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Toxoplasma gondii

Michelle Barbieri, Colleen Duncan, Albert L Harting, Kristy L Pabilonia, Thea C Johanos, Tracey Goldstein, Stacie J Robinson, Charles L Littnan
There is considerable temporal and spatial variability in the reproductive rates of Hawaiian monk seals (HMS; Neomonachus schauinslandi). Poor reproductive performance limits the recovery of this endangered species; however, causal factors are not fully understood. There is serologic evidence that HMS are exposed to pathogens that can impact reproductive success, but the prevalence of placental infections in HMS has not been evaluated. Placental tissues ( n=50), including tissues from 25% of known HMS births, were opportunistically collected in 2011 from six Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and three main Hawaiian Islands...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Christoph Rudin, Hans H Hirsch, Rahel Spaelti, Sabine Schaedelin, Thomas Klimkait
BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of prospective data there is an ongoing debate about the need for screening and prevention programs for congenital toxoplasmosis in Europe. Accordingly, individual countries have chosen different public health strategies. METHODS: A cord-blood screening program for congenital toxoplasmosis was established in 1982 in obstetric units of hospitals in North-Western Switzerland. Samples were tested for specific IgG and IgM, and after 1992 also for IgA antibodies...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Joseph M Varberg, Isabelle Coppens, Gustavo Arrizabalaga, Rajshekhar Y Gaji
In the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii , protein kinases have been shown to play key roles in regulating parasite motility, invasion, replication, egress, and survival within the host. The tyrosine kinase-like (TKL) family of proteins are an unexplored set of kinases in Toxoplasma Of the eight annotated TKLs in the Toxoplasma genome, a recent genome-wide loss-of-function screen showed that six are important for tachyzoite fitness. By utilizing an endogenous tagging approach, we showed that these six T...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Jiaqing Luo, Hongchao Sun, Xianfeng Zhao, Suhua Wang, Xunhui Zhuo, Yi Yang, Xueqiu Chen, Chaoqun Yao, Aifang Du
The immunochromatographic test (ICT) is a convenient and low-cost method that can rapidly obtain results (10 min) under normal conditions. In this study, we established an ICT assay with two monoclonal antibodies: TgSAG3-3A7 and TgSAG3-4D5 based on the conserved protein of TgSAG3 that can be expressed in all the infective stages of T. gondii. 20 nm gold particles were prepared and conjugated with TgSAG3-3A7 MAb at the concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. TgSAG3-4D5 MAb were used as the capture antibody because of its higher affinity tested by ELISA...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Yao Yao Lu, Hui Dong, Yong Jie Feng, Kai Wang, Yi Bao Jiang, Long Xian Zhang, Yu Rong Yang
Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle and pathogenic mechanisms. Acute T. gondii infections in mice often result in death, whereas in chronic infections, the parasites may persist in the host tissues as intraneuronal or intramuscular cysts. However, the virulence of T. gondii strains in mice varies with its genetic background. The present study investigated the pathogenicity and pathological lesions of two T. gondii isolates from China: namely, TgCatCHn2 (ToxoDB#17) and TgCatCHn4 (ToxoDB#9). The virulent (ToxoDB#216) and avirulent (VEG) strains were employed as controls...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Suzanne Scheele, Jennifer A Geiger, Amy E DeRocher, Ryan Choi, Tess R Smith, Matthew A Hulverson, Rama Subba Rao Vidadala, Lynn K Barrett, Dustin J Maly, Ethan A Merritt, Kayode K Ojo, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Marilyn Parsons
In Toxoplasma gondii , calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) is an essential protein kinase required for invasion of host cells. We have developed several hundred CDPK1 inhibitors, many of which block invasion. Inhibitors with similar IC50 s were tested in thermal shift assays for their ability to stabilize CDPK1 in cell lysates, in intact cells, or in purified form. Compounds that inhibited parasite growth stabilized CDPK1 in all assays. In contrast, two compounds that showed poor growth inhibition stabilized CDPK1 in lysates but not in cells...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ross McFarland, Zi Teng Wang, Yan Jouroukhin, Ye Li, Olga Mychko, Isabelle Coppens, Jianchun Xiao, Lorraine Jones-Brando, Robert H Yolken, L David Sibley, Mikhail V Pletnikov
Infection with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), has been associated with the increased risk for several psychiatric disorders. The exact mechanisms of a hypothesized contribution of T. gondii infection are poorly understood. The T. gondii genome contains two aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes (AAH1 and AAH2) that encode proteins that can produce L-DOPA. One popular hypothesis posits that these encoded enzymes might influence dopamine (DA) production and hence DA synaptic transmission, leading to neurobehavioral abnormalities in the infected host...
