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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340212/40-years-without-smallpox
#1
G A Shchelkunova, S N Shchelkunov
The last case of natural smallpox was recorded in October, 1977. It took humanity almost 20 years to achieve that feat after the World Health Organization had approved the global smallpox eradication program. Vaccination against smallpox was abolished, and, during the past 40 years, the human population has managed to lose immunity not only to smallpox, but to other zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections as well. As a result, multiple outbreaks of orthopoxvirus infections in humans in several continents have been reported over the past decades...
October 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338608/immunotherapy-of-cancer-targeting-cancer-during-active-disease-or-during-dormancy
#2
Syed Ammer Shah, Melika Zarei, Saeed H Manjili, Georgi Guruli, Xiang-Yang Wang, Masoud H Manjili
Immunotherapeutic targeting of advanced stage cancers has prolonged the survival of cancer patients, yet its curative efficacy is limited due to tumor immunoediting and escape. On the other hand, human vaccines have been able to eradicate smallpox and control several other infectious diseases. The success has resulted from the administration of vaccines in prophylactic settings, or during latency periods in order to protect an individual during future exposure to the disease rather than curing an established disease...
September 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332616/addressing-children-s-needs-in-disasters-a-regional-pediatric-tabletop-exercise
#3
Sarita Chung, Aaron H Gardner, David J Schonfeld, Jessica L Franks, Marvin So, Eric J Dziuban, Georgina Peacock
OBJECTIVE: Preparing and responding to the needs of children during public health emergencies continues to be challenging. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of a tabletop exercise in initiating pediatric preparedness strategies and assessing the impact of the exercise on participants' understanding of and confidence in their roles during pediatric public health emergencies. METHODS: A tabletop exercise was developed to simulate a public health emergency scenario involving smallpox in a child, with subsequent spread to multiple states...
January 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306993/vaccinations-in-primary-care
#4
REVIEW
Vivek V Shukla, Raju C Shah
Vaccination is amongst the best strategies to improve child survival and reduce morbidity. Vaccines represent the most cost effective and simple intervention to protect against distressing epidemics. There are mortality and morbidity related benefits derived from preventing infectious diseases through vaccination; these include financial benefits by avoiding hospitalization, preventing long-term disability and increased productivity. Ever since the invention of the first vaccine against smallpox by Edward Jenner in 1796, vaccination has become indispensable healthcare intervention and has saved millions of lives...
January 6, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300782/the-paradox-of-hbv-evolution-as-revealed-from-a-16th-century-mummy
#5
Zoe Patterson Ross, Jennifer Klunk, Gino Fornaciari, Valentina Giuffra, Sebastian Duchêne, Ana T Duggan, Debi Poinar, Mark W Douglas, John-Sebastian Eden, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a ubiquitous viral pathogen associated with large-scale morbidity and mortality in humans. However, there is considerable uncertainty over the time-scale of its origin and evolution. Initial shotgun data from a mid-16th century Italian child mummy, that was previously paleopathologically identified as having been infected with Variola virus (VARV, the agent of smallpox), showed no DNA reads for VARV yet did for hepatitis B virus (HBV). Previously, electron microscopy provided evidence for the presence of VARV in this sample, although similar analyses conducted here did not reveal any VARV particles...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300297/e3l-and-f1l-gene-functions-modulate-the-protective-capacity-of-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-immunization-in-murine-model-of-human-smallpox
#6
Asisa Volz, Sylvia Jany, Astrid Freudenstein, Markus Lantermann, Holger Ludwig, Gerd Sutter
The highly attenuated Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) lacks most of the known vaccinia virus (VACV) virulence and immune evasion genes. Today MVA can serve as a safety-tested next-generation smallpox vaccine. Yet, we still need to learn about regulatory gene functions preserved in the MVA genome, such as the apoptosis inhibitor genes F1L and E3L. Here, we tested MVA vaccine preparations on the basis of the deletion mutant viruses MVA-ΔF1L and MVA-ΔE3L for efficacy against ectromelia virus (ECTV) challenge infections in mice...
January 4, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296727/long-lived-plasma-cells-in-human-bone-marrow-can-be-either-cd19-or-cd19
#7
Siggeir F Brynjolfsson, Maziar Mohaddes, Johan Kärrholm, Mary-Jo Wick
Long-lived plasma cells secreting vaccinia-specific antibodies are detected in human bone marrow >35 years after the eradication of smallpox.Long-lived plasma cells secreting vaccinia-specific antibodies are still able to express the B-lymphocyte antigen CD19.
