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Toxoplasma gondii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739829/inherent-oxidative-stress-in-lewis-rat-is-associated-with-resistance-to-toxoplasmosis
#1
William H Witola, Chi Yong Kim, Xuejin Zhang
The course of Toxoplasma gondii infection in rats closely resembles that in humans. However, compared to the Brown Norway (BN) rat, the Lewis (LEW) rat is extremely resistant to T. gondii infection. Thus, we performed RNA sequencing analysis of the LEW versus BN rat, with or without T. gondii infection, in order to unravel molecular factors directing robust and rapid early T. gondii-killing mechanisms in the LEW rat. We found that, compared to the uninfected BN rat, the uninfected LEW rat has inherently higher transcript levels of cytochrome enzymes [Cyp2d3, Cyp2d5 and Cybrd1 that catalyze generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)], with concomitant higher levels of ROS...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735668/ovine-toxoplasmosis-a-new-look-at-its-pathogenesis
#2
J Benavides, M Fernández, P Castaño, M C Ferreras, L Ortega-Mora, V Pérez
Conditions causing reproductive failure are a significant concern in the livestock industry, and amongst these, ovine toxoplasmosis is one of the most important. Despite decades of research, there remain gaps in knowledge about this disease, especially regarding the pathogenesis of abortion in sheep. As for other diseases causing ovine abortion, such as chlamydial abortion or border disease, the consequences of infection with Toxoplasma gondii depend largely on the stage of gestation, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734096/association-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-with-schizophrenia-and-its-relationship-with-suicide-attempts-in-these-patients
#3
Maryam Ansari-Lari, Hassan Farashbandi, Fahimeh Mohammadi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of schizophrenia and T. gondii, and to assess the association of infection with suicide attempts and age of onset of schizophrenia in these patients. METHODS: Case-control study Fars Province, southern Iran. Cases were individuals with psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Controls were healthy blood donors, frequency matched with patients according to age and sex...
July 22, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732033/spatial-and-simultaneous-representative-seroprevalence-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-owners-and-their-domiciled-dogs-in-a-major-city-of-southern-brazil
#4
Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Marcelle Mareze, Nelson Jessé Rodrigues Santos, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Camila Marinelli Martins, João Luis Garcia, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Roberta Lemos Freire, Alexander Welker Biondo, Italmar Teodorico Navarro
Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has traditionally been considered an important water and foodborne protozoonosis with important public health considerations. Although felids play a well-established role as definitive hosts, canine epidemiological involvement in the parasite's life cycle remains questionable and controversial. The increasing closeness of the human-dog bond, particularly seen in urban settings, has been recognized as a historically unprecedented worldwide movement. Sharing daily lives in the same households, dogs may be exposed to similar associated risks of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727854/toxoplasma-gondii-entry-association-and-physiological-influence-on-the-central-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Oscar A Mendez, Anita A Koshy
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the world's most successful parasites, in part because of its ability to infect and persist in most warm-blooded animals. A unique characteristic of T. gondii is its ability to persist in the central nervous system (CNS) of a variety of hosts, including humans and rodents. How, what, and why T. gondii encysts in the CNS has been the topic of study for decades. In this review, we will discuss recent work on how T. gondii is able to traverse the unique barrier surrounding the CNS, what cells of the CNS play host to T...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726641/a-plant-fungal-type-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-located-in-the-parasite-mitochondrion-ensures-glucose-independent-survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#6
Richard Nitzsche, Özlem Günay-Esiyok, Maximilian Tischer, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is considered as one of the most successful intracellular pathogens, because it can reproduce in varied nutritional milieus, encountered in diverse host-cell types of essentially any warm-blooded organism. Our earlier work has demonstrated that the acute (tachyzoite) stage of T. gondii depends on cooperativity of glucose and glutamine catabolism to meet biosynthetic demands. Either of these two nutrients can sustain the parasite survival; however, what determines the metabolic plasticity has not been resolved yet...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722676/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-virulent-and-avirulent-strains-of-toxoplasma-gondii-reveals-strain-specific-patterns
#7
Dong-Hui Zhou, Ze-Xiang Wang, Chun-Xue Zhou, Shuai He, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
