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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724763/species-specificity-of-vaccinia-virus-complement-control-protein-towards-bovine-classical-pathway-is-governed-primarily-by-direct-interaction-of-its-acidic-residues-with-factor-i
#1
Jitendra Kumar, Viveka Nand Yadav, Swastik Phulera, Ashish Kamble, Avneesh Kumar Gautam, Hemendra Singh Panwar, Arvind Sahu
Poxviruses display species tropism - variola virus is a human-specific virus, while vaccinia virus causes repeated outbreaks in dairy cattle. Consistent with this, variola virus complement regulator SPICE exhibit selectivity in inhibiting the human alternative complement pathway and vaccinia virus complement regulator VCP display selectivity in inhibiting the bovine alternative complement pathway. In the present study, we examined the species-specificity of VCP and SPICE towards the classical pathway (CP). We observed that VCP is ∼43-fold superior in inhibiting bovine CP than SPICE...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720468/production-of-a-chikungunya-vaccine-using-a-cho-cell-and-attenuated-viral-based-platform-technology
#2
Preethi Eldi, Tamara H Cooper, Liang Liu, Natalie A Prow, Kerrilyn R Diener, Paul M Howley, Andreas Suhrbier, John D Hayball
Vaccinia-based systems have been extensively explored for the development of recombinant vaccines. Herein we describe an innovative vaccinia virus (VACV)-derived vaccine platform technology termed Sementis Copenhagen Vector (SCV), which was rendered multiplication-defective by targeted deletion of the essential viral assembly gene D13L. A SCV cell substrate line was developed for SCV vaccine production by engineering CHO cells to express D13 and the VACV host-range factor CP77, because CHO cells are routinely used for manufacture of biologics...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706017/labmade-smallpox-is-possible-study-shows
#3
Kai Kupferschmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699541/randomised-controlled-trials-and-changing-public-health-practice
#4
EDITORIAL
Anne Cockcroft
One reason for doing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is that experiments can be convincing. Early epidemiological experimenters, such as Jenner and the smallpox vaccine and Snow and his famous Broad Street pump handle, already knew the answer they were demonstrating; they used the experiments as knowledge translation devices to convince others.More sophisticated modern experiments include cluster randomised controlled trials (CRCTs) for experiments in the public health setting. The knowledge translation value remains: RCTs and CRCTs can potentially stimulate changes of practice among stakeholders...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678739/brca1-and-brca2-founder-mutations-account-for-78-of-germline-carriers-among-hereditary-breast-cancer-families-in-chile
#5
Carolina Alvarez, Teresa Tapia, Elisa Perez-Moreno, Patricia Gajardo-Meneses, Catalina Ruiz, Mabel Rios, Claudio Missarelli, Mariela Silva, Adolfo Cruz, Luis Matamala, Luis Carvajal-Carmona, Mauricio Camus, Pilar Carvallo
Identifying founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in specific populations constitute a valuable opportunity for genetic screening. Several studies from different populations have reported recurrent and/or founder mutations representing a relevant proportion of BRCA mutation carriers. In Latin America, only few founder mutations have been described. We screened 453 Chilean patients with hereditary breast cancer for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. For recurrent mutations, we genotyped 11 microsatellite markers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in order to determine a founder effect through haplotype analysis...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659488/inhibition-of-poxvirus-gene-expression-and-genome-replication-by-bisbenzimide-derivatives
#6
Artur Yakimovich, Moona Huttunen, Benno Zehnder, Lesley J Coulter, Victoria Gould, Christoph Schneider, Manfred Kopf, Colin J McInnes, Urs F Greber, Jason Mercer
Virus infection of humans and livestock can be devastating for individuals and populations, sometimes resulting in large economic and societal impact. Prevention of virus disease by vaccination or anti-viral agents is difficult to achieve. A notable exception was the eradication of human smallpox by vaccination over 30 years ago. Today, humans and animals remain susceptible to poxvirus infections, including zoonotic poxvirus transmission. Here we identified a small molecule, bisbenzimide (bisbenzimidazole) and its derivatives, as potent agents against prototypic poxvirus infection in cell culture...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634531/smallpox-vaccination-an-early-start-of-modern-medicine-in-america
#7
Dan Liebowitz
Smallpox was eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980. Before its eradication thedisease had a mortality rate upwards of 50% and had a significant impact on society. During theAmerican Revolutionary war, smallpox outbreaks were impeding the American war effort until1777 when George Washington carried out a mass inoculation campaign in the ContinentalArmy that reduced the mortality from smallpox to less than 2%. Inoculation was an early formof vaccination that used live virus from active pustules to induce a milder, but still sometimesdeadly, case of disease...