May 23, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295488/the-french-armed-forces-virology-unit-a-chronological-record-of-ongoing-research-on-orthopoxvirus
#8
REVIEW
Déborah Delaune, Frédéric Iseni, Audrey Ferrier-Rembert, Christophe N Peyrefitte, Olivier Ferraris
Since the official declaration of smallpox eradication in 1980, the general population vaccination has ceased worldwide. Therefore, people under 40 year old are generally not vaccinated against smallpox and have no cross protection against orthopoxvirus infections. This naïve population may be exposed to natural or intentional orthopoxvirus emergences. The virology unit of the Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées (France) has developed research programs on orthopoxviruses since 2000. Its missions were conceived to improve the diagnosis capabilities, to foster vaccine development, and to develop antivirals targeting specific viral proteins...
December 23, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289932/vaccination-marketing-by-private-healthcare-sector-glaring-malpractices
#9
Vipin Vashistha
The editorial by Jesani and Johari in this journal raises some contentious yet relevant ethical issues pertaining to vaccination practices in India. Vaccination is one of the most important preventive measures against infectious diseases. The eradication of smallpox in the 70s and near eradication of polio are testimony to this. The Government of India (GoI) has recently added a few new vaccines in its Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP), one of the largest public health programmes across the globe. The number of vaccines delivered through this public health programme has doubled from six in 1985 to twelve in 2017...
December 21, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236288/disaster-preparedness-biological-threats-and-treatment-options
#10
Navaneeth Narayanan, Clifton R Lacy, Joseph E Cruz, Meghan Nahass, Jonathan Karp, Joseph A Barone, Evelyn Hermes-DeSantis
Biological disasters can be natural, accidental, or intentional. Biological threats have made a lasting impact on civilization. This review will focus on agents of clinical significance, bioterrorism, and national security; specifically Category A agents (anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and smallpox), as well as briefly discuss other naturally-emerging infections of public health significance including Ebola virus (also a Category A agent) and Zika virus. The role of the pharmacist in disaster preparedness and disaster response is multifaceted and important...
December 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235428/does-smallpox-vaccination-modify-hiv-disease-progression-among-art-naive-people-living-with-hiv-in-africa
#11
A Diouf, H Trottier, T J Youbong, N F Ngom-Guéye, O Ndiaye, A Seck, D Sarr, S Diop, M Seydi, S Mboup, V K Nguyen, A Jaye
We examined the association between a history of smallpox vaccination and immune activation (IA) in a population of antiretroviral therapy-naïve people living with HIV (PLHIV). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Senegal from July 2015 to March 2017. Smallpox vaccination was ascertained by the presence of smallpox vaccine scar and IA by the plasma level of β-2-microglobulin (β2m). The association was analysed using logistic regression and linear regression models. The study population comprised 101 PLHIV born before 1980 with a median age of 47 years (interquartile range (IQR) = 42-55); 57·4% were women...
December 13, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232844/protection-of-mice-from-lethal-vaccinia-virus-infection-by-vaccinia-virus-protein-subunits-with-a-cpg-adjuvant
#12
Sarah Reeman, Amanda J Gates, David J Pulford, Art Krieg, David O Ulaeto
Smallpox vaccination carries a high risk of adverse events in recipients with a variety of contra-indications for live vaccines. Although alternative non-replicating vaccines have been described in the form of replication-deficient vaccine viruses, DNA vaccines, and subunit vaccines, these are less efficacious than replicating vaccines in animal models. DNA and subunit vaccines in particular have not been shown to give equivalent protection to the traditional replicating smallpox vaccine. We show here that combinations of the orthopoxvirus A27, A33, B5 and L1 proteins give differing levels of protection when administered in different combinations with different adjuvants...
December 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231870/improving-the-care-and-treatment-of-monkeypox-patients-in-low-resource-settings-applying-evidence-from-contemporary-biomedical-and-smallpox-biodefense-research
#13
REVIEW
Mary G Reynolds, Andrea M McCollum, Beatrice Nguete, Robert Shongo Lushima, Brett W Petersen
Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX) patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients can experience protracted illness and poor outcomes. Improving care necessitates developing a better understanding of the range of clinical manifestations-including complications and sequelae-as well as of features of illness that may be predictive of illness severity and poor outcomes...
