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Corinna La Rosa, Jeff Longmate, Joy Martinez, Qiao Zhou, Teodora I Kaltcheva, Weimin Tsai, Jennifer Drake, Mary Carroll, Felix Wussow, Flavia Chiuppesi, Nicola Hardwick, Sanjeet Dadwal, Ibrahim Aldoss, Ryotaro Nakamura, John A Zaia, Don J Diamond
Attenuated poxvirus Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a useful viral-based vaccine for clinical investigation, because of its excellent safety profile and property of inducing potent immune responses against recombinant (r) antigens. We developed Triplex by constructing an rMVA encoding three immunodominant CMV antigens which stimulates a host anti-viral response: UL83 (pp65), UL123 (IE1-exon4), and UL122 (IE2-exon5). We completed the first clinical evaluation of the Triplex vaccine in 24 healthy adults, with or without immunity to CMV and vaccinia virus (previous DryVax smallpox vaccination)...
October 19, 2016: Blood
Ellen P Carlin, Nichole Giller, Rebecca Katz
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the population at risk of serious adverse reactions to replicating smallpox vaccine. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Conditions known or suspected to carry risk were identified via Centers for Disease Control and Prevention planning documents, other federal publications, and peer-reviewed literature. Conditions identified were categorized as historically recognized risks or more recently recognized immunocompromised states that may pose risk. Major historical risk factors were as follows: eczema/atopic dermatitis, pregnancy, HIV, and primary immunodeficiency...
October 13, 2016: Public Health Nursing
Catherine Thèves, Eric Crubézy, Philippe Biagini
Smallpox is considered among the most devastating of human diseases. Its spread in populations, initiated for thousands of years following a probable transmission from an animal host, was concomitant with movements of people across regions and continents, trade and wars. Literature permitted to retrace the occurrence of epidemics from ancient times to recent human history, smallpox having affected all levels of past society including famous monarchs. The disease was officially declared eradicated in 1979 following intensive vaccination campaigns...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Donatella Lippi, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Saverio Caini
Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Janis Antonovics, Jacobus Kritzinger
This study presents the first translation from Latin to English of the Linnaean dissertation Mundus invisibilis or The Invisible World, submitted by Johannes Roos in 1769. The dissertation highlights Linnaeus's conviction that infectious diseases could be transmitted by living organisms, too small to be seen. Biographies of Linnaeus often fail to mention that Linnaeus was correct in ascribing the cause of diseases such as measles, smallpox and syphilis to living organisms. The dissertation itself reviews the work of many microscopists, especially on zoophytes and insects, marvelling at the many unexpected discoveries...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
Daniel Tarantola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Gerardo Chowell, Cécile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Seyed M Moghadas
Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Xiaoxi Li, Meiyan Yang, Yueqing Li, Wei Gong, Yuli Wang, Li Shan, Shuai Shao, Chunsheng Gao, Wu Zhong
The solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to design a liquid formulation that can improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble weakly acidic ST-246, an anti-smallpox drug. Soluble ternary cyclodextrin complexations (t-CDs) containing ST-246, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and meglumine (MEG) were prepared and optimized. Interestingly, the solubility of ST-246 was improved dramatically from 3µg/ml (in water, 37ºC) to 50mg/ml in the optimized t-CDs (ST-246/MEG/HP-β-CD, 1:2:6 weight ratio)...
October 3, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
A M Moulin
Vaccine trials against Ebola virus have been conceived and organized, in August 2014, after the epidemic started in three countries of West Africa. If the preparedness had been missing, the planners tried to anticipate the resistance to vaccination, in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. This article offers a retrospective view on the resistances to vaccination throughout its history, from smallpox inoculation to anti-polio vaccine. Resistances have been linked to the political contexts and the rejection of an oppressive power, either local or foreign, as well as mistakes and scientific uncertainties...
September 29, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
C Mee Ling Munier, David van Bockel, Michelle Bailey, Susanna Ip, Yin Xu, Sheilajen Alcantara, Sue Min Liu, Gareth Denyer, Warren Kaplan, Kazuo Suzuki, Nathan Croft, Anthony Purcell, David Tscharke, David A Cooper, Stephen J Kent, John J Zaunders, Anthony D Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Smallpox was eradicated by a global program of inoculation with Vaccinia virus (VV). Robust VV-specific CD4 T-cell responses during primary infection are likely essential to controlling VV replication. Although there is increasing interest in cytolytic CD4 T-cells across many viral infections, the importance of these cells during acute VV infection is unclear. METHODS: We undertook a detailed functional and genetic characterization of CD4 T-cells during acute VV-infection of humans...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Massimiliano Bissa, Elena Quaglino, Carlo Zanotto, Elena Illiano, Valeria Rolih, Sole Pacchioni, Federica Cavallo, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Antonia Radaelli
The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that also arise as zoonoses, and the increasing number of unvaccinated or immunocompromised people, a safer and more effective vaccine is still required...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
Robert A Mitchell, Rita Altszuler, Ute Frevert, Elizabeth H Nardin
Malaria eradication will require a combination of vector control, chemotherapy and an easily administered vaccine. Sterile immunity can be elicited in humans by immunization with sporozoites, the infective stage injected by bite of the mosquito vector, however, whole parasite vaccines present formidable logistical challenges for production, storage and administration. The "gold standard" for infectious disease eradiation, the Smallpox Eradication Programme, utilized mass immunization using the skin scarification (SS) route...
