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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171759/viral-evolution-mummy-virus-challenges-presumed-history-of-smallpox
#1
Joel O Wertheim
Despite evidence of smallpox in antiquity, a new study of a 350 year-old Lithuanian child mummy suggests that the global viral genetic diversity circulating during the 20(th) century was only around 200 years old.
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170040/donald-ainslie-d-a-henderson-m-d-m-p-h-1928-2016-smallpox-eradication-leadership-and-legacy
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169076/metabolites-as-biomarkers-of-adverse-reactions-following-vaccination-a-pilot-study-using-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-metabolomics
#3
Bruce M McClenathan, Delisha A Stewart, Christina E Spooner, Wimal W Pathmasiri, Jason P Burgess, Susan L McRitchie, Y Sammy Choi, Susan C J Sumner
An Adverse Event Following Immunization (AEFI) is an adverse reaction to a vaccination that goes above and beyond the usual side effects associated with vaccinations. One serious AEFI related to the smallpox vaccine is myopericarditis. Metabolomics involves the study of the low molecular weight metabolite profile of cells, tissues, and biological fluids, and provides a functional readout of the phenotype. Metabolomics may help identify a particular metabolic signature in serum of subjects who are predisposed to developing AEFIs...
March 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162821/safety-of-live-vaccinations-on-immunosuppressive-therapy-in-patients-with-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-solid-organ-transplantation-or-after-bone-marrow-transplantation-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-trials-observational-studies-and-case-reports
#4
REVIEW
Evelina Croce, Christoph Hatz, Emile F Jonker, L G Visser, Veronika K Jaeger, Silja Bühler
BACKGROUND: Live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, data are limited to corroborate this practice. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the safety of live vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) on immunosuppressive treatment and in patients after bone-marrow transplantation (BMT). DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in electronic databases (Cochrane, Pubmed, Embase) and additional literature was identified by targeted searches...
February 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093339/short-term-clinical-safety-profile-of-brincidofovir-a-favorable-benefit-risk-proposition-in-the-treatment-of-smallpox
#5
Greg Chittick, Marion Morrison, Thomas Brundage, W Garrett Nichols
Brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001) is an orally available, long-acting, broad-spectrum antiviral that has been evaluated in healthy subjects in Phase I studies and in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients and other immunocompromised patients in Phase II/III clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus and adenovirus infections. BCV has also shown in vitro activity against orthopoxviruses such as variola (smallpox) virus, and is under advanced development as a treatment for smallpox under the US FDA's 'Animal Rule'...
January 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081250/cutaneous-deficiency-of-filaggrin-and-stat3-exacerbates-vaccinia-disease-in-vivo
#6
Yong He, Ishrat Sultana, Kazuyo Takeda, Jennifer L Reed
RATIONALE: Defects in filaggrin and STAT3 are associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) and susceptibility to severe skin infection. METHODS: We evaluated skin infection with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000, in immunosuppressed mice with combined cutaneous deficiency in filaggrin and STAT3. In parallel, early events post-infection with ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes in which filaggrin expression was knocked down via siRNA. RESULTS: Immunosuppressed, filaggrin-deficient mice, treated with the topical STAT3 inhibitor Stattic® prior to ACAM-2000 infection, demonstrated rapid weight loss, prolonged vaccinia burden in skin, and dermatitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057259/modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-history-value-in-basic-research-and-current-perspectives-for-vaccine-development
#7
REVIEW
A Volz, G Sutter
Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046039/humoral-immunity-to-primary-smallpox-vaccination-impact-of-childhood-versus-adult-immunization-on-vaccinia-vector-vaccine-development-in-military-populations
#8
Bonnie M Slike, Matthew Creegan, Mary Marovich, Viseth Ngauy
Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040839/bob-h-reinhardt-the-end-of-a-global-pox-america-and-the-eradication-of-smallpox-in-the-cold-war-era-the-university-of-north-carolina-press-chapel-hill-2015-268-pp-hard-cover-illustrated-figure-maps-table-notes-bibliography-index-39-95
#9
Pascal James Imperato
This review examines in detail Bob H. Reinhardt's meticulous analyses of smallpox eradication within the broad context of American liberalism, Cold War politics, and the exercise of technological, medical, and political power on the part of the United States. As a result, his book provides a unique perspective on the eradication of smallpox.