March 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
İsmail Akaltun, Tayfun Kara, Soner Sertan Kara, Hamza Ayaydın
Toxoplasma gondii infection may be associated with psychiatric disorders due to its neurological effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between tic disorders in children and adolescents and Anti-Toxoplasma IgG. 43 children diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome(TS) and 87 with chronic motor or vocal tic disorder(CMVTD), and 130 healthy volunteers, all aged 7-18, were enrolled. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody levels obtained from blood specimens were investigated. Toxoplasma IgG positivity was determined in 16(37...
March 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Angélique Rousseau, Stéphanie La Carbona, Aurélien Dumètre, Lucy J Robertson, Gilles Gargala, Sandie Escotte-Binet, Loïc Favennec, Isabelle Villena, Cédric Gérard, Dominique Aubert
Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoan parasites that have been highlighted as emerging foodborne pathogens by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. According to the European Food Safety Authority, 4786 foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were reported in Europe in 2016, of which 0.4% were attributed to parasites including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Trichinella. Until 2016, no standardized methods were available to detect Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma (oo)cysts in food...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Michelle de Paula Reis, Daniely Alves de Lima, Karoline Bach Pauli, Carlos Eduardo Linhares Andreotti, André Luiz Soares de Moraes, Daniela Dib Gonçalves, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, Paulo Sérgio Alves Bueno, Flavio Augusto Vicente Seixas, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior, Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Currently, two drugs, pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, are used as a reference in the treatment of toxoplasmosis, but the resistance of Toxoplasma gondii appears as a relevant public health problem. In order to identify new drugs to toxoplasmosis treatment, we performed a molecular docking of raltitrexed to T. gondii thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) and also evaluated its efficacy in infected mice. Initially, raltitrexed was docked on the crystallographic structures of TS-DHFR from T...
March 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Alicia Coupe, Laryssa Howe, Elizabeth Burrows, Abigail Sine, Anthony Pita, Niluka Velathanthiri, Emilie Vallée, David Hayman, Karen Shapiro, Wendi D Roe
Pollution of marine ecosystems with the protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis can be studied using bivalve shellfish as biosentinels. Although evidence suggests that these parasites are present in New Zealand coastal waters, the extent of protozoal pollution has not been investigated. This study used optimised molecular methods to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis and T. gondii in commercially sourced green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), an endemic species found throughout coastal New Zealand...
March 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Yawen Li, Fangming Xiu, Zezhong Mou, Zhiwei Xue, Huanhui Du, Chunxue Zhou, Yan Li, Yongyu Shi, Shenyi He, Huaiyu Zhou
AIM: Exosomes are nanoscale membranous vesicles secreted by most cell types able to transfer bioactive molecules among cells, which play crucial roles in intercellular communication. We characterized the exosomes derived from Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and detected the immune response in macrophages. METHODS: We used transmission electron microscopy, nanotracking analysis and western blotting to identify T. gondii exosomes. Functional experiments were performed in RAW264...