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629922/vaccination-with-a-codon-optimized-a27l-containing-plasmid-decreases-virus-replication-and-dissemination-after-vaccinia-virus-challenge
#8
Osmarie Martínez, Ariana Bravo Cruz, Saritza Santos, Maite Ramírez, Eric Miranda, Joanna Shisler, Miguel Otero
Smallpox is a disease caused by Variola virus (VARV). Although eradicated by WHO in 1980, the threat of using VARV on a bioterror attack has increased. The current smallpox vaccine ACAM2000, which consists of live vaccinia virus (VACV), causes complications in individuals with a compromised immune system or with previously reported skin diseases. Thus, a safer and efficacious vaccine needs to be developed. Previously, we reported that our virus-free DNA vaccine formulation, a pVAX1 plasmid encoding codon-optimized VACV A27L gene (pA27LOPT) with and without Imiquimod adjuvant, stimulates A27L-specific production of IFN-γ and increases humoral immunity 7days post-vaccination...
June 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625523/induction-treatment-and-prevention-of-eczema-vaccinatum-in-atopic-dermatitis-mouse-models
#9
Hagit Achdout, Shlomo Lustig, Tomer Israely, Noam Erez, Boaz Politi, Hadas Tamir, Ofir Israeli, Trevor Waner, Sharon Melamed, Nir Paran
Eczema vaccinatum is a severe and occasionally lethal complication of smallpox vaccine, characterized by systemic viral dissemination, distant from the initial inoculation site of the vaccine. A major risk factor for eczema vaccinatum is a background of atopic dermatitis, a chronic, common allergic, relapsing disorder, manifested by dry and inflamed skin, itchy rash, Th2 biased immune response and hypersensitivity to various antigens. Unlike the severe manifestations of eczema vaccinatum in humans, current models present only mild symptoms that limits examination of potential therapeutics for eczema vaccinatum...
June 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617263/vaccine-hesitancy-parental-professional-and-public-responsibility
#10
Maria Luisa Di Pietro, Andrea Poscia, Adele Anna Teleman, Davide Maged, Walter Ricciardi
The opposition to vaccinations is a well-known phenomenon that dates back to the Victorian age when it was self-limited by the awareness of the importance to be protected against fearsome infectious diseases. In the XX century, the mass use of vaccination has - instead - consented to eradicate or drastically reduce the burden of diseases such as smallpox and polio. These positive effects of the vaccination campaigns have blurred out, if not erased, the memory of the tragic consequences of the past's widespread diseases, leading people to underestimate the severity of the harm that vaccinations prevent...
April 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606813/comparative-efficacy-of-intramuscular-and-scarification-routes-of-administration-of-live-smallpox-vaccine-in-a-murine-challenge-model
#11
A Phelps, A J Gates, L Eastaugh, M Hillier, D O Ulaeto
In recent years concern has mounted regarding the possibility of a re-emergence of smallpox through biowarfare or bioterrorism. There is also concern over the incidence of human monkeypox in endemic areas and the potential for monkeypox to be accidentally transported to non-endemic areas. In the event of re-emergence of smallpox or emergence of monkeypox, the accepted route of administration for live replicating smallpox vaccine is dermal scarification, which generates a virus-shedding lesion that persists for several days at the vaccination site...
June 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604814/functional-paralysis-of-gm-csf-derived-bone-marrow-cells-productively-infected-with-ectromelia-virus
#12
Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska, Justyna Struzik, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Maciej Guzera, Felix N Toka, Magdalena Bossowska-Nowicka, Małgorzata M Gieryńska, Anna Winnicka, Zuzanna Nowak, Marek G Niemiałtowski
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus responsible for mousepox, a lethal disease of certain strains of mice that is similar to smallpox in humans, caused by variola virus (VARV). ECTV, similar to VARV, exhibits a narrow host range and has co-evolved with its natural host. Consequently, ECTV employs sophisticated and host-specific strategies to control the immune cells that are important for induction of antiviral immune response. In the present study we investigated the influence of ECTV infection on immune functions of murine GM-CSF-derived bone marrow cells (GM-BM), comprised of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and macrophages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588133/novel-nonreplicating-vaccinia-virus-vector-enhances-expression-of-heterologous-genes-and-suppresses-synthesis-of-endogenous-viral-proteins
#13
Linda S Wyatt, Wei Xiao, Jeffrey L Americo, Patricia L Earl, Bernard Moss
Viruses are used as expression vectors for protein synthesis, immunology research, vaccines, and therapeutics. Advantages of poxvirus vectors include the accommodation of large amounts of heterologous DNA, the presence of a cytoplasmic site of transcription, and high expression levels. On the other hand, competition of approximately 200 viral genes with the target gene for expression and immune recognition may be disadvantageous. We describe a vaccinia virus (VACV) vector that uses an early promoter to express the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase; has the A23R intermediate transcription factor gene deleted, thereby restricting virus replication to complementing cells; and has a heterologous gene regulated by a T7 promoter...