December 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227420/us-state-public-health-departments-special-pathogen-planning
#14
Jocelyn J Herstein, Paul D Biddinger, Shawn G Gibbs, Aurora B Le, Katelyn C Jelden, Angela L Hewlett, John J Lowe
CONTEXT: US state public health departments played key roles in planning for and responding to confirmed and suspected cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the 2014-2016 outbreak, including designating select hospitals as high-level isolation units (HLIUs) for EVD treatment in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. OBJECTIVE: To identify existing guidelines and perspectives of state health departments pertaining to the management and transport of patients with EVD and other highly hazardous communicable diseases (HHCDs)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224776/development-of-a-sybr-green-i-real-time-pcr-for-detection-and-quantitation-of-orthopoxvirus-by-using-ectromelia-virus
#15
Wenyu Cheng, Xiaobing He, Huaijie Jia, Guohua Chen, Cong Wang, Jun Zhang, Zhizhong Jing
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is the causative agent of mousepox, which has devastating effects in laboratory-mouse colonies and causes economic loss in biomedical research. More importantly, ECTV has been extensively used as an excellent model for studies of the pathogenesis and immunobiology of human smallpox. A rapid and sensitive SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR assay was developed and used for the detection and quantitation of orthopoxvirus by using ECTV in this study. Primers targeted to the highly conserved region of major core protein P4b gene of orthopoxvirus were designed and the standard plasmid was constructed...
December 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215552/two-distinct-clinical-courses-of-human-cowpox-germany-2015
#16
Ines Eder, Patrick Vollmar, Martin Pfeffer, Philipp Naether, Arne Christian Rodloff, Hermann Meyer
Here we present two cases of human infection with cowpox virus with distinct clinical courses. A series of clinical photographs documents lesion progression over time. In the first case-an unvaccinated young veterinary assistant-a pustule was treated locally with cortisone. The lesion turned into a large ulcer accompanied by severe lymphadenitis. Based on her close contact to a sick stray cat, infection with cowpox virus was assumed and confirmed by virus isolation, PCR, and serology. The clinical course took up to eleven months until healing of the wound was complete...
December 7, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204136/suppression-of-poxvirus-replication-by-resveratrol
#17
Shuai Cao, Susan Realegeno, Anil Pant, Panayampalli S Satheshkumar, Zhilong Yang
Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182537/dynamics-of-pathological-and-virological-findings-during-experimental-calpox-virus-infection-of-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#18
Anne Schmitt, Li Lin Gan, Ahmed Abd El Wahed, Tingchuan Shi, Heinz Ellerbrok, Franz-Josef Kaup, Christiane Stahl-Hennig, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing
Experimental intranasal infection of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with calpox virus results in fatal disease. Route and dose used for viral inoculation of the test animals mimics the natural transmission of smallpox, thus representing a suitable model to study pathogenesis and to evaluate new vaccines against orthopoxvirus infection. However, the pathogenic mechanisms leading to death are still unclear. Therefore, our study aimed at investigating the kinetics of pathological alterations to clarify the pathogenesis in calpox virus infection...
November 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179469/bioluminescence-imaging-of-a-tumor-selective-thymidine-kinase-defective-vaccinia-virus-guang9-strain-after-intratumoral-or-intraperitoneal-administration-in-mice
#19
Yuedi Ding, Jun Fan, Lili Deng, Ying Peng, Jue Zhang, Biao Huang
Vaccinia virus has been used as an oncolytic virus because of its capacity to preferentially infect tumors rather than normal tissues. The vaccinia Tian Tan strain, used as a vaccine against smallpox for millions of people in China, is a promising candidate for cancer therapy. In this study, we constructed an attenuated Tian Tan strain of Guang9 with a disrupted thymidine kinase gene to enhance tumor selectivity and an inserted firefly luciferase to monitor the viral distribution by in vivo bioluminescence imaging...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178813/the-threat-of-synthetic-smallpox-european-perspectives
#20
Giulia Impelluso, Filippa Lentzos
This article explores how advances in synthetic biology, and the potential threat of deliberately recreating and spreading smallpox, are affecting the multilateral debate on the remaining variola virus stocks. It draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 high-profile, European-based experts in biosecurity and synthetic biology. Four overarching themes affecting the retention or destruction debate are discussed, relating to biosecurity, dangerous knowledge, accidental releases, and eradication. We conclude that while synthetic biology seems to affect all the main discourses in the variola stocks debate, a range of views is present and it is not apparent that advances in synthetic biology are causing a shift toward either retention or destruction of the stocks...
November 2017: Health Security
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