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Toxoplasma gondii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646827/immunization-of-c57bl-6-mice-with-gra2-combined-with-mpl-conferred-partial-immune-protection-against-toxoplasma-gondii
#1
Jalal Babaie, Samira Amiri, Robab Homayoun, Ebrahim Azimi, Reyhaneh Mohabati, Mahboobe Berizi, Reza Sadaie, Majid Golkar
Background: We have previously reported that immunization with GRA2 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii induces protective immunity in CBA/J (H2k) and BALB/c mice (H2d). We aimed to examine whether immunization of a distinct strain of rodent with recombinant dense granule antigens (GRA2) combined with monophosphorryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant elicits protective immune response against T. gondii. Methods: C57BL/6 (H2b haplotype) mice were immunized with GRA2, formulated in MPL adjuvant...
June 25, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643940/proteomic-profiling-of-extracellular-vesicles-secreted-from-toxoplasma-gondii
#2
Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Maria Luisa Zardo, Halisson Tesseroli Miot, Samuel Goldenberg, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Patricia Alves Mörking
Toxoplasma gondii infects a wide range of hosts worldwide, including humans and domesticated animals causing toxoplasmosis disease. Recently, exosomes, small extracellular vesicles (EV) that contain nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids derived from their original cells were linked with disease protection. The effect of EVs derived from T. gondii on the immune response and its relevance in a physiological context is unknown. Here we disclose the first proteomic profiling of T. gondii EVs compared to EVs isolated from a human foreskin fibroblast infected cell line cultured in a vesicle- free medium...
June 23, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642841/strain-and-dose-dependent-reduction-of-toxoplasma-gondii-burden-in-pigs-is-associated-with-interferon-gamma-production-by-cd8-lymphocytes-in-a-heterologous-challenge-model
#3
Malgorzata Jennes, Stéphane De Craeye, Bert Devriendt, Katelijne Dierick, Pierre Dorny, Eric Cox
Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite of humans and animals. The global infection burden exceeds yearly one million disability-adjusted life years (DALY's) in infected individuals. Therefore, effective preventive measures should be taken to decrease the risk of infection in humans. Although human toxoplasmosis is predominantly foodborne by ingestion of tissue cysts in meat from domestic animals such as pigs, the incidence risk is difficult to estimate due to the lack of screening of animals for infection and insights in location and persistence of the parasite in the tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641775/is-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-protective-against-multiple-sclerosis-risk
#4
Asli Koskderelioglu, Ilhan Afsar, Bayram Pektas, Muhtesem Gedizlioglu
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections may play a protective role in neurodegenative diseases. OBJECTıVE: To determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). METHODS: One hundred fifteen patients with MS were included in the study. Sixty age and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited as controls. Subjects were assessed for clinical and demographic parameters. The presence of specific IgG antibodies against T...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639141/survival-of-an-aids-patient-after-infection-with-acanthamoeba-sp-of-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Hana El Sahly, Michelle Udayamurthy, George Parkerson, Rodrigo Hasbun
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 38-year-old man presented with headaches and generalized weakness. He was found to have AIDS; a ring-enhancing central nervous system lesion was found on brain imaging and he had elevated serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG levels. A diagnosis of presumptive toxoplasma encephalitis was made and he received antiretrovirals and antitoxoplasma therapy for 4 years. Intermittent headaches and evidence of disease progression on neuroimaging warranted further evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed amebic forms on hematoxylin and eosin staining and positive polymerase chain reaction testing for Acanthamoeba spp...
June 21, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638980/first-report-of-typical-brazilian-toxoplasma-gondii-genotypes-from-isolates-of-free-range-chickens-gallus-gallus-domesticus-circulating-in-the-state-of-para%C3%A3-ba-northeast-brazil
#6
Thais Ferreira Feitosa, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro Vilela, João Leite de Almeida-Neto, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra de Melo, Dayana Firmino de Morais, Bruna Farias Alves, Fabiana Nakashima, Solange Maria Gennari, Ana Célia Rodrigues Athayde, Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena
This study evaluated, for the first time, the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free-range chickens from the state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. Tissue samples from 33 chickens from properties in five municipalities of Paraíba (Esperança, Olho d'Água, Malta, Monteiro, and Patos) were bioassayed in mice. The brains of mice infected with T. gondii cysts were used for DNA extraction and genotyping. Genotyping was performed using 11 PCR-RFLP markers and 15 microsatellite (MS) markers. Complete genotyping results were obtained for 29 isolates, with nine genotypes detected by RFLP and 15 genotypes identified by MS...
