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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922697/regulation-of-pd-l1-expression-in-a-high-grade-invasive-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-microenvironment
#1
Mariko Hirai, Hiroko Kitahara, Yutaka Kobayashi, Koroku Kato, George Bou-Gharios, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Shuichi Kawashiri
Blockade of the programmed-death 1 receptor (PD-1)/programmed-death ligand (PD-L1) pathway efficiently reduces tumour growth and improves survival. Durable tumour regression with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint has been demonstrated in recent clinical studies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is highly immunosuppressive, and PD-L1 expression has been proposed as a potential mechanism responsible for this phenotype. Despite the fact that anti-PD-1 treatment can produce durable responses, such therapy appears to benefit only a subset of patients...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922670/downregulation-of-laptm5-suppresses-cell-proliferation-and-viability-inducing-cell-cycle-arrest-at-g0-g1-phase-of-bladder-cancer-cells
#2
Liang Chen, Gang Wang, Yi Luo, Yongzhi Wang, Conghua Xie, Wei Jiang, Yu Xiao, Guofeng Qian, Xinghuan Wang
Our transcriptome analysis revealed in bladder cancer (BCa) tissues a significant induction of lysosomal-associated multispanning membrane protein 5 (LAPTM5), a lysosomal membrane protein preferentially expressing in immune cells and hematopoietic cells. Transportation of LAPTM5 from Golgi to lysosome could be inhibited by deficiency of Nedd4, a key member of E3 ubiquitin ligase family overexpressing in invasive BCa and promoting its progression. Therefore, we hypothesize that LAPTM5 may be closely correlated with BCa tumorigenesis...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919967/epithelial-mesenchymal-expression-phenotype-of-primary-melanoma-and-matched-metastases-and-relationship-with-overall-survival
#3
Shaofeng Yan, Britt M Holderness, Zhongze Li, Gregory D Seidel, Jiang Gui, Jan L Fisher, Marc S Ernstoff
E-Cadherin and N-cadherin are important components of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The majority of studies on EMT in melanoma have been performed with cultured cell lines or pooled melanoma samples. The goal of our study was to evaluate the expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in matched tissue samples from primary and metastatic sites of melanoma and to determine the correlation with survival outcome. We analyzed tissues from 42 melanoma primary lesions and their corresponding metastases, as well as 53 benign nevi, for expression levels of E-cadherin and N-cadherin using immunohistochemical methods...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919944/multicellular-spheroids-as-a-model-for-hypoxia-induced-emt
#4
Casey Lee, Amanda Siu, Daniel M Ramos
Oral cancer is aggressive and invasive. The 5-year survival rate is around 50% and has not improved in over 50 years. One-third of oral cancer patients develop local and/or regional tumor recurrence following treatment. We continue to use our multicellular spheroid (MCS) model to better understand how the extracellular matrix contributes to epithelial to mesenchymal transition and how hypoxia contributes to the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919789/unravelling-a-p73-regulated-network-the-role-of-a-novel-p73-dependent-target-mir3158-in-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasiveness
#5
Sotiris Galtsidis, Stella Logotheti, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Christos P Zampetidis, Georgia Papachristopoulou, Andreas Scorilas, Borek Vojtesek, Vassilis Gorgoulis, Vassilis Zoumpourlis
The transcription factor p73 is homologous to the well-known tumor-suppressor p53. The p73-regulated networks are of significant clinical interest, because they may substitute for impaired p53-regulated networks which are commonly perturbed in cancer. Herein, we aimed to characterize a p73-regulated network that mediates cell migration and restores anti-oncogenic responses in p53-mutant cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that p73 regulates a network underlying cell migration, which consists of MIR34A/MIR3158/vimentin/β-catenin/lef1...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919746/fhod1-formin-is-upregulated-in-melanomas-and-modifies-proliferation-and-tumor-growth
#6
Minna Peippo, Maria Gardberg, Tarja Lamminen, Katja Kaipio, Olli Carpén, Vanina D Heuser
The functional properties of actin-regulating formin proteins are diverse and in many cases cell-type specific. FHOD1, a formin expressed predominantly in cells of mesenchymal lineage, bundles actin filaments and participates in maintenance of cell shape, migration and cellular protrusions. FHOD1 participates in cancer-associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer. The role of FHOD1 in melanomas has not been characterized. Here, we show that FHOD1 expression is typically strong in cutaneous melanomas and cultured melanoma cells while the expression is low or absent in benign nevi...
