, Ying Fang, Jianfa Bai
Seneca Valley virus 1 (SVV-1) can cause vesicular disease that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease. SVV-1-associated disease has been identified in pigs in several countries, namely USA, Canada, Brazil and China. Diagnostic tests are required to reliably detect this emerging virus, and this report describes the development and evaluation of a novel real-time (r) reverse-transcription (RT) PCR assay (rRT-PCR), targeting the viral polymerase gene (3D) of SVV-1...
January 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910805/ebola-virus-vaccines-where-do-we-stand
#4
REVIEW
Vincent Pavot
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has led to more than 11,000 deaths, with a peak in mortality from August through December of 2014. A meeting convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 2014, concluded that an urgent unmet need exists for efficacy and safety testing of the Ebola virus vaccine candidates and that clinical trials should be expedited. These vaccines could be used both in an outbreak setting and to provide long-term protection in populations at risk of sporadic outbreaks...
October 28, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896670/the-activation-of-the-ifn%C3%AE-induction-signaling-pathway-in-porcine-alveolar-macrophages-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-is-variable
#5
Christopher C Overend, Junru Cui, Marvin J Grubman, Antonio E Garmendia
BACKGROUND: It has been recognized that the expression of type I interferon (IFNα/β) may be suppressed during infection with porcine reproductive, respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). This causes profound negative effects on both the innate and adaptive immunity of the host resulting in persistence of infection. OBJECTIVE: Test the effects of PRRSV infection of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the main target cell, on the expression of interferon beta (IFNβ) and downstream signaling events...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888461/inhibitory-effects-of-bee-venom-and-its-components-against-viruses-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Md Bashir Uddin, Byeong-Hoon Lee, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jae-Hoon Kim, Tae-Hwan Kim, Hyun-Cheol Lee, Choul Goo Kim, Jong-Soo Lee, Chul-Joong Kim
Bee venom (BV) from honey bee (Apis Melifera L.) contains at least 18 pharmacologically active components including melittin (MLT), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and apamin etc. BV is safe for human treatments dose dependently and proven to possess different healing properties including antibacterial and antiparasitidal properties. Nevertheless, antiviral properties of BV have not well investigated. Hence, we identified the potential antiviral properties of BV and its component against a broad panel of viruses. Co-incubation of non-cytotoxic amounts of BV and MLT, the main component of BV, significantly inhibited the replication of enveloped viruses such as Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881643/inclusion-body-fusion-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-regulated-by-acetylated-%C3%AE-tubulin-enhances-viral-replication
#7
Shengwei Zhang, Yanliang Jiang, Qi Cheng, Zhong Yi, Yali Qin, Mingzhou Chen
: Viral inclusion bodies (IBs) or replication factories are unique structures generated by viral proteins together with some cellular proteins as a platform for efficient viral replication, but little is known about the mechanism underlying IB formation and fusion. Our previous study demonstrated that the interaction between the nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), an enveloped virus of great medical impact, can form IBs. In this study, we found that small IBs can fuse with each other to form large IBs that enhance viral replication...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879319/amp-activated-kinase-ampk-promotes-innate-immunity-and-antiviral-defense-through-modulation-of-stimulator-of-interferon-genes-sting-signaling
#8
Daniel Prantner, Darren J Perkins, Stefanie N Vogel
The host protein Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) has been shown to be essential for recognition of both viral and intracellular bacterial pathogens, but its regulation remains unclear. Previously, we reported that mitochondrial membrane potential regulates STING-dependent IFN-beta induction independently of ATP synthesis. Since mitochondrial membrane potential controls calcium homeostasis, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is regulated, in part, by intracellular calcium, we postulated that AMPK participates in STING activation; however, its role has yet to be been defined...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878975/multiplex-rt-pcr-and-automated-microarray-for-detection-of-eight-bovine-viruses
#9
O Lung, T Furukawa-Stoffer, K Burton Hughes, J Pasick, D P King, D Hodko
Microarrays can be a useful tool for pathogen detection as it allow for simultaneous interrogation of the presence of a large number of genetic sequences in a sample. However, conventional microarrays require extensive manual handling and multiple pieces of equipment for printing probes, hybridization, washing and signal detection. In this study, a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with an accompanying novel automated microarray for simultaneous detection of eight viruses that affect cattle [vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 and type 2, bovine herpesvirus 1, bluetongue virus, malignant catarrhal fever virus, rinderpest virus (RPV) and parapox viruses] is described...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865863/curcumin-promotes-the-oncoltyic-capacity-of-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-for-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancers
#10
Dylan J Fehl, Maryam Ahmed
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix (M) protein mutants have been studied as oncolytic agents due to their capacity to effectively kill cancer cells while exhibiting low virulence in vivo. Despite encouraging results, many cancer cells maintain resistance to oncolytic VSV mutants in part due to residual antiviral responses. We sought to determine whether combination of VSV with natural agents with anti-tumor properties, such as curcumin, resveratrol, and flavokavain B, would enhance tumor cell killing in a prostate cancer model...
