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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880744/notice-to-readers-final-2015-reports-of-nationally-notifiable-infectious-diseases-and-conditions
#1
(no author information available yet)
The table listed in this report on pages 1307-1321 presents finalized data, as of June 30, 2016, from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) for 2015. These data will be published in more detail in the Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015 (1). Because no cases were reported in the United States during 2015, the following diseases do not appear in this early release table: anthrax; dengue hemorrhagic fever; diphtheria; eastern equine encephalitis virus disease, nonneuroinvasive; poliomyelitis, paralytic; poliovirus infection, nonparalytic; severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV); smallpox; western equine encephalitis virus disease, neuroinvasive and nonneuroinvasive; yellow fever; and viral hemorrhagic fevers...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794078/clemens-von-pirquet-a-remarkable-life-and-career
#2
REVIEW
Stanford T Shulman
From 1908 to 1929, Clemens von Pirquet was one of the world's most acclaimed pediatricians. Von Pirquet (1874-1929) trained at Vienna's Universitäts Kinderklinic under Theodor Escherich, the first Pediatric Infectious Diseases physician [ 1], and became the first Professor and Chair of Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins in 1909. He then succeeded his mentor Escherich as Professor and Chair of Pediatrics in Vienna, the most prestigious European pediatric position, when Escherich died unexpectedly in 1911. He held that position in Vienna until his shocking double suicide at age 54 with his wife in 1929...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783372/-twelve-cases-of-monkeypox-virus-outbreak-in-bangassou-district-central-african-republic-in-december-2015
#3
E Kalthan, J P Dondo-Fongbia, S Yambele, L R Dieu-Creer, R Zepio, C M Pamatika
An outbreak of monkeypox occurred in the district of Bangassou in 2015. The monkeypox is a re-emerging zoonosis of viral origin highly contagious. It is an eruptive fever which evolves in an epidemic manner. An investigation was held December 10, 2015, to February 10, 2016 in the focus of the epidemic. Its objective was to describe the epidemic according to the time, places and people and to determine the incidence and lethality of the disease. This was a descriptive study. The data collection was made by interview and using a linear plug composed of several sections...
October 25, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781004/biosocial-approaches-to-the-2013-2016-ebola-pandemic
#4
Eugene T Richardson, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, J Daniel Kelly, Yusupha Dibba, Songor Koedoyoma, Paul E Farmer
Despite more than 25 documented outbreaks of Ebola since 1976, our understanding of the disease is limited, in particular the social, political, ecological, and economic forces that promote (or limit) its spread. In the following study, we seek to provide new ways of understanding the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic. We use the term, 'pandemic,' instead of 'epidemic,' so as not to elide the global forces that shape every localized outbreak of infectious disease. By situating life histories via a biosocial approach, the forces promoting or retarding Ebola transmission come into sharper focus...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760761/mva-vaccine-encoding-cmv-antigens-safely-induces-durable-expansion-of-cmv-specific-t-cells-in-healthy-adults
#5
Corinna La Rosa, Jeff Longmate, Joy Martinez, Qiao Zhou, Teodora I Kaltcheva, Weimin Tsai, Jennifer Drake, Mary Carroll, Felix Wussow, Flavia Chiuppesi, Nicola Hardwick, Sanjeet Dadwal, Ibrahim Aldoss, Ryotaro Nakamura, John A Zaia, Don J Diamond
Attenuated poxvirus Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a useful viral-based vaccine for clinical investigation, because of its excellent safety profile and property of inducing potent immune responses against recombinant (r) antigens. We developed Triplex by constructing an rMVA encoding three immunodominant CMV antigens which stimulates a host anti-viral response: UL83 (pp65), UL123 (IE1-exon4), and UL122 (IE2-exon5). We completed the first clinical evaluation of the Triplex vaccine in 24 healthy adults, with or without immunity to CMV and vaccinia virus (previous DryVax smallpox vaccination)...
October 19, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739111/estimating-the-size-of-the-u-s-population-at-risk-of-severe-adverse-events-from-replicating-smallpox-vaccine
#6
Ellen P Carlin, Nichole Giller, Rebecca Katz
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the population at risk of serious adverse reactions to replicating smallpox vaccine. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Conditions known or suspected to carry risk were identified via Centers for Disease Control and Prevention planning documents, other federal publications, and peer-reviewed literature. Conditions identified were categorized as historically recognized risks or more recently recognized immunocompromised states that may pose risk. Major historical risk factors were as follows: eczema/atopic dermatitis, pregnancy, HIV, and primary immunodeficiency...