December 2, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919618/electric-field-induced-suppression-of-pten-drives-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-mtorc1-activation
#7
Tiantian Yan, Xupin Jiang, Xiaowei Guo, Wen Chen, Di Tang, Junhui Zhang, Xingyue Zhang, Dongxia Zhang, Qiong Zhang, Jiezhi Jia, Yuesheng Huang
BACKGROUND: Naturally occurring electric fields (EFs) are an intrinsic property of wounds. Endogenous EFs in skin wounds play critical roles in the dynamic and well-ordered biological process of wound healing. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows keratinocytes to transition from sedentary cells to motile cells, facilitating wound healing. However, EMT-related studies have been performed without considering endogenous EFs. Thus, the relationship between electrical signals and the EMT remain elusive...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918863/ems-providers-beliefs-regarding-spinal-precautions-for-pediatric-trauma-transport
#8
Cindy D Chang, Remle P Crowe, Melissa A Bentley, Alyssa R Janezic, Julie C Leonard
OBJECTIVE: Describe prehospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers' beliefs regarding spinal precautions for pediatric trauma transport. METHODS: We randomly surveyed nationally certified EMS providers. We assessed providers' beliefs about specific precautions, and preferred precautions given a child's age (0-4 or 5-18 years) and presence of specific cervical spine injury (CSI) risk factors. RESULTS: We received 5,400 responses (17%)...
December 5, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918105/resveratrol-inhibits-proliferation-invasion-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-increasing-mir-200c-expression-in-hct-116-colorectal-cancer-cells
#9
Fatemeh Karimi Dermani, Massoud Saidijam, Razieh Amini, Ali Mahdavinezhad, Korosh Heydari, Rezvan Najafi
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies, associated with high rates of relapse. A notable challenge in treatment is low response rate to current therapies for advanced CRC. The miR-200c plays an essential role in tumor suppression by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Resveratrol, a natural compound found in red wine, reveals anti-cancer properties in several types of cancers such as CRC. The aim of current study was to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of HCT-116 cells and also expression of EMT-related genes in presences or absence of miR-200c...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917306/education-and-training-of-emergency-medical-teams-recommendations-for-a-global-operational-learning-framework
#10
Nieves Amat Camacho, Amy Hughes, Frederick M Burkle, Pier Luigi Ingrassia, Luca Ragazzoni, Anthony Redmond, Ian Norton, Johan von Schreeb
An increasing number of international emergency medical teams are deployed to assist disaster-affected populations worldwide. Since Haiti earthquake those teams have been criticised for ill adapted care, lack of preparedness in addition to not coordinating with the affected country healthcare system. The Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs) initiative, as part of the Word Health Organization's Global Health Emergency Workforce program, aims to address these shortcomings by improved EMT coordination, and mechanisms to ensure quality and accountability of national and international EMTs...
October 21, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917007/roles-of-ras-homolog-a-in-invasive-ductal-breast-carcinoma
#11
Eriko Murakami, Yoko Nakanishi, Yukari Hirotani, Sumie Ohni, Xiaoyan Tang, Shinobu Masuda, Katsuhisa Enomoto, Kenichi Sakurai, Sadao Amano, Tsutomu Yamada, Norimichi Nemoto
Breast cancer has a poor prognosis owing to tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Although Ras homolog (Rho) A is involved in tumor cell invasion, its role in breast carcinoma is unclear. Here, RhoA expression was examined in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), with a focus on its relationships with epidermal-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and collective cell invasion. Forty-four surgical IDC tissue samples and two normal breast tissue samples were obtained. RhoA, E-cadherin, vimentin, and F-actin protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
November 1, 2016: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916907/metformin-inhibits-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-pkm2-relative-mtor-p70s6k-signaling-pathway-in-cervical-carcinoma-cells
#12
Keyan Cheng, Min Hao
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a prominent role in tumorigenesis. Metformin exerts antitumorigenic effects in various cancers. This study investigated the mechanisms of metformin in TGF-β1-induced Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cervical carcinoma cells. METHODS: cells were cultured with 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 to induce EMT and treated with or without metformin. Cell viability was evaluated by CCK-8 (Cell Counting Kit 8, CCK-8) assay; apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry; cell migration was evaluated by wound-healing assay...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916760/interleukin-17a-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-human-intrahepatic-biliary-epithelial-cells-implications-for-primary-biliary-cirrhosis
#13
Qingshui Huang, Shuai Chu, Xiaofeng Yin, Xiaobin Yu, Chunmin Kang, Xin Li, Yurong Qiu
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune chronic liver disease with worldwide increasing morbidity. However, the etiology of PBC is still unclear. Recently, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, were proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to clarify the roles of IL-17A and/or EMT in the onset of PBC. The results showed that the median serum IL-17A level was significantly higher in 29 PBC patients (average course of 40...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916629/chitosan-nanoparticles-as-a-dual-drug-sirna-delivery-system-for-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#14
Sanam Sadreddini, Reza Safaralizadeh, Behzad Baradaran, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour-Feizi, Dariush Shanehbandi, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Sevil Sadreddini, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Vahid Younesi, Mehdi Yousefi
Nanoparticles are widely used to deliver anticancer drugs and inhibit tumor growth without systemic toxicity. Recently, chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for encapsulation of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Because of cationic nature, chitosan efficiently encapsulate siRNA and forming nanoparticles. Moreover, biocompatible and biodegradable properties represent chitosan as potential candidate for in vivo siRNA delivery. In the present study we designed carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) chitosan nanoparticles (ChNPs) to encapsulat snail siRNA and anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX)...