November 16, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849057/cell-senescence-is-an-antiviral-defense-mechanism
#11
Maite Baz-Martínez, Sabela Da Silva-Álvarez, Estefanía Rodríguez, Jorge Guerra, Ahmed El Motiam, Anxo Vidal, Tomás García-Caballero, Miguel González-Barcia, Laura Sánchez, César Muñoz-Fontela, Manuel Collado, Carmen Rivas
Cellular senescence is often considered a protection mechanism triggered by conditions that impose cellular stress. Continuous proliferation, DNA damaging agents or activated oncogenes are well-known activators of cell senescence. Apart from a characteristic stable cell cycle arrest, this response also involves a proinflammatory phenotype known as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). This, together with the widely known interference with senescence pathways by some oncoviruses, had led to the hypothesis that senescence may also be part of the host cell response to fight virus...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824940/invertebrate-iridescent-virus-6-a-dna-virus-stimulates-a-mammalian-innate-immune-response-through-rig-i-like-receptors
#12
Laura R H Ahlers, Reginaldo G Bastos, Aoi Hiroyasu, Alan G Goodman
Insects are not only major vectors of mammalian viruses, but are also host to insect-restricted viruses that can potentially be transmitted to mammals. While mammalian innate immune responses to arboviruses are well studied, less is known about how mammalian cells respond to viruses that are restricted to infect only invertebrates. Here we demonstrate that IIV-6, a DNA virus of the family Iridoviridae, is able to induce a type I interferon-dependent antiviral immune response in mammalian cells. Although IIV-6 is a DNA virus, we demonstrate that the immune response activated during IIV-6 infection is mediated by the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway, and not the canonical DNA sensing pathway via cGAS/STING...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822544/multiplexed-metagenomic-deep-sequencing-to-analyze-the-composition-of-high-priority-pathogen-reagents
#13
Michael R Wilson, Greg Fedewa, Mark D Stenglein, Judith Olejnik, Linda J Rennick, Sham Nambulli, Friederike Feldmann, W Paul Duprex, John H Connor, Elke Mühlberger, Joseph L DeRisi
Laboratories studying high-priority pathogens need comprehensive methods to confirm microbial species and strains while also detecting contamination. Metagenomic deep sequencing (MDS) inventories nucleic acids present in laboratory stocks, providing an unbiased assessment of pathogen identity, the extent of genomic variation, and the presence of contaminants. Double-stranded cDNA MDS libraries were constructed from RNA extracted from in vitro-passaged stocks of six viruses (La Crosse virus, Ebola virus, canine distemper virus, measles virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus)...
July 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818247/gapdh-binds-akt-to-facilitate-cargo-transport-in-the-early-secretory-pathway
#14
Ellen J Tisdale, Nikunj K Talati, Cristina R Artalejo, Assia Shisheva
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) undergoes numerous post-translational modifications, which impart new function and influence intracellular location. For example, atypical PKC ι/λ phosphorylates GAPDH that locates to vesicular tubular clusters and is required for retrograde membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway. GAPDH is also required in the endocytic pathway; substitution of Pro(234) to Ser (Pro(234)Ser) rendered CHO cells defective in endocytosis. To determine if GAPDH (Pro(234)Ser) could inhibit endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi trafficking, we introduced the recombinant mutant enzyme into several biochemical and morphological transport assays...
