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Adolescence obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933711/using-a-co-production-prioritization-exercise-involving-south-asian-children-young-people-and-their-families-to-identify-health-priorities-requiring-further-research-and-public-awareness
#1
Logan Manikam, Rakhee Shah, Kate Reed, Gupreet Santini, Monica Lakhanpaul
OBJECTIVES: To facilitate South Asian (SA) families and health-care professionals (HCPs) participation in a prioritization exercise to co-produce child health research and public awareness agendas. DESIGN: A three-stage process was adopted involving the following: (i) systematic literature review, (ii) HCP scoping survey and (iii) focus groups of SA adolescents and families. A Punjabi- and Urdu-speaking community facilitator moderated focus groups. A British Sign Language interpreter assisted in the hard of hearing group...
December 8, 2016: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930438/sympathetic-neural-activity-metabolic-parameters-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-obese-youths
#2
Pau Redón, Guido Grassi, Josep Redon, Julio Álvarez-Pitti, Empar Lurbe
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this cross-sectional study is to assess the cardiac autonomic neural activity in the presence of abnormally increased body weight in youths and its relationship to metabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: Sixty-four overweight and obese patients, aged 9-17 years, of both sexes, stratified according to the international BMI cut-off, were enrolled. Continuous ECG was recorded during 15 min in resting conditions, and the heart rate variability (HRV) was measured in the time domain, frequency domain and for nonlinear dynamics...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927675/is-body-mass-index-associated-with-patellofemoral-pain-and-patellofemoral-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression-and-analysis
#3
Harvi F Hart, Christian J Barton, Karim M Khan, Henrik Riel, Kay M Crossley
BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) occurs frequently, and may be related to patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). Obesity is associated with increased risk of knee OA. This systematic review involves a meta-regression and analysis to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFP and PFOA, and to determine the link between BMI and interventional outcomes. METHODS: We searched seven electronic databases and reference lists of relevant papers and systematic reviews, for cross-sectional, prospective, human-based observational and interventional studies reporting BMI in individuals with PFP or PFOA compared to healthy controls...
December 7, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923279/does-exercise-training-affect-resting-metabolic-rate-in-adolescents-with-obesity
#4
Angela S Alberga, Denis Prud'homme, Ronald J Sigal, Gary S Goldfield, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Réjeanne Gougeon, Penny Phillips, Janine Malcolm, George A Wells, Steve Doucette, Jinhui Ma, Glen P Kenny
We evaluated the hypothesis that resistance exercise training performed alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) relative to aerobic-only and nonexercising control groups. Postpubertal adolescents (N = 304) aged 14-18 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile + additional diabetes risk factor(s)) were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks: Aerobic exercise training, Resistance exercise training, Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, or Control...
August 22, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923101/secular-changes-in-physical-growth-and-obesity-among-southwestern-american-indian-children-over-four-decades
#5
P Vijayakumar, K M Wheelock, S Kobes, R G Nelson, R L Hanson, W C Knowler, M Sinha
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most studies describing childhood obesity in the United States are based on cross-sectional surveys and do not include substantial numbers of American Indians (AI). Secular trends in height and weight reflect general health status. This study describes weight trends and transitions among AI children over a 43-year period. METHODS: Anthropometric data were obtained from a prospective study conducted in a southwestern US AI population (1965 through 2007)...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921049/metabolic-syndrome-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
REVIEW
Christine Graf, Nina Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Juvenile obesity is associated with multiple cardiometabolic comorbidities, which may culminate in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Based on a narrative review, the current knowledge of prevalence and the underlying metabolic principles regarding juvenile obesity and MetS are summarized to compile up-to-date information. In addition, the role of lifestyle as well as positive and negative influencing factors are focused on. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS occurs between 1 and up to 23% in the total pediatric population and in up to 60% amongst the obese and overweight...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919454/the-longitudinal-impact-of-nfl-play-60-programming-on-youth-aerobic-capacity-and-bmi
#7
Yang Bai, Pedro F Saint-Maurice, Gregory J Welk, Daniel W Russell, Kelly Allums-Featherston, Norma Candelaria
INTRODUCTION: The NFL PLAY 60 campaign has actively promoted physical activity and healthy eating in youth through programs such as the PLAY 60 Challenge and Fuel Up to PLAY 60. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of NFL PLAY 60 programming on longitudinal trajectories of youth aerobic capacity and BMI. STUDY DESIGN: Data were from the NFL PLAY 60 FitnessGram Partnership Project, a large participatory research project designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among Kindergarten through 12th grade children and adolescents...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917115/switching-adolescent-high-fat-diet-to-adult-control-diet-restores-neurocognitive-alterations