2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaolei Gao, Jianjian Wei, Hao Lei, Pengcheng Xu, Benjamin J Cowling, Yuguo Li
Emerging diseases may spread rapidly through dense and large urban contact networks, especially they are transmitted by the airborne route, before new vaccines can be made available. Airborne diseases may spread rapidly as people visit different indoor environments and are in frequent contact with others. We constructed a simple indoor contact model for an ideal city with 7 million people and 3 million indoor spaces, and estimated the probability and duration of contact between any two individuals during one day...
2016: PloS One
B S Penman, S Gupta, G D Shanks
The depopulation of Pacific islands during the 16th to 19th centuries is a striking example of historical mass mortality due to infectious disease. Pacific Island populations have not been subject to such cataclysmic infectious disease mortality since. Here we explore the processes which could have given rise to this shift in infectious disease mortality patterns. We show, using mathematical models, that the population dynamics exhibited by Pacific Island populations are unlikely to be the result of Darwinian evolution...
September 9, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Kun Zhao, Robert M Wohlhueter, Yu Li
BACKGROUND: Poxviruses constitute one of the largest and most complex animal virus families known. The notorious smallpox disease has been eradicated and the virus contained, but its simian sister, monkeypox is an emerging, untreatable infectious disease, killing 1 to 10 % of its human victims. In the case of poxviruses, the emergence of monkeypox outbreaks in humans and the need to monitor potential malicious release of smallpox virus requires development of methods for rapid virus identification...
2016: BMC Genomics
Elisabeth Njamkepo, Nizar Fawal, Alicia Tran-Dien, Jane Hawkey, Nancy Strockbine, Claire Jenkins, Kaisar A Talukder, Raymond Bercion, Konstantin Kuleshov, Renáta Kolínská, Julie E Russell, Lidia Kaftyreva, Marie Accou-Demartin, Andreas Karas, Olivier Vandenberg, Alison E Mather, Carl J Mason, Andrew J Page, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Chantal Bizet, Andrzej Gamian, Isabelle Carle, Amy Gassama Sow, Christiane Bouchier, Astrid Louise Wester, Monique Lejay-Collin, Marie-Christine Fonkoua, Simon Le Hello, Martin J Blaser, Cecilia Jernberg, Corinne Ruckly, Audrey Mérens, Anne-Laure Page, Martin Aslett, Peter Roggentin, Angelika Fruth, Erick Denamur, Malabi Venkatesan, Hervé Bercovier, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Chien-Shun Chiou, Dominique Clermont, Bianca Colonna, Svetlana Egorova, Gururaja P Pazhani, Analia V Ezernitchi, Ghislaine Guigon, Simon R Harris, Hidemasa Izumiya, Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal, Anna Lutyńska, Malika Gouali, Francine Grimont, Céline Langendorf, Monika Marejková, Lorea A M Peterson, Guillermo Perez-Perez, Antoinette Ngandjio, Alexander Podkolzin, Erika Souche, Mariia Makarova, German A Shipulin, Changyun Ye, Helena Žemličková, Mária Herpay, Patrick A D Grimont, Julian Parkhill, Philippe Sansonetti, Kathryn E Holt, Sylvain Brisse, Nicholas R Thomson, François-Xavier Weill
Together with plague, smallpox and typhus, epidemics of dysentery have been a major scourge of human populations for centuries(1). A previous genomic study concluded that Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1), the epidemic dysentery bacillus, emerged and spread worldwide after the First World War, with no clear pattern of transmission(2). This is not consistent with the massive cyclic dysentery epidemics reported in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries(1,3,4) and the first isolation of Sd1 in Japan in 1897(5)...
2016: Nature Microbiology
G Dennis Shanks
Many isolated populations of tribal peoples were nearly destroyed when they first contacted infectious diseases particularly respiratory pathogens such as measles and smallpox. Surviving groups have often been found to have declining populations in the face of multiple social and infectious threats. Malaria, especially Plasmodium falciparum, was thought to be a major cause of depopulation in some tribal peoples isolated in tropical jungles. The dynamics of such host parasite interactions is unclear especially since most such populations would have had long histories of exposure to malaria...
August 20, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Daniel J Schaid, Xingwei Tong, Beth Larrabee, Richard B Kennedy, Gregory A Poland, Jason P Sinnwell
Genetic pleiotropy is when a single gene influences more than one trait. Detecting pleiotropy and understanding its causes can improve the biological understanding of a gene in multiple ways, yet current multivariate methods to evaluate pleiotropy test the null hypothesis that none of the traits are associated with a variant; departures from the null could be driven by just one associated trait. A formal test of pleiotropy should assume a null hypothesis that one or no traits are associated with a genetic variant...
October 2016: Genetics
Mehdi Vazirian, Shabnam Faridfar, Mahdieh Eftekhari
BACKGROUND: Gharikon is a well-known medicinal mushroom in Iranian traditional medicine and mentioned several times in different kinds of authentic literature. Considering both traditional and modern literature, the aim of this study is to present a review of its biological activities. METHODS: Using online databases (e.g. PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) as well as reviewing traditional medicinal literature (e.g. Makhzan-ul-Adwiah, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb); we reviewed the published literature on the pharmacological effects of Laricifomes officinalis (the most common species considered as "Gharikon")...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Brett A McKinney, Caleb Lareau, Ann L Oberg, Richard B Kennedy, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Gregory A Poland
Although many diseases and traits show large heritability, few genetic variants have been found to strongly separate phenotype groups by genotype. Complex regulatory networks of variants and expression of multiple genes lead to small individual-variant effects and difficulty replicating the effect of any single variant in an affected pathway. Interaction network modeling of GWAS identifies effects ignored by univariate models, but population differences may still cause specific genes to not replicate. Integrative network models may help detect indirect effects of variants in the underlying biological pathway...
2016: PloS One
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