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Sleep + cognition

Antonio A Nunez, Lily Yan, Laura Smale
For humans, activity during the night is correlated with multiple pathologies that may reflect a lack of harmony among components of the circadian system; however, it remains difficult to identify causal links between nocturnal activity and different pathologies based on the data available from epidemiological studies. Animal models that use forced activity or timed sleep deprivation provide evidence of circadian disruptions that may be at the core of the health risks faced by human night and shift workers...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Annalisa Colonna, Anna B Smith, Stuart Smith, Kirandeep VanDenEshof, Jane Orgill, Paul Gringras, Deb K Pal
Background: Consolidation of learning occurs during sleep but when it is disturbed there may be an adverse impact upon these functions. While research has focused upon how sleep affects cognition in adulthood, the effects of disrupted sleep are likely to impact more heavily on learning among children and adolescents. We aimed to investigate whether a night's sleep impacts upon executive function compared with an equivalent wakefulness period. We also wanted to know whether restricting sleep would reduce these effects on performance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lyle Muller, Frédéric Chavane, John Reynolds, Terrence J Sejnowski
Multichannel recording technologies have revealed travelling waves of neural activity in multiple sensory, motor and cognitive systems. These waves can be spontaneously generated by recurrent circuits or evoked by external stimuli. They travel along brain networks at multiple scales, transiently modulating spiking and excitability as they pass. Here, we review recent experimental findings that have found evidence for travelling waves at single-area (mesoscopic) and whole-brain (macroscopic) scales. We place these findings in the context of the current theoretical understanding of wave generation and propagation in recurrent networks...
March 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Olga Tkachenko, David F Dinges
Stable trait-like responding is well established for neurobehavioral performance measures across repeated exposures to total sleep deprivation and partial chronic sleep restriction. These observed phenotypes are task-dependent, suggesting that there are distinct cognitive profiles of responding with differential vulnerability to sleep loss within the same individual. Numerous factors have been investigated as potential markers of phenotypic vulnerability to the effects of sleep loss but none fully account for this phenomenon...
March 18, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
George Kitsaras, Michaela Goodwin, Julia Allan, Michael P Kelly, Iain A Pretty
BACKGROUND: Bedtime routines has shown important associations with areas associated with child wellbeing and development. Research into bedtime routines is limited with studies mainly focusing on quality of sleep. The objectives of the present study were to examine the relationship between bedtime routines and a variety of factors associated with child wellbeing and to examine possible determinants of bedtime routines. METHODS: A total of 50 families with children between 3 and 5 years old took part in the study...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ralph N Martins, Victor Villemagne, Hamid R Sohrabi, Pratishtha Chatterjee, Tejal M Shah, Giuseppe Verdile, Paul Fraser, Kevin Taddei, Veer B Gupta, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Eugene Hone, Steve Pedrini, Wei Ling Lim, Ian Martins, Shaun Frost, Sunil Gupta, Sid O'Bryant, Alan Rembach, David Ames, Kathryn Ellis, Stephanie J Fuller, Belinda Brown, Samantha L Gardener, Binosha Fernando, Prashant Bharadwaj, Samantha Burnham, Simon M Laws, Anna M Barron, Kathryn Goozee, Eka J Wahjoepramono, Prita R Asih, James D Doecke, Olivier Salvado, Ashley I Bush, Christopher C Rowe, Samuel E Gandy, Colin L Masters
Worldwide there are over 46 million people living with dementia, and this number is expected to double every 20 years reaching about 131 million by 2050. The cost to the community and government health systems, as well as the stress on families and carers is incalculable. Over three decades of research into this disease have been undertaken by several research groups in Australia, including work by our original research group in Western Australia which was involved in the discovery and sequencing of the amyloid-β peptide (also known as Aβ or A4 peptide) extracted from cerebral amyloid plaques...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anders Wallin, Gustavo C Román, Margaret Esiri, Petronella Kettunen, Johan Svensson, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder well characterized from the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological viewpoints. SSVD is considered the most prevalent ischemic brain disorder, increasing in frequency with age. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, elevated homocysteine, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ischemic white matter lesions are the hallmark of SSVD; other pathological lesions include arteriolosclerosis, dilatation of perivascular spaces, venous collagenosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microbleeds, microinfarcts, lacunes, and large infarcts...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Wolf Osterode, Sandra Schranz, Galateja Jordakieva
Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2)...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
Nathan W Churchill, Michael G Hutchison, Simon J Graham, Tom A Schweizer
Concussion is associated with significant adverse effects within the first week post-injury, including physical complaints and altered cognition, sleep and mood. It is currently unknown whether these subjective disturbances have reliable functional brain correlates. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been used to measure functional connectivity of individuals after traumatic brain injury, but less is known about the relationship between functional connectivity and symptom assessments after a sport concussion...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Joanne Gourgouvelis, Paul Yielder, Sandra T Clarke, Hushyar Behbahani, Bernadette Ann Murphy
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of exercise as an add-on therapy with antidepressant medication and cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) on treatment outcomes in low-active major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. We also explored whether exercise reduces the residual symptoms of depression, notably cognitive impairment and poor sleep quality, and aimed to identify putative biochemical markers related to treatment response. Methods: Sixteen low-active MDD patients were recruited from a mental health day treatment program at a local hospital...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Han-Yun Tseng, Shu-Han Yu, Chun-Yi Lee, Wen-Hao Huang, Seng-Loong Huang, Chi-Shin Wu, Yen-Feng Chiu, Chao A Hsiung
BACKGROUND: Sedative-hypnotic medication use has been related to severe adverse events and risks. This study investigated the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the use of sedatives and hypnotics among community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 years and over in Taiwan. METHODS: A representative sample of community-dwelling adults was recruited. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected for assessing physical, mental, and cognitive functioning and disorders...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Geoffrey Littlejohn, Emma Guymer
Fibromyalgia is a high impact chronic pain disorder with a well-defined and robust clinical phenotype. Key features include widespread pain and tenderness, high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and emotional distress. Abnormal processing of pain and other sensory input occurs in the brain, spinal cord and periphery and is related to the processes of central and peripheral sensitization. As such, fibromyalgia is deemed to be one of the central sensitivity syndromes. There is increasing evidence of neurogenically derived inflammatory mechanisms occurring in the peripheral tissues, spinal cord and brain in fibromyalgia...