March 15, 2018: Nanomedicine
Ma Rong, Sun Hui, Yan Ge, Wei Qing-Kuan
At present, there are no ideal drugs and measures in the treatment and prevention of toxoplasmosis. The development of safe, convenient, and strong protective nucleic acid vaccine is an important strategy for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. The rhoptry protein (ROP) is a large class of proteins secreted by Toxoplasma gondii . ROPs play an important role in the invasion of host cells, the formation of parsitophorous vacuole (PV) and the regulation of proliferation by T. gondii . Thus, ROPs become the most promising candidates of vaccine...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Alba Pablos-Tanarro, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Antonio Palomo, Francisco Casasola, Ignacio Ferre
The objective of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Iberian sows reared in extensive and intensive management conditions and to compare two serologic techniques used for diagnosis. In addition, some possible risk factors associated with the presence of serum antibodies to T. gondii were also studied. Serum samples were collected from 2492 Iberian sows on 14 pig farms. Three types of management systems were included, traditional extensive outdoor farms (five farms), intensive farms with outdoor access (n = 4), and conventional intensive indoor farms (n = 5)...
March 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Brice Autier, Sarah Dion, Florence Robert-Gangneux
AIM: Toxoplasmosis following liver transplant with donor-recipient mismatch is rare, but is often life-threatening. However, there are no data on the frequency of cyst carriage in the liver, nor consensual chemoprophylaxis guidelines. This study aimed at describing frequency and localisation of Toxoplasma cysts in the liver in a mouse model of chronic infection to predict the risk in liver transplantation. METHODS: Heart, brain and liver lobes of 21 mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma were collected for DNA extraction and amplification of Toxoplasma gondii rep529 sequence by real-time PCR...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Prenatal, neonatal meningoencephalitis and infections of the brain in older infants are often associated with serious complications which can be diagnosed by sonography through the open fontanelles. Most frequently postmeningitic hydrocephalus and subdural effusions occur. Rarer complications are brain abscesses and ventriculitis which are caused by gram negative bacteria such as E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus and Enterobacter. A serious complication after ventriculitis is the development of compartment hydrocephalus...
March 13, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Mlatovi Dégbé, Françoise Debierre-Grockiego, Amivi Tété-Bénissan, Héloïse Débare, Kodjo Aklikokou, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson, Messanvi Gbeassor
Tectona grandis (teak) and Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) are plants used in traditional medicine in West Africa. In this study, we tested ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of T. grandis and ethanolic extract of leaves of V. amygdalina for their inhibitory effect on Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis. Ethanolic extract of V. amygdalina leaves had proportional contents of phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. This extract presented the highest efficacy against T...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Wei Cong, Long Chen, Xiao-Feng Shan, Ai-Dong Qian, Qing-Feng Meng
Until now, limited information on the molecular epidemiology and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii infection in donkeys is available in China. Thus, the present study was conducted to characterize T. gondii genotypes in donkeys, intended for human consumption in Shandong province, eastern China. A total of 618 muscle tissue samples of donkeys was collected in Shandong province from January 2016 to August 2017 and were used to detect the T. gondii B1 gene by a semi-nested PCR, and the positive samples were genotyped at 10 nuclear loci (i...
March 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Wenquan Liu, Liyang Huang, Qimei Wei, Yu Zhang, Shengnan Zhang, Wenting Zhang, Liya Cai, Shaohui Liang
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect mammalian cells and thereby regulate host gene expression. The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to be an important class of RNA molecules that regulate many biological processes, including host-pathogen interactions. However, the role of host lncRNAs in the response to T. gondii infection remains largely unknown. METHODS: We applied a microarray approach to determine the differential expression profiles of both lncRNAs and mRNAs in the human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells after T...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Clement Isaac, Benjamin Igho Igbinosa, John Asekhaen Ohiolei, Catherine Eki Osimen
Some small mammals occur as household pests and harbour a number of parasites that could be of public health importance. This study profiled the helminth and protozoan parasites in trapped small mammals within and around human dwelling places (houses) located across 4 major towns (Auchi, Benin, Ekpoma, and Uromi) and environs in Edo state, Nigeria. Six genera ( Apodemus sp., Crocidura sp., Mastomys natalensis , Mus musculus , Rattus sp., and Sorex sp.) were identified from 502 trapped small mammals. Overall, M...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
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