October 13, 2016: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726788/history-of-smallpox-and-its-spread-in-human-populations
#7
Catherine Thèves, Eric Crubézy, Philippe Biagini
Smallpox is considered among the most devastating of human diseases. Its spread in populations, initiated for thousands of years following a probable transmission from an animal host, was concomitant with movements of people across regions and continents, trade and wars. Literature permitted to retrace the occurrence of epidemics from ancient times to recent human history, smallpox having affected all levels of past society including famous monarchs. The disease was officially declared eradicated in 1979 following intensive vaccination campaigns...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726771/cholera
#8
Donatella Lippi, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Saverio Caini
Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719695/a-translation-of-the-linnaean-dissertation-the-invisible-world
#9
Janis Antonovics, Jacobus Kritzinger
This study presents the first translation from Latin to English of the Linnaean dissertation Mundus invisibilis or The Invisible World, submitted by Johannes Roos in 1769. The dissertation highlights Linnaeus's conviction that infectious diseases could be transmitted by living organisms, too small to be seen. Biographies of Linnaeus often fail to mention that Linnaeus was correct in ascribing the cause of diseases such as measles, smallpox and syphilis to living organisms. The dissertation itself reviews the work of many microscopists, especially on zoophytes and insects, marvelling at the many unexpected discoveries...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715298/da-henderson-smallpox-eradicator
#10
Daniel Tarantola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707909/characterizing-the-reproduction-number-of-epidemics-with-early-subexponential-growth-dynamics
#11
Gerardo Chowell, Cécile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Seyed M Moghadas
Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697036/formulation-and-characterization-of-ternary-inclusion-complex-containing-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-and-meglumine-for-solubility-enhancement-of-poorly-water-soluble-st-246-an-anti-smallpox-drug
#12
Xiaoxi Li, Meiyan Yang, Yueqing Li, Wei Gong, Yuli Wang, Li Shan, Shuai Shao, Chunsheng Gao, Wu Zhong
The solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to design a liquid formulation that can improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble weakly acidic ST-246, an anti-smallpox drug. Soluble ternary cyclodextrin complexations (t-CDs) containing ST-246, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and meglumine (MEG) were prepared and optimized. Interestingly, the solubility of ST-246 was improved dramatically from 3µg/ml (in water, 37ºC) to 50mg/ml in the optimized t-CDs (ST-246/MEG/HP-β-CD, 1:2:6 weight ratio)...
October 3, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686081/-back-to-the-future-vaccine-trials-against-ebola-in-the-history-of-resistance-to-immunization
#13
A M Moulin
Vaccine trials against Ebola virus have been conceived and organized, in August 2014, after the epidemic started in three countries of West Africa. If the preparedness had been missing, the planners tried to anticipate the resistance to vaccination, in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. This article offers a retrospective view on the resistances to vaccination throughout its history, from smallpox inoculation to anti-polio vaccine. Resistances have been linked to the political contexts and the rejection of an oppressive power, either local or foreign, as well as mistakes and scientific uncertainties...
October 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639281/the-primary-immune-response-to-vaccinia-virus-vaccination-includes-cells-with-a-distinct-cytotoxic-effector-cd4-t-cell-phenotype
#14
C Mee Ling Munier, David van Bockel, Michelle Bailey, Susanna Ip, Yin Xu, Sheilajen Alcantara, Sue Min Liu, Gareth Denyer, Warren Kaplan, Kazuo Suzuki, Nathan Croft, Anthony Purcell, David Tscharke, David A Cooper, Stephen J Kent, John J Zaunders, Anthony D Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Smallpox was eradicated by a global program of inoculation with Vaccinia virus (VV). Robust VV-specific CD4 T-cell responses during primary infection are likely essential to controlling VV replication. Although there is increasing interest in cytolytic CD4 T-cells across many viral infections, the importance of these cells during acute VV infection is unclear. METHODS: We undertook a detailed functional and genetic characterization of CD4 T-cells during acute VV-infection of humans...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637905/protection-of-mice-against-the-highly-pathogenic-vvihd-j-by-dna-and-fowlpox-recombinant-vaccines-administered-by-electroporation-and-intranasal-routes-correlates-with-serum-neutralizing-activity
#15
Massimiliano Bissa, Elena Quaglino, Carlo Zanotto, Elena Illiano, Valeria Rolih, Sole Pacchioni, Federica Cavallo, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Antonia Radaelli