March 19, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
C Richardson, G Micic, N Cain, K Bartel, B Maddock, M Gradisar
The present study aimed to investigate whether Australian adolescents with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder have impaired cognitive performance and whether chronobiological treatment for Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder improves adolescents' sleep, daytime functioning and cognitive performance. Adolescents with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (mean = 15.68 ± 2.1 y, 62% f) reported significantly later sleep timing (d = 1.03-1.45), less total sleep time (d = 0.82) and greater daytime sleepiness (d = 2...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Xin Xu, Cheuk Ni Kan, Tien Yin Wong, Ching-Yu Cheng, M Kamran Ikram, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances were found to be associated with more behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPS) in early patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, data on preclinical stages of dementia are lacking. Hence, the present study sought to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and BPS in dementia-free elderly with varying severity of cognitive impairment in an Asian sample. METHODS: Community-living elderly were recruited and administered a comprehensive cognitive battery (vascular dementia battery [VDB]) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess symptoms of sleep disturbances and BPS...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Li-Tzy Wu, Udi E Ghitza, He Zhu, Susan Spratt, Marvin Swartz, Paolo Mannelli
BACKGROUND: The majority of the U.S. healthcare resources are utilized by a small population characterized as high-risk, high-need persons with complex care needs (e.g., adults with multiple chronic conditions). Substance use disorders (SUDs) and mental health disorders (MHDs) are a driver of poor health and additional healthcare costs, but they are understudied among high-need patients. OBJECTIVE: We examine the prevalence and correlates of SUDs and MHDs among adults with high-risk diabetes, who are patients at the top 10% risk score for developing poor outcomes (hospital admission or death)...
March 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Sarang Kim, Mitchell McMaster, Susan Torres, Kay L Cox, Nicola Lautenschlager, George W Rebok, Dimity Pond, Catherine D'Este, Ian McRae, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
INTRODUCTION: It has been estimated that a 10%-25% reduction in seven key risk factors could potentially prevent 1.1-3.0 million Alzheimer's disease cases globally. In addition, as dementia is preceded by more subtle cognitive deficits which have substantial social and economic impact, effective preventative interventions would likely have more extensive benefits. The current study evaluates in primary care a multidomain risk-reduction intervention targeting adults with high risk of developing dementia...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
K A Honn, J M Hinson, P Whitney, H P A Van Dongen
In around-the-clock operations, reduced alertness due to circadian misalignment and sleep loss causes performance impairment, which can lead to catastrophic errors and accidents. There is mounting evidence that performance on different tasks is differentially affected, but the general principles underlying this differentiation are not well understood. One factor that may be particularly relevant is the degree to which tasks require executive control, that is, control over the initiation, monitoring, and termination of actions in order to achieve goals...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Shaffi Manchanda, Harpal Singh, Taranjeet Kaur, Gurcharan Kaur
Chronic sleep loss/fragmentation prevalent in the current 24/7 society is associated with irreversible consequences on health and overall wellbeing. Various studies have well documented the ill effects of acute sleep loss on cognitive functions of individuals; however, the underlying mechanism behind the chronic sleep loss is yet to be explored. The present study was aimed to investigate whether chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) triggers anxiety-like behaviour and memory decline in male Wistar rats. Rats were sleep deprived by placing them over slowly rotating drum (2 rpm) for 18 h (between 4 pm and 10 am) followed by 6 h of recovery sleep for 21 consecutive days...
March 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Nuria Farré, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has emerged as a highly prevalent public health problem that imposes important mid-term and long-term consequences, namely cardiovascular, metabolic, cognitive and cancer-related alterations. OSA is characterized by increased upper airway resistance, alveolar hypoventilation, and recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. Recurrent collapse of the upper airway develops with sleep onset, and is associated with both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation. The microbiome is a vast and complex polymicrobial ecosystem that coexists with the human organism, and has been identified as playing significant roles in the development of host immunological phenotypes...
March 13, 2018: Chest
Cong Lu, Yan Wang, Jingwei Lv, Ning Jiang, Bei Fan, Lina Qu, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively caused cognitive deficit, which was associated with oxidative stress induced damage. Ginsenoside Rh2 had the ability to protect against damage caused by reactive oxygen species in vitro, showing antioxidant property. Therefore, it was hypothesized that Ginsenoside Rh2 could prevent SD-induced cognitive deficit via its antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 on memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation was investigated. The mice were sleep deprived continuously for 14 days using our self-made Sleep Interruption Apparatus (SIA)...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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