Research exploring the proteome of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has gained momentum over the past few years. However, little is known about the oocyst's protein repertoires that contribute to differential virulence among T. gondii strains. Here, we used isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation-based proteomic analysis of oocysts of two T. gondii strains exhibiting the virulent PYS (ToxoDB#9) phenotype versus the less virulent PRU (Type II, ToxoDB#1) phenotype. Our aim was to determine protein expression patterns that contribute to the virulence of a particular phenotype...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720868/adhesion-of-toxoplasma-gondii-tachyzoite-infected-vehicle-leukocytes-to-capillary-endothelial-cells-triggers-timely-parasite-egression
#8
Minami Baba, Tatiana Batanova, Katsuya Kitoh, Yasuhiro Takashima
Intracellular pathogens have numerous strategies for effective dissemination within the host. Many intracellular pathogens first infect leukocytes, which they use as a vehicle to transport them to target organs. Once at the target organ, intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can cross the capillary wall in extracellular form by infecting endothelial cells. However, after egression from leukocytes, extracellular parasites face the risk of host immune attack. In this study, observation of infected mouse organs, using a method that renders tissue transparent, revealed that adhesion of tachyzoite-infected leukocytes to endothelial cells triggers immediate egression of the parasite...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720125/profiling-of-the-perturbed-metabolomic-state-of-mouse-spleen-during-acute-and-chronic-toxoplasmosis
#9
Xiao-Qing Chen, Chun-Xue Zhou, Hany M Elsheikha, Shuai He, Gui-Xue Hu, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii, a common opportunistic protozoan, is a leading cause of illness and mortality among immunosuppressed individuals and during congenital infections. Current therapeutic strategies for toxoplasmosis are not fully effective at curtailing disease progression in these cases. Given the parasite ability to influence host immunity and metabolism, understanding of the metabolic alterations in the host's immune organs during T. gondii infection may enhance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that define the pathophysiology of T...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719948/isolation-and-genotyping-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-brazilian-dogs
#10
Jamille Rodrigues da Silva, Bianca Mendes Maciel, Luana Karla Nogueira de Santana Souza Santos, Fábio Santos Carvalho, Daniele de Santana Rocha, Carlos Wilson Gomes Lopes, George Rêgo Albuquerque
Strains of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil are highly genetically diverse compared to strains from North America and Europe. Dogs are epidemiologically important because they act as sentinels for T. gondii infections in humans and are good indicators of environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to isolate and genetically characterize T. gondii strains from tissues of naturally infected Brazilian dogs. For this study, 21 blood samples were collected from dogs at the Zoonosis Control Centers of Ilhéus and Itabuna cities, Bahia, Brazil...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719319/phosphoproteome-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infected-host-cells-reveals-specific-cellular-processes-predominating-in-different-phases-of-infection
#11
Cheng He, Ai-Yuan Chen, Hai-Xia Wei, Xiao-Shuang Feng, Hong-Juan Peng
The invasion of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites into the host cell results in extensive host cell signaling activation/deactivation that is usually regulated by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. To elucidate how T. gondii regulates host cell signal transduction, the comparative phosphoproteome of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-labeled human foreskin fibroblast cells was analyzed. The cells were grouped (Light [L], Medium [M], and Heavy [H] groups) based on the labeling isotope weight and were infected with T...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719309/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-refugee-and-migrant-pregnant-women-along-the-thailand-myanmar-border
#12
Bert J D van Enter, Yee-Ling Lau, Clare L Ling, Wanitda Watthanaworawit, Yaowalark Sukthana, Wenn-Chyau Lee, François Nosten, Rose McGready
Toxoplasma gondii primary infection in pregnancy is associated with poor obstetric outcomes. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant migrant and refugee women from Myanmar attending antenatal care in Thailand. A random selection of 199 residual blood samples from first antenatal screen in 2014-2015 was tested for Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was 31.7% (95% confidence interval = 25.6-38.4). Avidity testing in the three positive IgM cases indicated all were past infections...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719288/evaluation-of-the-protective-effect-of-deoxyribonucleic-acid-vaccines-encoding-granule-antigen-2-and-5-against-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-balb-c-mice
#13
Xiao Teng Ching, Mun Yik Fong, Yee Ling Lau
AbstractToxoplasma gondii infects a broad range of warm-blooded hosts, including humans. Important clinical manifestations include encephalitis in immunocompromised patients as well as miscarriage and fetal damage during early pregnancy. Toxoplasma gondii dense granule antigen 2 and 5 (GRA2 and GRA5) are essential for parasitophorous vacuole development of the parasite. To evaluate the potential of GRA2 and GRA5 as recombinant DNA vaccine candidates, these antigens were cloned into eukaryotic expression vector (pcDNA 3...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715724/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-and-common-mental-disorders-in-the-finnish-general-population
#14
Jaana Suvisaari, Minna Torniainen-Holm, Maija Lindgren, Tommi Härkänen, Robert H Yolken