December 10, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798615/human-antibody-repertoire-after-vsv-ebola-vaccination-identifies-novel-targets-and-virus-neutralizing-igm-antibodies
#15
Surender Khurana, Sandra Fuentes, Elizabeth M Coyle, Supriya Ravichandran, Richard T Davey, John H Beigel
Development of an effective vaccine against Ebola virus is of high priority. However, knowledge about potential correlates of protection and the durability of immune response after vaccination is limited. Here, we elucidate the human antibody repertoire after administration of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-Ebola vaccine at 3 million, 20 million and 100 million plaque-forming units (PFU) and homologous VSV-Ebola vaccine boost in healthy adult volunteers. Whole genome-fragment phage display libraries, expressing linear and conformational epitopes of Ebola glycoprotein (GP), showed higher diversity of antibody epitopes in individuals vaccinated with 20 million PFU than in those vaccinated with 3 million or 100 million PFU...
December 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795419/an-in-vitro-rna-synthesis-assay-for-rabies-virus-defines-critical-ribonucleoprotein-interactions-for-polymerase-activity
#16
Benjamin Morin, Bo Liang, Erica Gardner, Robin A Ross, Sean P J Whelan
: We report an in vitro RNA synthesis assay for the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of rabies virus (RABV). We expressed RABV large polymerase protein (L) in insect cells from a recombinant baculovirus vector and the phosphoprotein cofactor (P) in Escherichia coli and purified the resulting proteins by affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Using chemically synthesized short RNA corresponding to the first 19-nt of the rabies virus genome we demonstrate that L alone initiates synthesis on naked RNA, and that P serves to enhance initiation and processivity of the RdRP...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793645/a-multiplex-pcr-for-viruses-associated-with-exanthematic-and-vesicular-disease-in-cattle
#17
Juliana F Cargnelutti, Rudi Weiblen, Eduardo F Flores
Exanthematic and papulo-vesicular lesions in the udder and teats of milking cows are fairly common in some Brazilian dairies, especially those with poor sanitary conditions and hand milking. The orthopoxvirus Vaccinia virus (VACV) and the parapoxviruses Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and Bovine popular stomatitis virus (BPSV) have been frequently associated with such conditions. Elsewhere, Bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) has also been associated with similar clinical signs. Thus, we herein describe a conventional multiplex PCR designed to detect the genome of these viruses in clinical samples while differentiating among them by amplicon size...
January 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791106/synthetically-derived-bat-influenza-a-like-viruses-reveal-a-cell-type-but-not-species-specific-tropism
#18
Étori Aguiar Moreira, Samira Locher, Larissa Kolesnikova, Hardin Bolte, Teresa Aydillo, Adolfo García-Sastre, Martin Schwemmle, Gert Zimmer
Two novel influenza A-like viral genome sequences have recently been identified in Central and South American fruit bats and provisionally designated "HL17NL10" and "HL18NL11." All efforts to isolate infectious virus from bats or to generate these viruses by reverse genetics have failed to date. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) encoding the hemagglutinin-like envelope glycoproteins HL17 or HL18 in place of the VSV glycoprotein were generated to identify cell lines that are susceptible to bat influenza A-like virus entry...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790096/intranasal-location-and-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-the-equine-olfactory-epithelium
#19
Alexandra Kupke, Sabine Wenisch, Klaus Failing, Christiane Herden
The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., Borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus can use this route...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783035/the-microtubule-inhibitor-podofilox-inhibits-an-early-entry-step-of-human-cytomegalovirus
#20
Tobias Cohen, Toni M Schwarz, Frederic Vigant, Thomas J Gardner, Rosmel E Hernandez, Benhur Lee, Domenico Tortorella
Human cytomegalovirus is a ubiquitous β-herpesvirus that infects many different cell types through an initial binding to cell surface receptors followed by a fusion event at the cell membrane or endocytic vesicle. A recent high-throughput screen to identify compounds that block a step prior to viral gene expression identified podofilox as a potent and nontoxic inhibitor. Time-of-addition studies in combination with quantitative-PCR analysis demonstrated that podofilox limits an early step of virus entry at the cell surface...
October 24, 2016: Viruses
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