#8
Chloé Boitard, Shauna L Parkes, Amandine Cavaroc, Frédéric Tantot, Nathalie Castanon, Sophie Layé, Sophie Tronel, Gustavo Pacheco-Lopez, Etienne Coutureau, Guillaume Ferreira
In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala) and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF) exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914704/kidney-outcomes-three-years-after-bariatric-surgery-in-severely-obese-adolescents
#9
Edward J Nehus, Jane C Khoury, Thomas H Inge, Nianzhou Xiao, Todd M Jenkins, Marva M Moxey-Mims, Mark M Mitsnefes
A significant number of severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery have evidence of early kidney damage. To determine if kidney injury is reversible following bariatric surgery, we investigated renal outcomes in the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery cohort, a prospective multicenter study of 242 severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Primary outcomes of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were evaluated preoperatively and up to 3 years following bariatric surgery...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914305/effectiveness-of-a-cross-circuit-exercise-training-program-in-improving-the-fitness-of-overweight-or-obese-adolescents-with-intellectual-disability-enrolled-in-special-education-schools
#10
Wen-Lan Wu, Yu-Fen Yang, I-Hua Chu, Hsiu-Tao Hsu, Feng-Hua Tsai, Jing-Min Liang
This study assessed the effects of a cross-circuit training intervention program on the body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, and muscular strength endurance of overweight or obese students with intellectual disability. A total of 43 students with intellectual disability (aged 13-19 years) were enrolled in this program; 28 overweight/obese students were assigned to either an obesity-control group (n=14) or obesity-exercise group (n=14), and those with normal weight were assigned to a normal weight group (n=15)...
November 30, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909901/obesity-and-breast-cancer
#11
Renée T Fortner, Verena Katzke, Tilman Kühn, Rudolf Kaaks
The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (e.g., pre- vs. postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (i.e., pre- vs. postmenopausal disease). Further, the impact of obesity on risk differs by tumor hormone receptor status (e.g., estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor) and, among postmenopausal women, use of exogenous hormones (i.e., hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). In the context of these complexities, this review focuses on associations between childhood and adolescent adiposity, general adiposity, weight changes (i...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909900/obesity-and-colorectal-cancer
#12
Carmen Jochem, Michael Leitzmann
There is strong evidence that modifiable lifestyle factors such as obesity play a key role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic data have consistently reported a positive association between obesity and colorectal cancer. The relative risk associated with general obesity (as assessed by BMI) is higher in men than in women and for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum. Abdominal obesity (as assessed by waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-hip ratio) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in both sexes, with stronger associations for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909377/association-between-body-composition-and-sport-injury-in-canadian-adolescents
#13
Allison M Ezzat, Amy Schneeberg, Mieke Koehoorn, Carolyn A Emery
Purpose: To examine the association between overweight or obesity and sport injury in a population-based sample of Canadian adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using the Canadian Community Health Survey (2009-2010), a nationally representative sample (n=12,407) of adolescents aged 12-19 years. Body composition was quantified using BMI, grouping participants into healthy weight, overweight, or obese. The outcome of interest was acute or repetitive strain injury sustained during sport in the previous year...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906796/cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-adolescents-with-celiac-disease-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#14
Amit Assa, Yael Frenkel-Nir, Dorit Tzur, Lior H Katz, Raanan Shamir
BACKGROUND: Recent data have shown that adults with celiac disease (CD) may have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the association of CD with CVD risk factors at late adolescence in a cross-sectional population based study. METHODS: A total of 2,001,353 Jewish Israeli adolescents who underwent a general health examination at median age of 17.1y from 1988 to 2015 were included...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906646/a-physical-activity-intervention-and-changes-in-body-mass-index-at-a-middle-school-with-a-large-american-indian-population-oklahoma-2004-2009
#15
June E Eichner, Olakunle A Folorunso, William E Moore
School-based interventions can reach children and adolescents and aid in reducing the prevalence of childhood obesity. A physical education class that engaged middle school students in a daily 1-mile walk or run and other team sports was developed in a rural school in southwestern Oklahoma with a large American Indian population. Body mass index z scores decreased among boys and were stable among girls in the intervention group compared with students who did not participate in the intervention. A daily required walk or run may help to establish a physical activity habit with all of its associated benefits...
