keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Smallpox

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785476/vaccinia-virus-protein-c6-a-multifunctional-interferon-antagonist
#1
Geoffrey L Smith
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic member of the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae. It is also the live vaccine that was used to eradicate smallpox. Like other poxviruses, VACV replicates in the cytoplasm and has a large double-stranded (ds)DNA genome and a complex virion. Approximately, half of the VACV genes are nonessential for virus replication in cell culture but encode a remarkable array of immunomodulators that antagonise the innate immune response to virus infection. This short review concerns one such protein, C6, that is a multifunctional inhibitor of interferon...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779454/vaccinia-based-vaccines-to-biothreat-and-emerging-viruses
#2
Les P Nagata, Chad R Irwin, Wei-Gang Hu, David H Evans
The past few years have seen a rash of emerging viral diseases, including the Ebola crisis in West Africa, the pandemic spread of chikungunya, and the recent explosion of Zika in South America. Vaccination is the most reliable and cost-effective method of control of infectious diseases, however, there is often a long delay in production and approval in getting new vaccines to market. Vaccinia was the first vaccine developed for the successful eradication of smallpox and has properties that make it attractive as a universal vaccine vector...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773767/the-role-of-brincidofovir-in-preparation-for-a-potential-smallpox-outbreak
#3
Scott A Foster, Scott Parker, Randall Lanier
Smallpox (variola) virus is considered a Category A bioterrorism agent due to its ability to spread rapidly and the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection. Current recommendations recognize the importance of oral antivirals and call for having at least two smallpox antivirals with different mechanisms of action available in the event of a smallpox outbreak. Multiple antivirals are recommended due in large part to the propensity of viruses to become resistant to antiviral therapy, especially monotherapy...
October 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741934/mistrust-in-medicine-the-rise-and-fall-of-america-s-first-vaccine-institute
#4
Tess Lanzarotta, Marco A Ramos
In 1813, the American government passed An Act to Encourage Vaccination, the first federal endorsement of a medical practice in American history. The law tasked a federal agent with maintaining a supply of the smallpox vaccine and distributing it nationwide. James Smith, a well-respected physician and proponent of vaccination, was appointed as vaccine agent. Smith was skeptical of claims that only well-trained physicians should be allowed to perform vaccination; he felt it was a simple procedure that should be available to all American citizens...
June 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734964/best-practice-assessment-of-disease-modelling-for-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#5
Z F Dembek, T Chekol, A Wu
During emerging disease outbreaks, public health, emergency management officials and decision-makers increasingly rely on epidemiological models to forecast outbreak progression and determine the best response to health crisis needs. Outbreak response strategies derived from such modelling may include pharmaceutical distribution, immunisation campaigns, social distancing, prophylactic pharmaceuticals, medical care, bed surge, security and other requirements. Infectious disease modelling estimates are unavoidably subject to multiple interpretations, and full understanding of a model's limitations may be lost when provided from the disease modeller to public health practitioner to government policymaker...
May 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724993/chemokines-cooperate-with-tnf-to-provide-protective-anti-viral-immunity-and-to-enhance-inflammation
#6
Alí Alejo, M Begoña Ruiz-Argüello, Sergio M Pontejo, María Del Mar Fernández de Marco, Margarida Saraiva, Bruno Hernáez, Antonio Alcamí
The role of cytokines and chemokines in anti-viral defense has been demonstrated, but their relative contribution to protective anti-viral responses in vivo is not fully understood. Cytokine response modifier D (CrmD) is a secreted receptor for TNF and lymphotoxin containing the smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor (SECRET) domain and is expressed by ectromelia virus, the causative agent of the smallpox-like disease mousepox. Here we show that CrmD is an essential virulence factor that controls natural killer cell activation and allows progression of fatal mousepox, and demonstrate that both SECRET and TNF binding domains are required for full CrmD activity...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709968/a-novel-system-for-constructing-a-recombinant-highly-attenuated-vaccinia-virus-strain-lc16m8-expressing-foreign-genes-and-its-application-for-the-generation-of-lc16m8-based-vaccines-against-herpes-simplex-virus-2
#7
Natsumi Omura, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Hikaru Fujii, Miho Shibamura, Takuya Inagaki, Hirofumi Kato, Kazutaka Egawa, Shizuko Harada, Souichi Yamada, Haruko Takeyama, Masayuki Saijo
A novel system was developed for generating a highly-attenuated vaccinia virus LC16m8 (m8, third generation smallpox vaccine) that expresses foreign genes. The innovations in this system are its excisable selection marker, specificity of the integration site of a gene of interest, and easy identification of clones with the fluorescent signal. Using this system, recombinant m8s, which expressed either herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein B (gB)-, gD-, or both gB and gD (gB+gD) were developed, and their efficacy was evaluated...