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577520/duration-of-neutralizing-antibody-persisting-in-thai-individuals-after-childhood-vaccination-against-smallpox
#14
Kannikar Kwanchum, Silawun Ampol, Anchalee Thongput, Navin Horthongkham, Suthiphol Udomphunthurak, Sontana Siritantikorn, Wannee Kantakamalakul
BACKGROUND: Although smallpox was completely eliminated by 1980, it remains possible that variola virus could be intentionally released in an act of bioterrorism. Thus, several studies have been performed to detect antibody levels after smallpox vaccination of the current population in various countries to indicate the duration of maintenance of immunological memory. Our study endeavored to investigate the level of neutralizing (Nt) antibody responses of Thai individuals who had been immunized with smallpox vaccine during childhood...
June 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572623/voluntary-vaccination-through-self-organizing-behaviors-on-locally-mixed-social-networks
#15
Benyun Shi, Hongjun Qiu, Wenfang Niu, Yizhi Ren, Hong Ding, Dan Chen
Voluntary vaccination reflects how individuals weigh the risk of infection and the cost of vaccination against the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as smallpox and measles. In a homogeneously mixing population, the infection risk of an individual depends largely on the proportion of vaccinated individuals due to the effects of herd immunity. While in a structured population, the infection risk can also be affected by the structure of individuals' social network. In this paper, we focus on studying individuals' self-organizing behaviors under the circumstance of voluntary vaccination in different types of social networks...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513406/-the-court-physician-the-clergyman-a-learned-society-and-smallpox
#16
H F P Hillen
Variolation was introduced in England in the first half of the 18th century. The positive effects of this new method for preventing smallpox were already known in the Netherlands around 1720, one of whom was the Dutch physician Boerhaave. In spite of this, it took another 30 years before variolation was used in the Netherlands. Despite receiving positive advice and information from his learned English friends Sloane and Sherard, Boerhaave did not apply nor advise the use of variolation. There were various arguments for this restrained approach...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512076/considering-the-public-in-public-health-popular-resistance-to-the-smallpox-eradication-programme-in-india
#17
Luke Juran, Jennifer Trivedi, Korine N Kolivras
Public health initiatives, including large-scale vaccination and disease eradication programmes, regularly pit the rights of the individual against broader benefits to society. At times, the public resists such initiatives, with the World Health Organisation's Smallpox Eradication Programme (SEP) in India being a case in point. Here, we critically investigate resistance to smallpox vaccines in India and argue that while the SEP successfully eradicated a global killer; individuals were stripped of human rights through coercion, forcible vaccination and quarantine...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512071/ethical-and-legal-challenges-of-vaccines-and-vaccination-reflections
#18
Amar Jesani, Veena Johari
Vaccines and vaccination have emerged as key medical scientific tools for prevention of certain diseases. Documentation of the history of vaccination shows that the initial popular resistance to universal vaccination was based on false assumptions and eventually gave way to acceptance of vaccines and trust in their ability to save lives. The successes of the global eradication of smallpox, and now of polio, have only strengthened the premier position occupied by vaccines in disease prevention. However, the success of vaccines and public trust in their ability to eradicate disease are now under challenge, as increasing numbers of people refuse vaccination, questioning the effectiveness of vaccines and the need to vaccinate...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492840/al-rhazes-and-the-beginning-of-the-end-of-smallpox
#19
Isabelle C Band, Martin Reichel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470151/a-medical-enigma%C3%A2-what-gale-chinoise-chinese-scabies-meant%C3%A2-150-years-ago
#20
B-A Gaüzere, P Aubry
CONTEXT: The meaning of the term "gale chinoise" mentioned in some articles about French overseas territories in the 19th century, remains unclear. In response to a query of an American colleague dermatologist trying to find out what it meant 150 years ago, we attempted to elucidate the nature of this ancient disease, which today would be translated literally as Chinese scabies. METHOD: We submitted the query to a panel of civilian and military French tropical medicine specialists including dermatologists, through two networks : Association Amicale Santé Navale et d'Outre-Mer and Société de Pathologie Exotique...
May 4, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
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