December 1, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905645/-morbidity-profile-among-adolescents-with-down-syndrome
#16
Antonia Cárdenas, María A Paul, Catalina Correa, Sebastián Valderrama, Jaime Cerda, Macarena Lizama
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information about morbidity and mortality of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). AIM: To describe morbidity and mortality of a cohort of Chilean adolescents with DS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of electronic clinical records of 67 ambulatory patients with DS aged 10 to 20 years (37 women), seen between the years 2007 and 2014 in outpatient clinics of a University hospital. RESULTS: The mean age at the last consultation was 13 ± 3 years...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904616/effect-of-folic-acid-and-metformin-on-insulin-resistance-and-inflammatory-factors-of-obese-children-and-adolescents
#17
Elham Hashemi Dehkordi, Farnaz Sattari, Abolfazl Khoshdel, Karamali Kasiri
BACKGROUND: Considering the increasing trend of obesity, especially in developing countries such as Iran, and the role of inflammatory factors and insulin resistance (IR) in the occurrence of obesity-related complications as well as the safety of some agents such as folic acid and metformin, this clinical trial was designed to investigate the effect of metformin and folic acid on inflammatory factors and IR among obese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial study, sixty obese children aged 6-12 years were enrolled...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904026/inverse-relationship-between-sleep-duration-and-cardio-ankle-vascular-index-in-children
#18
Noriteru Morita, Isao Kambayashi, Tomoyasu Okuda, Shiro Oda, Shingo Takada, Toshihiro Nakajima, Noriyuki Shide, Hisashi Shinkaiya, Koichi Okita
AIM: Poor sleep has been shown to be associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, in both adults and children. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and arterial stiffness indices in Japanese children and early adolescents. METHODS: The data on 102 students (56 males, 46 females; mean age, 11.9±1.8 years) were analyzed. As non-invasive arterial stiffness parameters, the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and heart-ankle pulse wave velocity (haPWV) were evaluated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903830/early-life-sugar-consumption-affects-the-rat-microbiome-independently-of-obesity
#19
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Roshonda B Jones, Anthony A Fodor, Michael I Goran, Scott E Kanoski
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has been implicated in various metabolic and neurocognitive disorders and is heavily influenced by dietary factors, but there is a paucity of research on the effects of added sugars on the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVE: With the use of a rodent model, our goal was to determine how added-sugar consumption during the juvenile and adolescent phase of development affects the gut microbiome. METHODS: Forty-two juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats [postnatal day (PND) 26; 50-70 g] were given access to 1 of 3 different 11%-carbohydrate solutions designed to model a range of monosaccharide ratios commonly consumed in sugar-sweetened beverages: 1) 35% fructose:65% glucose, 2) 50% fructose:50% glucose, 3) 65% fructose:35% glucose, and 4) control (no sugar)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903446/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-an-under-recognized-cause-of-abnormal-uterine-bleeding-in-adolescents-admitted-to-a-children-s-hospital
#20
Sofya Maslyanskaya, Hina J Talib, Jennifer L Northridge, Amanda M Jacobs, Chanelle Coble, Susan M Coupey
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether ovulatory dysfunction due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common underlying etiology of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in adolescents requiring hospitalization and to explore etiology, treatment and complications of AUB with severe anemia in adolescents. DESIGN: We identified females aged 8 to 20 years admitted to a children's hospital for treatment of AUB from January 2000 to December 2014. Our hospital protocol advises hormonal testing for PCOS and other disorders prior to treatment for AUB...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
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