April 27, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684651/the-geography-of-smallpox-in-england-before-vaccination-a-conundrum-resolved
#8
Romola Jane Davenport, Max Satchell, Leigh Matthew William Shaw-Taylor
Smallpox is regarded as an ancient and lethal disease of humans, however very little is known about the prevalence and impact of smallpox before the advent of vaccination (c.1800). Here we use evidence from English burial records covering the period 1650-1799 to confirm a striking geography to smallpox patterns. Smallpox apparently circulated as a childhood disease in northern England and Sweden, even where population densities were low and settlement patterns dispersed. However, smallpox was a relatively rare epidemic disease in southern England outside the largest cities, despite its commercialised economy and the growing spatial interconnectedness of its settlements...
April 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681552/the-cowpox-controversy-memory-and-the-politics-of-public-health-in-cuba
#9
Stephanie H Gonzalez
Vaccination played an important role in the formation of a national consciousness in Cuba, and vaccination's earliest promoters dominate nationalist narratives of medical achievement on the island. This article investigates the intense hostility exhibited by the creole medical elite toward a pivotal figure in the history of smallpox vaccination in Cuba, Spanish physician Dr. Vicente Ferrer (1823-83), the first in the Americas to mass produce smallpox vaccine using calf vaccinifiers. I argue that anger and mistrust of both Ferrer and his innovatory vaccine production technology originated in the relationship between medical politics and cultural identity in late nineteenth-century Cuba...
2018: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652929/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-three-consecutive-production-lots-of-the-non-replicating-smallpox-vaccine-mva-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-iii-trial
#10
Edgar Turner Overton, Steven J Lawrence, Eva Wagner, Katrin Nopora, Siegfried Rösch, Philip Young, Darja Schmidt, Christian Kreusel, Sonja De Carli, Thomas P Meyer, Heinz Weidenthaler, Nathaly Samy, Paul Chaplin
BACKGROUND: Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a live, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial was conducted to demonstrate the humoral immunogenic equivalence of three consecutively manufactured MVA production lots, and to confirm the safety and tolerability of MVA focusing on cardiac readouts. METHODS: The trial was conducted at 34 sites in the US. Vaccinia-naïve adults aged 18-40 years were randomly allocated to one of four groups using a 1:1:1:1 randomization scheme...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643193/cutting-edge-protection-by-antiviral-memory-cd8-t-cells-requires-rapidly-produced-antigen-in-large-amounts
#11
Sanda Remakus, Xueying Ma, Lingjuan Tang, Ren-Huan Xu, Cory Knudson, Carolina R Melo-Silva, Daniel Rubio, Yin-Ming Kuo, Andrew Andrews, Luis J Sigal
Numerous attempts to produce antiviral vaccines by harnessing memory CD8 T cells have failed. A barrier to progress is that we do not know what makes an Ag a viable target of protective CD8 T cell memory. We found that in mice susceptible to lethal mousepox (the mouse homolog of human smallpox), a dendritic cell vaccine that induced memory CD8 T cells fully protected mice when the infecting virus produced Ag in large quantities and with rapid kinetics. Protection did not occur when the Ag was produced in low amounts, even with rapid kinetics, and protection was only partial when the Ag was produced in large quantities but with slow kinetics...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599088/a-single-vaccination-with-non-replicating-mva-at-birth-induces-both-immediate-and-long-term-protective-immune-responses
#12
Cédric Cheminay, Jana Körner, Constanze Bernig, Michael Brückel, Markus Feigl, Martin Schletz, Mark Suter, Paul Chaplin, Ariane Volkmann
Newborns are considered difficult to protect against infections shortly after birth, due to their ineffective immune system that shows quantitative and qualitative differences compared to adults. However, here we show that a single vaccination of mice at birth with a replication-deficient live vaccine Modified Vaccinia Ankara [MVA] efficiently induces antigen-specific B- and T-cells that fully protect against a lethal Ectromelia virus challenge. Protection was induced within 2 weeks and using genetically modified mice we show that this protection was mainly T-cell dependent...
April 25, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580798/the-south-asian-origins-of-the-global-network-to-eradicate-blindness-who-ngos-and-decentralization
#13
Logan D A Williams
The global network to eradicate blindness emerged out of the work of Western and South Asian professionals to eradicate smallpox which was endemic in South Asia. The history of the emergence of the global network to eradicate blindness demonstrates a shift from vertical command and control public health programs directed by the WHO, to the decentralized public health services originating in non-profit, non-governmental organizations and coordinated by the WHO. The WHO constitution started with a federal regionalist structure that encouraged collaboration and coordination with NGOs...