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether T. gondii seropositivity is associated with 12-month depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders and current depressive symptoms and whether inflammation, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) level, explains these associations. METHOD: Health 2000 study (BRIF8901), conducted in years 2000-2001, is based on a nationally representative sample of Finns aged 30 and above, with 7112 participants and 88.6% response rate. DSM-IV depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and depressive symptoms with the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI-21)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713605/diarrhea-as-a-presenting-symptom-of-disseminated-toxoplasmosis
#15
Matthew Glover, Zhouwen Tang, Robert Sealock, Shilpa Jain
Disseminated toxoplasmosis is uncommon in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts with gastrointestinal involvement being rarely described. We report a case of disseminated gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis in an immunocompromised man who presented with one month of diarrhea and abdominal pain. Imaging showed thickening of the ascending colon and cecum. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy biopsies revealed Toxoplasma gondii, confirmed by immunostain. Symptoms completely resolved following treatment with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711477/the-association-between-toxoplasma-and-the-psychosis-continuum-in-a-general-population-setting
#16
Maija Lindgren, Minna Torniainen-Holm, Tommi Härkänen, Faith Dickerson, Robert H Yolken, Jaana Suvisaari
Toxoplasma gondii infection is associated with increased risk for psychosis. However, the possible association between T. gondii and psychotic-like symptoms in the general adult population is unknown. We investigated whether T. gondii is associated with psychotic-like symptoms and psychosis diagnoses using data from Health 2000, a large cross-sectional health survey of the Finnish general population aged 30 and above. Seropositivity to toxoplasma was defined as a cutoff of 50IU/ml of IgG antibodies. Lifetime psychotic-like symptoms were identified with section G of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Munich version (M-CIDI)...
July 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711018/molecular-detection-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-slaughtered-ruminants-sheep-goats-and-cattle-in-northwest-tunisia
#17
Yosra Amdouni, Mohamed Ridha Rjeibi, Mariem Rouatbi, Safa Amairia, Sofia Awadi, Mohamed Gharbi
The present study aimed to estimate the molecular prevalence of T. gondii infection in meat from slaughtered sheep, goats and cattle in Northwest Tunisia (Béja district). PCRs were performed on genomic DNA extracted from 420 meat samples (150 ewes, 120 goats and 150 cows). The overall molecular prevalence of T. gondii in sheep, goats and cattle were 33.3 (50/150), 32.5 (39/120) and 19.3% (29/150), respectively. Toxoplasma gondii molecular prevalences in the three meat ruminant species were significantly higher in adults compared to young animals (p<0...
July 6, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710018/first-detection-and-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-market-sold-oysters-in-china
#18
Wei Cong, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Jun-Ling Hou, Xin-Chen Wang, Jian-Gang Ma, Xing-Quan Zhu, Guan-Jun Chen
Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the water might be filtered through the gills of shellfish in the process of feeding, and can be concentrated in the digestive glands. Consumers might become infected through ingestion of the shellfish unless they are discharged or inactivated by the shellfish. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of T. gondii in market-sold oysters in China under natural conditions using a molecular approach. A total of 998 oysters were collected from markets in four cities (Weihai, Qingdao, Yantai and Rizhao) of Shandong province, eastern China...
July 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710007/chronic-toxoplasmosis-treatment-with-diphenyl-diselenide-in-infected-mice-modulates-the-activity-of-purinergic-enzymes-and-reduces-inflammation-in-spleen
#19
Pedro H Doleski, Maura V Ten Caten, Daniela F Passos, Lívia G Castilhos, Daniela B R Leal, Vanessa S Machado, Nathieli B Bottari, Fernanda F Vogel, Ricardo E Mendes, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva
Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan, may cause chronic infection in the brain tissue of the host inducing a systemic pro-inflammatory profile. Chronic infections can induce numerous physiological changes, such as alterations in the immune and oxidative profiles. Diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2, an organoselenium compound, has shown antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities in recent studies. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the activity of purinergic enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum and spleen of mice chronically infected by T...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706936/impact-of-the-host-on-toxoplasma-stage-differentiation
#20
REVIEW
Carsten G K Lüder, Taibur Rahman
The unicellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects warm-blooded animals and humans, and it is highly prevalent throughout the world. Infection of immunocompetent hosts is usually asymptomatic or benign but leads to long-term parasite persistence mainly within neural and muscular tissues. The transition from acute primary infection towards chronic toxoplasmosis is accompanied by a developmental switch from fast replicating and metabolically highly active tachyzoites to slow replicating and largely dormant bradyzoites within tissue cysts...
June 22, 2017: Microbial Cell
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