December 31, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039021/buccal-viral-dna-as-a-trigger-for-brincidofovir-therapy-in-the-mousepox-model-of-smallpox
#10
Ryan Crump, Maria Korom, R Mark Buller, Scott Parker
Orthopoxviruses continue to pose a significant threat to the population as potential agents of bioterrorism. An intentional release of natural or engineered variola virus (VARV) or monkeypox viruses would cause mortality and morbidity in the target population. To address this, antivirals have been developed and evaluated in animal models of smallpox and monkeypox. One such antiviral, brincidofovir (BCV, previously CMX001), has demonstrated high levels of efficacy against orthopoxviruses in animal models and is currently under clinical evaluation for prevention and treatment of diseases caused by cytomegaloviruses and adenoviruses...
March 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038869/modelling-and-bayesian-analysis-of-the-abakaliki-smallpox-data
#11
Jessica E Stockdale, Theodore Kypraios, Philip D O'Neill
The celebrated Abakaliki smallpox data have appeared numerous times in the epidemic modelling literature, but in almost all cases only a specific subset of the data is considered. The only previous analysis of the full data set relied on approximation methods to derive a likelihood and did not assess model adequacy. The data themselves continue to be of interest due to concerns about the possible re-emergence of smallpox as a bioterrorism weapon. We present the first full Bayesian statistical analysis using data-augmentation Markov chain Monte Carlo methods which avoid the need for likelihood approximations and which yield a wider range of results than previous analyses...
December 9, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029542/vector-based-genetically-modified-vaccines-exploiting-jenner-s-legacy
#12
Bahar Ramezanpour, Ingrid Haan, Ab Osterhaus, Eric Claassen
The global vaccine market is diverse while facing a plethora of novel developments. Genetic modification (GM) techniques facilitate the design of 'smarter' vaccines. For many of the major infectious diseases of humans, like AIDS and malaria, but also for most human neoplastic disorders, still no vaccines are available. It may be speculated that novel GM technologies will significantly contribute to their development. While a promising number of studies is conducted on GM vaccines and GM vaccine technologies, the contribution of GM technology to newly introduced vaccines on the market is disappointingly limited...
October 28, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003603/a-single-vaccination-of-nonhuman-primates-with-highly-attenuated-smallpox-vaccine-lc16m8-provides-long-term-protection-against-monkeypox
#13
Itoe Iizuka, Yasushi Ami, Yuriko Suzaki, Noriyo Nagata, Shuetsu Fukushi, Momoko Ogata, Shigeru Morikawa, Hideki Hasegawa, Masashi Mizuguchi, Ichiro Kurane, Masayuki Saijo
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) causes human monkeypox (human MPX), which is a similar disease with smallpox in humans. A previous study showed that a single vaccination of monkeys with LC16m8, a highly attenuated smallpox vaccine, protected them from MPX at 4-5 weeks after vaccination. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of a single vaccination with LC16m8 in a nonhuman primate model of MPXV infection. The monkeys were inoculated with LC16m8, Lister (parental strain of LC16m8), or mock and then challenged with MPXV via the subcutaneous route at 6 and 12 months after vaccination, which we compared with either Lister or mock vaccination...
December 22, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999233/smallpox-as-an-actual-biothreat-lessons-learned-from-its-outbreak-in-ex-yugoslavia-in-1972
#14
Elizabeta Ristanovic, Ana Gligic, Sonja Atanasievska, Vesna Protic-Djokic, Dragutin Jovanovic, Miodrag Radunovic
Variola (smallpox) virus is classified as class A of potential biological weapons, due to its microbiological, genetic, antigenic and epidemiological characteristics. The potential danger is more real because vaccination against smallpox has stopped since disease eradication in 1979. That is why we want to share our unique, rich experience and acquired knowledge in the fight against this highly contagious and deadly disease during the smallpox outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972. It was the largest postwar outbreak in Europe when there were officially registered 175 ill patients, 35 of them with lethal outcome...
