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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513406/-the-court-physician-the-clergyman-a-learned-society-and-smallpox
#1
H F P Hillen
Variolation was introduced in England in the first half of the 18th century. The positive effects of this new method for preventing smallpox were already known in the Netherlands around 1720, one of whom was the Dutch physician Boerhaave. In spite of this, it took another 30 years before variolation was used in the Netherlands. Despite receiving positive advice and information from his learned English friends Sloane and Sherard, Boerhaave did not apply nor advise the use of variolation. There were various arguments for this restrained approach...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512076/considering-the-public-in-public-health-popular-resistance-to-the-smallpox-eradication-programme-in-india
#2
Luke Juran, Jennifer Trivedi, Korine N Kolivras
Public health initiatives, including large-scale vaccination and disease eradication programmes, regularly pit the rights of the individual against broader benefits to society. At times, the public resists such initiatives, with the World Health Organisation's Smallpox Eradication Programme (SEP) in India being a case in point. Here, we critically investigate resistance to smallpox vaccines in India and argue that while the SEP successfully eradicated a global killer; individuals were stripped of human rights through coercion, forcible vaccination and quarantine...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512071/ethical-and-legal-challenges-of-vaccines-and-vaccination-reflections
#3
Amar Jesani, Veena Johari
Vaccines and vaccination have emerged as key medical scientific tools for prevention of certain diseases. Documentation of the history of vaccination shows that the initial popular resistance to universal vaccination was based on false assumptions and eventually gave way to acceptance of vaccines and trust in their ability to save lives. The successes of the global eradication of smallpox, and now of polio, have only strengthened the premier position occupied by vaccines in disease prevention. However, the success of vaccines and public trust in their ability to eradicate disease are now under challenge, as increasing numbers of people refuse vaccination, questioning the effectiveness of vaccines and the need to vaccinate...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492840/al-rhazes-and-the-beginning-of-the-end-of-smallpox
#4
Isabelle C Band, Martin Reichel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470151/a-medical-enigma%C3%A2-what-gale-chinoise-chinese-scabies-meant%C3%A2-150-years-ago
#5
B-A Gaüzere, P Aubry
CONTEXT: The meaning of the term "gale chinoise" mentioned in some articles about French overseas territories in the 19th century, remains unclear. In response to a query of an American colleague dermatologist trying to find out what it meant 150 years ago, we attempted to elucidate the nature of this ancient disease, which today would be translated literally as Chinese scabies. METHOD: We submitted the query to a panel of civilian and military French tropical medicine specialists including dermatologists, through two networks : Association Amicale Santé Navale et d'Outre-Mer and Société de Pathologie Exotique...
May 4, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465492/oncolytic-efficacy-of-thymidine-kinase-deleted-vaccinia-virus-strain-guang9
#6
Lili Deng, Jun Fan, Yuedi Ding, Jue Zhang, Bin Zhou, Yi Zhang, Biao Huang
Oncolytic virotherapy is being developed as a promising platform for cancer therapy due to its ability to lyse cancer cells in a tumor-specific manner. Vaccinia virus has been used as a live vaccine in the smallpox eradication program and now is being potential in cancer therapy with a great safety profile. Vaccinia strain Guang9 (VG9) is an attenuated Chinese vaccinia virus and its oncolytic efficacy has been evaluated in our previous study. To improve the tumor selectivity and oncolytic efficacy, we here developed a thymidine kinase (TK)-deleted vaccinia virus based on Guang9 strain...
April 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438169/ivermectin-and-malaria-control
#7
Satoshi Ōmura, Andy Crump
As the world begins to realize the very real prospect of eliminating malaria as a public health problem globally, the scientific community is acutely aware that novel and innovative new tools will be required if that lofty goal is to be accomplished. Moreover, the need for comprehensive, integrated products and interventions is being recognized in order for the critical 'final steps' toward elimination to be taken successfully. Failure to take these crucial last steps have dogged all past global disease elimination programmes, except for smallpox...
