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Leptin, BMI, children

Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jordan Gaines, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Susan L Calhoun, Fan He, Duanping Liao, Marjorie D Sawyer, Edward O Bixler
Only a handful of studies, primarily in clinical samples, have reported an association between obesity, inflammation, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children and adolescents. No studies, however, have examined the pathogenetic link between visceral adiposity, systemic inflammation, and incident OSA in a large general population sample using objective measures of sleep and body fat. Adolescents (n=392; mean age 17.0±2.2y, 54.0% male) from the Penn State Child Cohort (PSCC) underwent 9-hour overnight polysomnography; a DXA scan to assess body fat distribution; and a single fasting blood draw for the assessment of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6 sR), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1A (TNFR1), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, and adiponectin levels via ELISA...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
M Mostazir, A Jeffery, J Hosking, B Metcalf, L Voss, T Wilkin
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is closely linked to obesity, and obesity rates climb during adolescence for reasons that are not clear. Energy efficiency is important to obesity, and we describe a temporary but substantial fall in absolute energy expenditure, compatible with improved energy efficiency, during the rapid growth phase of puberty. METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study lasting 10 years, we measured voluntary energy expenditure as physical activity (PA) by accelerometry, involuntary energy expenditure as resting energy expenditure (REE) by oxygen consumption, body mass index (BMI) and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry annually on 10 occasions from 7 to 16 years in the 347 children of the EarlyBird study...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ramona Stroescu, Teofana Bizerea, Gabriela Doroş, Monica Marazan, Maria Lesovici, Otilia Mãrginean
Objective: To investigate the relationship between markers of adiposity and common carotid artery (CIMT) in obese children born small for gestational age (SGA) versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA), to establish cut-off values for CIMT in obese pediatric populations. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out over a 1-year period (Jul 2013 - June 2014). We analyzed 122 obese patients aged 4-20 (mean age 14.9 ± 2.28). Twenty-six patients were born SGA...
September 5, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Pilar Navarro, Olaya de Dios, Teresa Gavela-Pérez, Asha Jois, Carmen Garcés, Leandro Soriano-Guillén
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy school children, and to evaluate whether changes in body mass index (BMI) category throughout childhood affect hs-CRP levels. STUDY DESIGN: We measured serum hs-CRP levels, lipid profile, insulin levels, and leptin levels in 683 prepubertal children and 748 adolescents. A total of 272 children participated in the study in both cohorts, prepubertal (baseline; age 6-8 years) and adolescents (follow-up; age 12-16 years)...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Renata Stawerska, Elżbieta Czkwianianc, Joanna Smyczyńska, Maciej Hilczer, Andrzej Lewiński
OBJECTIVES: Ghrelin plays an important role in the growth processes in children, additionally, it regulates appetite. The aim of the study was to assess ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) concentrations in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS), dependent on nutritional status. METHODS: The study group included 116 children, aged 10.6 ± 3.5 years (mean ± SD), with ISS [height below -2.0 standard deviation scores (SDS), maximal growth hormone (GH) secretion during two GH-stimulating tests - over 10 ng/ml]...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Gönül Çatlı, Tuncay Küme, Hale Ünver Tuhan, Ahmet Anık, Özlem Gürsoy Çalan, Ece Böber, Ayhan Abacı
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum irisin level and metabolic and anthropometric parameters in obese children. METHODS: The study included 36 obese children with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥95th percentile and 30 healthy children with a BMI ranging from the 5th to the 85th percentile. Healthy and obese children had similar age, gender and pubertal stage distribution. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters (fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin and irisin levels) were measured...
November 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Rafael Machado Mantovani, Natália Pessoa Rocha, Daniel Massote Magalhães, Izabela Guimarães Barbosa, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva
OBJECTIVE: Childhood obesity has been associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to compare plasma levels of traditional metabolic markers, adipokines and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNFR1) in overweight, obese and lean children. We also assessed the relationships of these molecules with classical metabolic risk factors. METHODS: This study included 104 children and adolescents, which were grouped as: lean (n=24), overweight (n=30), and obese subjects (n=50)...
August 6, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Giuseppe Murdolo, Cristina Tortoioli, Federica Celi, Vittorio Bini, Francesco Papi, Annalisa Brozzetti, Alberto Falorni
The secreted hepatokine fetuin-A emerges as an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The overall aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the associations of fetuin-A with adiposity and insulin resistance, as well as its relationship with adipokines, in prepubertal children, and, (2) to evaluate whether, in prepubertal obesity, serum fetuin-A levels may either change or predict the responsiveness to an educational-based weight excess reduction program. We studied 200 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 89/111; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 years), included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey...
July 7, 2016: Endocrine
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Valerie Jewells, Carolina Galaz-Montoya, Brigitte van Zundert, Angel Pérez-Calatayud, Eric Ascencio-Ferrel, Gildardo Valencia-Salazar, Marcela Sandoval-Cano, Esperanza Carlos, Edelmira Solorio, Hilda Acuña-Ayala, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Amedeo D'Angiulli
Children's air pollution exposures are associated with systemic and brain inflammation and the early hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk for AD, with higher risk for women. We assessed whether gender, BMI, APOE and metabolic variables in healthy children with high exposures to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) influence cognition. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was administered to 105 Mexico City children (12...