March 23, 2018: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573840/investigation-of-an-outbreak-of-monkeypox-in-an-area-occupied-by-armed-groups-central-african-republic
#14
E Kalthan, J Tenguere, S G Ndjapou, T A Koyazengbe, J Mbomba, R M Marada, P Rombebe, P Yangueme, M Babamingui, A Sambella, E R Nakoune
BACKGROUND: Monkeypox is a zoonosis caused by an Orthopoxvirus of the Poxviridae family. Human infections are often severe and are a public health problem. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We conducted a monkeypox outbreak investigation of suspected case patients in five villages of the Alindao-Mingala Health District following blood sample confirmation of the virus by the Institut Pasteur in Bangui. We aimed to determine disease characteristics, to describe the context and the risk factors, and to measure the incidence and case fatality...
March 21, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572952/a-genealogy-of-animal-diseases-and-social-anthropology-1870-2000
#15
Frédéric Keck
Culling, vaccinating, and monitoring animals are the three main techniques used in contemporary veterinary public health to manage animal diseases that can be transmitted to humans. Each technique is underpinned by different ontological understandings of how microbes figure in relations between humans and animals. Therefore, animal diseases are not only a question for an applied anthropology but also involve the theoretical core of the discipline i.e., understanding how social causality emerges out of physical causality...
March 23, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572367/myocarditis-secondary-to-smallpox-vaccination
#16
Kyle Keinath, Tyler Church, Benjamin Kurth, Edward Hulten
The development of vaccines ushered in the most profound advancement in 20th century medicine, and have widely been regarded as the one of the most important scientific discovery in the history of mankind. However, vaccines are not without risk; reactions can range from injection site reactions to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Among the more serious vaccine-related sequela is myocarditis. Although myocarditis has been reported following many different vaccines, the smallpox vaccine has the strongest association...
March 22, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569639/a-holistic-assessment-of-the-risks-and-benefits-of-the-synthesis-of-horsepox-virus
#17
Diane DiEuliis, Gigi Kwik Gronvall
The re-creation of horsepox virus, an extinct orthopoxvirus with similarity to smallpox virus, has caused concerns in the biosecurity and biodefense communities that the technical capabilities achieved could advance the re-creation of smallpox virus by nefarious actors. The work is now published. While the authors went through due biosecurity diligence at their research institution and with the proper Canadian federal authorities, now that the experiments have been published, there is an opportunity to discuss the dual use risks and benefits of the research itself, as well as those associated with publication of such research-all of which challenge current policies...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569633/a-critical-analysis-of-the-scientific-and-commercial-rationales-for-the-de-novo-synthesis-of-horsepox-virus
#18
Gregory D Koblentz
This article evaluates the scientific and commercial rationales for the synthesis of horsepox virus. I find that the claimed benefits of using horsepox virus as a smallpox vaccine rest on a weak scientific foundation and an even weaker business case that this project will lead to a licensed medical countermeasure. The combination of questionable benefits and known risks of this dual use research raises serious questions about the wisdom of undertaking research that could be used to recreate variola virus. This analysis also raises important questions about the propriety of a private company sponsoring such dual use research without appropriate oversight and highlights an important gap in United States dual use research regulations...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565285/rapid-viral-diagnosis-of-orthopoxviruses-by-electron-microscopy-optional-or-a-must
#19
REVIEW
Hans R Gelderblom, Dick Madeley
Diagnostic electron microscopy (DEM) was an essential component of viral diagnosis until the development of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT). The simple negative staining technique of DEM was applied widely to smallpox diagnosis until the world-wide eradication of the human-specific pathogen in 1980. Since then, the threat of smallpox re-emerging through laboratory escape, molecular manipulation, synthetic biology or bioterrorism has not totally disappeared and would be a major problem in an unvaccinated population...
March 22, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558682/characterization-of-murine-antibody-responses-to-vaccinia-virus-envelope-protein-a14-reveals-an-immunodominant-antigen-lacking-of-effective-neutralization-targets
#20
Xiangzhi Meng, Thomas Kaever, Bo Yan, Paula Traktman, Dirk M Zajonc, Bjoern Peters, Shane Crotty, Yan Xiang
Vaccinia virus (VACV) A14 is a major envelope protein and a dominant antibody target in the smallpox vaccine. However, the role of anti-A14 antibodies in immunity against orthopoxviruses is unclear. Here, we characterized 22 A14 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from two mice immunized with VACV. Epitope mapping showed that 21 mAbs targeted the C-terminal hydrophilic region, while one mAb recognized the middle region predicted to be across the viral envelope from the C-terminus. However, none of the mAbs bound to virions in studies with electron microscopy...
May 2018: Virology
keyword
keyword
4528
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"