April 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406414/review-of-poxvirus-emergence-of-monkeypox
#8
A Morand, S Delaigue, J J Morand
This article reviews the different types of poxvirus infections. Smallpox, although eradicated, must continue to be monitored because of the potential risk of accidental or voluntary (by bioterrorism) reintroduction. Monkeypox and cowpox viruses are considered to be emergent today ; their high risk of dissemination is due to the increase in international transport as well as trends for new animals as pets and the loss of vaccinal protection against smallpox. Molluscum contagiosum (molluscipoxvirus) causes mild infections, is particularly frequent in children ; in adults it is a marker of the risk of sexually transmitted infections and can, in cases with profuse lesions, reveal AIDS...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398677/preparing-for-biological-threats-addressing-the-needs-of-pregnant-women
#9
REVIEW
Amelia K Watson, Sascha Ellington, Christina Nelson, Tracee Treadwell, Denise J Jamieson, Dana M Meaney-Delman
Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the maternal and fetal effects of seven biological threats: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola virus (smallpox); Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism); Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); and Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus)...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397646/relocating-pastorian-medicine-accommodation-and-acclimatization-of-pastorian-practices-against-smallpox-at-the-pasteur-institute-of-chengdu-china-1908-1927
#10
Chien-Ling Liu
Argument Revising the diffusionist view of current scholarship on the Pasteur Institutes in China, this paper demonstrates the ways in which local networks and circumstances informed the circulation and construction of knowledge and practices relating to smallpox prophylaxis in the Southwest of China during the early twentieth century. I argue that the Pasteur Institute of Chengdu did not operate in a natural continuity with the preceding local French medical institutions, but rather presented an intentional break from them...
March 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392420/efficacy-of-delayed-brincidofovir-treatment-against-a-lethal-rabbitpox-virus-challenge-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#11
Irma M Grossi, Scott A Foster, Melicia R Gainey, Robert T Krile, John A Dunn, Thomas Brundage, Jody M Khouri
In the event of a bioterror attack with variola virus (smallpox), exposure may only be identified following onset of fever. To determine if antiviral therapy with brincidofovir (BCV; CMX001) initiated at, or following, onset of fever could prevent severe illness and death, a lethal rabbitpox model was used. BCV is in advanced development as an antiviral for the treatment of smallpox under the US Food and Drug Administration's 'Animal Rule'. This pivotal study assessed the efficacy of immediate versus delayed treatment with BCV following onset of symptomatic disease in New Zealand White rabbits intradermally inoculated with a lethal rabbitpox virus (RPXV), strain Utrecht...
April 7, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374245/generation-and-production-of-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-mva-as-a-vaccine-vector
#12
Vincent Pavot, Sarah Sebastian, Alison V Turner, Jake Matthews, Sarah C Gilbert
The smallpox vaccine based on the vaccinia virus was successfully used to eradicate smallpox, but although very effective, it was a very reactogenic vaccine and responsible for the deaths of one to two people per million vaccinated. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated derivative, also used in the smallpox eradication campaign and now being developed as a recombinant viral vector to produce vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. MVA can encode one or more foreign antigens and thus can function as a multivalent vaccine...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366525/vaccinia-virus-evasion-of-regulated-cell-death
#13
REVIEW
David L Veyer, Guia Carrara, Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Geoffrey L Smith
Regulated cell death is a powerful anti-viral mechanism capable of aborting the virus replicative cycle and alerting neighbouring cells to the threat of infection. The biological importance of regulated cell death is illustrated by the rich repertoire of host signalling cascades causing cell death and by the multiple strategies exhibited by viruses to block death signal transduction and preserve cell viability. Vaccinia virus (VACV), a poxvirus and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox, encodes multiple proteins that interfere with apoptotic, necroptotic and pyroptotic signalling...