December 1, 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916556/micrornas-mediated-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-fibrotic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Xiao-Zhou Zou, Ting Liu, Zhi-Cheng Gong, Chang-Ping Hu, Zheng Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a large family of small and highly conserved non-coding RNAs, regulate gene expression through translational repression or mRNA degradation. Aberrant expression of miRNAs underlies a spectrum of diseases including organ fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests that miRNAs contribute to organ fibrosis through mediating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Alleviation of EMT has been proposed as a promising strategy against fibrotic diseases given the key role of EMT in fibrosis. miRNAs impact the expression of specific ligands, receptors, and signaling pathways, thus modulating EMT and consequently influencing fibrosis...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916451/progressive-development-of-endometriosis-and-its-hindrance-by-anti-platelet-treatment-in-mice-with-induced-endometriosis
#16
Qi Zhang, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo
We have recently shown that platelets drive smooth muscle metaplasia (SMM) and fibrogenesis in endometriosis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (FMT). To see whether this is true in vivo, this prospective, randomized, and serially evaluated mouse investigation was conducted. Endometriosis was induced in female Balb/C mice, which were then randomly divided into two groups: Tanshinone IIA (TAN) and control (CTL) groups. TAN mice were treated with TAN but CTL mice received none...
November 21, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916370/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-to-inhibit-the-tracheal-narrowing
#17
Hongtao Duan, Lijie Ma, Honggang Liu, Yong Zhang, Zhipei Zhang, Xiaolong Yan, Xiaofei Li
BACKGROUND: This study examines the effects of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tracheal transplantation and the ability of TIIA to inhibit tracheal narrowing after tracheal transplantation. Mechanisms that may be involved in this process are also explored. METHODS: Human bronchial epithelial cells were treated in vitro with TGF-β1 for 72 h. The cells were pretreated with TIIA (40 μg/mL) or DMSO for 2 h before TGF-β1 stimulation...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915990/possible-molecular-mechanisms-by-which-vitamin-d-prevents-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#18
Zijian Luan, Yiming Ma, Yu Xin, Jiaming Qian, Hongying Wang
It is well accepted that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is one of high risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). This supports the notion that inflammation plays a key role in cancer development. Epidemiologic studies have shown that vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency is associated with IBD and various types of cancer including colorectal cancer. Clinical trials and mouse models have shown that Vit D is beneficial in preventing or ameliorating inflammation and carcinogenesis...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915969/anoikis-and-emt-lethal-liaisons-during-cancer-progression
#19
Zheng Cao, Theodore Livas, Natasha Kyprianou
Anoikis is a unique mode of apoptotic cell death that occurs consequentially to insufficient cell-matrix interactions. Resistance to anoikis is a critical contributor to tumor invasion and metastasis. The phenomenon is regulated by integrins, which upon engagement with components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) form adhesion complexes and the actin cytoskeleton drives the formation of cell protrusions used to adhere to ECM, directing cell migration. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers stem cell properties and leads to acquisition of a migratory and invasive phenotype by causing adherens junction breakdown and circumventing anoikis in the tumor microenvironment...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914787/elevation-of-yap-promotes-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-tumor-aggressiveness-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
Hsiang-Hsi Ling, Chih-Chia Kuo, Bo-Xing Lin, Yen-Hua Huang, Cheng-Wei Lin
Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of death in cancer patients. Identifying metastatic biomarkers in tumor cells would help cancer diagnoses and the development of therapeutic targets. Yes-associated protein (YAP) plays an important role in organ development and has gained much attention in tumorigenesis. However, the role of YAP and the underlying mechanism in tumor metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. In this study, we generated metastatic 116-LM cells from the HCT116 CRC cell line. We found that the capacity for tumor aggressiveness was elevated in 116-LM cells and identified that YAP and its mRNA level were upregulated in 116-LM cells...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
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