The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that also arise as zoonoses, and the increasing number of unvaccinated or immunocompromised people, a safer and more effective vaccine is still required...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624667/skin-scarification-with-plasmodium-falciparum-peptide-vaccine-using-synthetic-tlr-agonists-as-adjuvants-elicits-malaria-sporozoite-neutralizing-immunity
#16
Robert A Mitchell, Rita Altszuler, Ute Frevert, Elizabeth H Nardin
Malaria eradication will require a combination of vector control, chemotherapy and an easily administered vaccine. Sterile immunity can be elicited in humans by immunization with sporozoites, the infective stage injected by bite of the mosquito vector, however, whole parasite vaccines present formidable logistical challenges for production, storage and administration. The "gold standard" for infectious disease eradiation, the Smallpox Eradication Programme, utilized mass immunization using the skin scarification (SS) route...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611368/building-ventilation-as-an-effective-disease-intervention-strategy-in-a-dense-indoor-contact-network-in-an-ideal-city
#17
Xiaolei Gao, Jianjian Wei, Hao Lei, Pengcheng Xu, Benjamin J Cowling, Yuguo Li
Emerging diseases may spread rapidly through dense and large urban contact networks, especially they are transmitted by the airborne route, before new vaccines can be made available. Airborne diseases may spread rapidly as people visit different indoor environments and are in frequent contact with others. We constructed a simple indoor contact model for an ideal city with 7 million people and 3 million indoor spaces, and estimated the probability and duration of contact between any two individuals during one day...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609550/rapid-mortality-transition-of-pacific-islands-in-the-19th-century
#18
B S Penman, S Gupta, G D Shanks
The depopulation of Pacific islands during the 16th to 19th centuries is a striking example of historical mass mortality due to infectious disease. Pacific Island populations have not been subject to such cataclysmic infectious disease mortality since. Here we explore the processes which could have given rise to this shift in infectious disease mortality patterns. We show, using mathematical models, that the population dynamics exhibited by Pacific Island populations are unlikely to be the result of Darwinian evolution...
January 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585810/finishing-monkeypox-genomes-from-short-reads-assembly-analysis-and-a-neural-network-method
#19
Kun Zhao, Robert M Wohlhueter, Yu Li
BACKGROUND: Poxviruses constitute one of the largest and most complex animal virus families known. The notorious smallpox disease has been eradicated and the virus contained, but its simian sister, monkeypox is an emerging, untreatable infectious disease, killing 1 to 10 % of its human victims. In the case of poxviruses, the emergence of monkeypox outbreaks in humans and the need to monitor potential malicious release of smallpox virus requires development of methods for rapid virus identification...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572446/global-phylogeography-and-evolutionary-history-of-shigella-dysenteriae-type-1
#20
Elisabeth Njamkepo, Nizar Fawal, Alicia Tran-Dien, Jane Hawkey, Nancy Strockbine, Claire Jenkins, Kaisar A Talukder, Raymond Bercion, Konstantin Kuleshov, Renáta Kolínská, Julie E Russell, Lidia Kaftyreva, Marie Accou-Demartin, Andreas Karas, Olivier Vandenberg, Alison E Mather, Carl J Mason, Andrew J Page, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Chantal Bizet, Andrzej Gamian, Isabelle Carle, Amy Gassama Sow, Christiane Bouchier, Astrid Louise Wester, Monique Lejay-Collin, Marie-Christine Fonkoua, Simon Le Hello, Martin J Blaser, Cecilia Jernberg, Corinne Ruckly, Audrey Mérens, Anne-Laure Page, Martin Aslett, Peter Roggentin, Angelika Fruth, Erick Denamur, Malabi Venkatesan, Hervé Bercovier, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Chien-Shun Chiou, Dominique Clermont, Bianca Colonna, Svetlana Egorova, Gururaja P Pazhani, Analia V Ezernitchi, Ghislaine Guigon, Simon R Harris, Hidemasa Izumiya, Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal, Anna Lutyńska, Malika Gouali, Francine Grimont, Céline Langendorf, Monika Marejková, Lorea A M Peterson, Guillermo Perez-Perez, Antoinette Ngandjio, Alexander Podkolzin, Erika Souche, Mariia Makarova, German A Shipulin, Changyun Ye, Helena Žemličková, Mária Herpay, Patrick A D Grimont, Julian Parkhill, Philippe Sansonetti, Kathryn E Holt, Sylvain Brisse, Nicholas R Thomson, François-Xavier Weill
Together with plague, smallpox and typhus, epidemics of dysentery have been a major scourge of human populations for centuries(1). A previous genomic study concluded that Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1), the epidemic dysentery bacillus, emerged and spread worldwide after the First World War, with no clear pattern of transmission(2). This is not consistent with the massive cyclic dysentery epidemics reported in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries(1,3,4) and the first isolation of Sd1 in Japan in 1897(5)...
2016: Nature Microbiology
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