October 2016: Environmental Research
Usama M Alkholy, Ihab A Ahmed, Nehad A Karam, Yasser Fathy Ali, Ahmed Yosry
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in children and adults. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serum leptin level and the cardiac changes in normotensive obese children and to study the relationship between left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and serum leptin with the parameters of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese children. METHODS: This study was conducted in al Jeddani Hospital and Ibn Sina College Hospital in Saudi Arabia in the period from July 2012 to December 2013, and included 82 obese children...
July 2016: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
D Laino, G Vitaliti, P Parisi, P Pavone, A Verrotti, R Lubrano, N Matin, R Falsaperla
Headache can represent different disorders with different etiologies; including cardiac, cerebral, vascular, psychiatric, metabolic, neurologic diseases. Recent studies have highlighted that obesity is significantly associated with headache and disability in adults. This rule also applies to children. This review focuses on literature data studying any eventual relationship between headache, migraine and obesity [shown in Body Mass Index (BMI)] in children. Research data have highlighted that there is a relationship between headache physiopathology and central and peripheral mechanisms responsible for food assumption...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Maryam Razzaghy-Azar, Mitra Nourbakhsh, Abdolreza Pourmoteabed, Mona Nourbakhsh, Davod Ilbeigi, Mohsen Khosravi
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide with an orexigenic property, which is predominantly produced by the stomach. Acylated ghrelin is the active form of this hormone. Obestatin is a 23-amino acid peptide which is produced by post-translational modification of a protein precursor that also produces ghrelin. Obestatin has the opposite effect of ghrelin on food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate acylated ghrelin and obestatin levels and their ratio in obese and normal-weight children and adolescents, and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters...
2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Erica M Bullwinkle, Melissa D Parker, Nicole F Bonan, Lauren G Falkenberg, Steven P Davison, Kathleen L DeCicco-Skinner
The prevalence of obesity over the last several decades in the United States has tripled among children and doubled among adults. Obesity increases the incidence and progression of multiple myeloma (MM), yet the molecular mechanisms by which adipocytes contribute to cancer development and patient prognosis have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we obtained human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from twenty-nine normal (BMI = 20-25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-30 kg/m(2)), obese (30-35 kg/m(2)), or super obese (35-40 kg/m(2)) patients undergoing elective liposuction...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Letters
Joanna Gajewska, Alina Kuryłowicz, Ewa Mierzejewska, Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Magdalena Chełchowska, Halina Weker, Monika Puzianowska-Kuźnicka
In obese individuals, weight loss might be affected by variants of the adipokine-encoding genes. We verified whether selected functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ are associated with changes in serum levels of the respective adipokines and weight loss in 100 prepubertal obese (SDS-BMI > 2) Caucasian children undergoing lifestyle intervention. Frequencies of the -2548G > A LEP, Q223R LEPR, K656N LEPR, -11377C > G and -11426A > G ADIPOQ polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism...
2016: Nutrients
Inmaculada Baeza, Laura Vigo, Elena de la Serna, Rosa Calvo-Escalona, Jessica Merchán-Naranjo, Pamela Rodríguez-Latorre, Celso Arango, Josefina Castro-Fornieles
To analyze weight gain, metabolic hormones, and homocysteine (Hcys) levels in children and adolescents on antipsychotics (AP) during a year-long follow-up. 117 patients, AP-naïve or quasi-naïve (less than 30 days on AP), were included. Weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score (z-BMI), and levels of leptin, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adiponectin, ghrelin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and Hcys were measured at baseline, and at 3, 6, and 12 months, while patients remained on the same AP...
May 21, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Inong R Gunanti, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Lisa Schubert, Kurt Z Long
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive synthesis of the effects of Zn supplementation on childhood body composition and adiposity-related hormone levels. DESIGN: Five electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of Zn supplementation studies published before 28 February 2015. No statistical pooling of results was carried out due to diversity in study designs. SETTING: Community- or hospital-based, from fourteen developing and developed countries...
May 20, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Carmen Duicu, Cristina Oana Mărginean, Septimiu Voidăzan, Florin Tripon, Claudia Bănescu
Obesity is a disorder with increasing frequency in children and adolescents, directly linked with various diseases. Variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity-related) gene have been associated with body mass index and waist and hip circumferences in widespread populations.The aim of this case-control study was to assess if there is any association between FTO gene variants rs9939609, respectively, rs17817449 with anthropometric and metabolic biomarkers (fasting glucose, TC, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin), in Romanian obese children...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lawrence Scahill, Sangchoon Jeon, Susan J Boorin, Christopher J McDougle, Michael G Aman, James Dziura, James T McCracken, Sonia Caprio, L Eugene Arnold, Ginger Nicol, Yanhong Deng, Saankari A Challa, Benedetto Vitiello
OBJECTIVE: We examine weight gain and metabolic consequences of risperidone monotherapy in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: This was a 24-week, multisite, randomized trial of risperidone only versus risperidone plus parent training in 124 children (mean age 6.9 ± 2.35 years; 105 boys and 19 girls) with ASD and serious behavioral problems. We monitored height, weight, waist circumference, and adverse effects during the trial. Fasting blood samples were obtained before treatment and at week 16...
May 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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