October 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992055/-workers-with-signs-of-smallpox-in-the-collection-of-regional-office-of-labor-rio-grande-do-sul-1933-1944
#15
Aristeu Elisandro Machado Lopes
Work Register Booklet was created in Brazil in 1932. Soon, Regional Labor Inspectorates emerged - after renamed as Regional Office of Labor. In Rio Grande do Sul, this office was settled in 1933 in Porto Alegre. Procedures for making this booklet consisted of filling a professional qualification form with workers' personal and professional information. One of the fields consisted of requester's distinguishing signs, like visible marks and lack of limbs. The purpose of this article is to analyse the presence of one of these distinguishing signs...
October 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960239/histopathology-of-vaccine-preventable-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Isaac H Solomon, Danny A Milner
The widespread use of vaccines has been one of the most important medical advances in the last century, saving trillions of dollars and millions of lives. Despite local eradication of some infections, travellers returning from affected areas may cause outbreaks through reintroduction of pathogens to individuals who are unable to receive vaccines for medical reasons or who have declined vaccination for non-medical reasons. Infections that would otherwise be uncommonly encountered by anatomical pathologists should therefore remain in the differential diagnosis for immunocompromised and unvaccinated patients...
January 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958202/genomic-identification-of-human-vaccinia-virus-keratoconjunctivitis-and-its-importance-as-a-laboratory-acquired-infection
#17
Zahra Movahedi Motlagh, Azam Mokhtari, Mohammadreza Mahzounieh
CONTEXT: Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. VACVs are enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. Several species of this family, for example, molluscum contagiosum, smallpox, deerpox, horsepox, rabbitpox, and VACVs may cause conjunctivitis. AIMS: Given the high incidence of keratoconjunctivitis in Iran (approximately 3.6%-53.9%) and insufficient clinical diagnostic measures, laboratory tests for detection of its causes and determination of accurate keratoconjunctivitis/conjunctivitis prevalence due to different pathogens are essential...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940369/the-biological-standard-of-living-in-pre-modern-korea-determinants-of-height-of-militia-recruits-during-the-chos%C3%A5-n-dynasty
#18
Seong Ho Jun, James B Lewis, Daniel Schwekendiek
This paper extends the research on the biological standard of living in the Korean peninsula back to pre-modern times. Drawing on militia rosters of the Chosŏn Dynasty from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, we tentatively conclude that the final height of Korean men during this period was 166cm and thus slightly above that of modern North Korean men (165cm). On the other hand, the average height of modern South Korean men is 172cm, 6cm more than what we tentatively estimate for pre-modern Korean men. Regression analysis of the height of pre-modern Korean men finds that un-free Koreans ("slaves") were significantly shorter by about 0...
December 2, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939314/17-th-century-variola-virus-reveals-the-recent-history-of-smallpox
#19
Ana T Duggan, Maria F Perdomo, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Stephanie Marciniak, Debi Poinar, Matthew V Emery, Jan P Buchmann, Sebastian Duchêne, Rimantas Jankauskas, Margaret Humphreys, G Brian Golding, John Southon, Alison Devault, Jean-Marie Rouillard, Jason W Sahl, Olivier Dutour, Klaus Hedman, Antti Sajantila, Geoffrey L Smith, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar
Smallpox holds a unique position in the history of medicine. It was the first disease for which a vaccine was developed and remains the only human disease eradicated by vaccination. Although there have been claims of smallpox in Egypt, India, and China dating back millennia [1-4], the timescale of emergence of the causative agent, variola virus (VARV), and how it evolved in the context of increasingly widespread immunization, have proven controversial [4-9]. In particular, some molecular-clock-based studies have suggested that key events in VARV evolution only occurred during the last two centuries [4-6] and hence in apparent conflict with anecdotal historical reports, although it is difficult to distinguish smallpox from other pustular rashes by description alone...
December 19, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880744/notice-to-readers-final-2015-reports-of-nationally-notifiable-infectious-diseases-and-conditions
#20
(no author information available yet)
The table listed in this report on pages 1307-1321 presents finalized data, as of June 30, 2016, from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) for 2015. These data will be published in more detail in the Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015 (1). Because no cases were reported in the United States during 2015, the following diseases do not appear in this early release table: anthrax; dengue hemorrhagic fever; diphtheria; eastern equine encephalitis virus disease, nonneuroinvasive; poliomyelitis, paralytic; poliovirus infection, nonparalytic; severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV); smallpox; western equine encephalitis virus disease, neuroinvasive and nonneuroinvasive; yellow fever; and viral hemorrhagic fevers...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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