March 31, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364918/the-origins-of-the-vaccine-cold-chain-and-a-glimpse-of-the-future
#14
REVIEW
John Lloyd, James Cheyne
International efforts to eradicate smallpox in the 1960s and 1970s provided the foundation for efforts to expand immunization programmes, including work to develop immunization supply chains. The need to create a reliable system to keep vaccines cold during the lengthy journey from the manufacturer to the point of use, even in remote areas, was a crucial concern during the early days of the Expanded Programme on Immunization. The vaccine cold chain was deliberately separated from other medical distribution systems to assure timely access to and control of vaccines and injection materials...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351006/variola-minor-in-coalfield-areas-of-england-and-wales-1921-34-geographical-determinants-of-a-national-smallpox-epidemic-that-spread-out-of-effective-control
#15
Matthew R Smallman-Raynor, Sarah Rafferty, Andrew D Cliff
This paper uses techniques of binary logistic regression to identify the spatial determinants of the last national epidemic of smallpox to spread in England and Wales, the variola minor epidemic of 1921-34. Adjusting for age and county-level variations in vaccination coverage in infancy, the analysis identifies a dose-response gradient with increasing odds of elevated smallpox rates in local government areas with (i) medium (odds ratio [OR] = 5.32, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.96-14.41) and high (OR = 11...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348941/cutting-the-stone-health-defined-in-the-era-of-value-based-care
#16
REVIEW
Ger Rijkers
The immune system contributes to the maintenance of health by preventing and limiting the clinical consequences of infections by pathogenic microorganisms. During the evolution of Homo sapiens, those with the fittest immune system survived. The immune system of Homo sapiens was further improved and adapted by admixture with Neanderthal genes. Nowadays, the human immune system provides adequate protection against the majority of infections. For some 20 infectious diseases, the immune system needs to be improved by vaccination...
February 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331092/monkeypox-virus-host-factor-screen-in-haploid-cells-identifies-essential-role-of-garp-complex-in-extracellular-virus-formation
#17
Susan Realegeno, Andreas S Puschnik, Amrita Kumar, Cynthia Goldsmith, Jillybeth Burgado, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Victoria A Olson, Darin Carroll, Inger Damon, Tetsuya Hirata, Taroh Kinoshita, Jan E Carette, Panayampalli Subbian Satheshkumar
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. The screen revealed several candidate genes, including those involved in Golgi trafficking, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchor biosynthesis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329402/novel-orthopoxvirus-infection-in-an-alaska-resident
#18
Yuri P Springer, Christopher H Hsu, Zachary R Werle, Link E Olson, Michael P Cooper, Louisa J Castrodale, Nisha Fowler, Andrea M McCollum, Cynthia S Goldsmith, Ginny L Emerson, Kimberly Wilkins, Jeffrey B Doty, Jillybeth Burgado, JinXin Gao, Nishi Patel, Matthew R Mauldin, Mary G Reynolds, Panayampalli S Satheshkumar, Whitni Davidson, Yu Li, Joseph B McLaughlin
Background.: Human infection by orthopoxviruses is being reported with increasing frequency, attributed in part to the cessation of smallpox vaccination and concomitant waning of population-level immunity. In July 2015, a female resident of interior Alaska, presented to an urgent care clinic with a dermal lesion consistent with poxvirus infection. Laboratory testing of a virus isolated from the lesion confirmed infection by an Orthopoxvirus. Methods.: The virus isolate was characterized by using electron microscopy and nucleic acid sequencing...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292498/treacle-and-smallpox-two-tests-for-multicriteria-decision-analysis-models-in-health-technology-assessment
#19
Alec Morton
Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is rightly receiving increasing attention in health technology assessment. Nevertheless, a distinguishing feature of the health domain is that technologies must actually improve health, and good performance on other criteria cannot compensate for failure to do so. We argue for two reasonable tests for MCDA models: the treacle test (can a winning intervention be incompletely ineffective?) and the smallpox test (can a winning intervention be for a disease that no one suffers from?)...
March 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290922/the-peace-gun-and-the-eradication-of-smallpox
#20
Gwen Nelmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Military Medicine
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