June 21, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635524/serology-and-protein-electrophoresis-for-evidence-of-exposure-to-12-mink-pathogens-in-free-ranging-american-mink-neovison-vison-in-argentina
#7
Pablo Eduardo Martino, Luis Ernesto Samartino, Néstor Oscar Stanchi, Nilda Esther Radman, Eduardo Joaquín Parrado
BACKGROUND: Basic pathologic characteristics for farmed minks were previously reported worldwide. However, its status in the wild has not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVE: Serology and electrophoresis were carried out for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens on two different locations. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Serology was done in 87 wild minks by reference techniques against Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus (RV), Influenza A virus (FLUAV) and Aleutian disease virus (ADV)...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634781/infectious-disease-surveillance-in-the-woylie-bettongia-penicillata
#8
Kim Skogvold, Kristin S Warren, Bethany Jackson, Carly S Holyoake, Kathryn Stalder, Joanne M Devlin, Simone D Vitali, Adrian F Wayne, Alistair Legione, Ian Robertson, Rebecca J Vaughan-Higgins
Wild populations of the critically endangered woylie (Bettongia penicillata) recently declined by 90% in southwest Western Australia. Increased predation is the leading hypothesis for decline, but disease may be playing a role increasing susceptibility to predation. To explore this possibility, we surveyed woylie populations in the wild, in captivity and in a predator-free sanctuary for exposure to, and infection with, four known pathogens of macropods: herpesviruses, Wallal and Warrego orbiviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii...
June 20, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630943/parasites-lacking-the-micronemal-protein-mic2-are-deficient-in-surface-attachment-and-host-cell-egress-but-remain-virulent-in-vivo
#9
Simon Gras, Allison Jackson, Stuart Woods, Gurman Pall, Jamie Whitelaw, Jacqueline M Leung, Gary E Ward, Craig W Roberts, Markus Meissner
Background: Micronemal proteins of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family are believed to play essential roles during gliding motility and host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites, and currently represent major vaccine candidates against Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria. However, recent evidence suggests that they play multiple and different roles than previously assumed. Here, we analyse a null mutant for MIC2, the TRAP homolog in Toxoplasma gondii. Methods: We performed a careful analysis of parasite motility in a 3D-environment, attachment under shear stress conditions, host cell invasion and in vivo virulence...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630781/development-of-neurological-mouse-model-for-toxoplasmosis-using-toxoplasma-gondii-isolated-from-chicken-in-kenya
#10
John Mokua Mose, David Muchina Kamau, John Maina Kagira, Naomi Maina, Maina Ngotho, Adele Njuguna, Simon Muturi Karanja
Animal models for the toxoplasmosis are scarce and have limitations. In this study, a neurological mouse model was developed in BALB/c mice infected intraperitoneally with 15 cysts of a Toxoplasma gondii isolate. The mice were monitored for 42 days and euthanized at different time points. Another group of mice were orally treated with dexamethasone (DXM: 2.66 mg/kg daily, 5.32 mg/kg daily) at 42 days after infection and monitored for a further 42 days. A mortality rate of 15% and 28.6% was observed in mice given 2...
2017: Pathology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630403/new-molecular-tools-in-neospora-caninum-for-studying-apicomplexan-parasite-proteins
#11
Caroline M Mota, Allan L Chen, Kevin Wang, Santhosh Nadipuram, Ajay A Vashisht, James A Wohlschlegel, Tiago W P Mineo, Peter J Bradley
The development of molecular genetics has greatly enhanced the study of the biology and pathology associated with parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. We have established a system specifically designed for Neospora caninum, and used this system as a heterologous platform for the expression of foreign genes. Plasmid constructs containing fluorescent proteins or targeted genes of Toxoplasma gondii, driven by N. caninum promoters, have yielded robust expression and correct trafficking of target gene products as assessed by immunofluorescence assays and Western blot analyses...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630065/ccr5-is-involved-in-interruption-of-pregnancy-in-mice-infected-with-toxoplasma-gondii-during-early-pregnancy
#12
Maki Nishimura, Kousuke Umeda, Masayuki Suwa, Hidefumi Furuoka, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Toxoplasmosis can cause abortion in pregnant humans and other animals; however, the mechanism of abortion remains unknown. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is essential for host defense in T. gondii infection. To investigate the relationship between CCR5 and abortion in toxoplasmosis, we inoculated wild-type and CCR5-deficient (CCR5(-/-)) mice with T. gondii tachyzoites intraperitoneally on day 3 of pregnancy (E3). The pregnancy rate decreased as pregnancy progressed in the infected wild-type mice. Histopathologically, no inflammatory lesions were observed in the fetoplacental tissues...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629230/association-between-toxoplasma-gondii-types-and-outcomes-of-human-infection-a-meta-analysis
#13
Jing Xia, Xin-Yu Cheng, Xiao-Jun Wang, Hong-Juan Peng
The virulence and pathogenicity of various types of Toxoplasma gondii differ considerably in mice. Recent studies have claimed that similar phenomenon was observed in humans, but no relevant studies have been performed to validate this finding. In addition, reports showing association between a given T. gondii type and outcomes of human infection yielded conflicting results. To provide a more precise estimation of the association and a more reliable conclusion on this subject, we performed this meta-analysis...
June 20, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629167/igg-avidity-test-in-congenital-toxoplasmosis-diagnoses-in-newborns
#14
Zulmirene Cardoso Fonseca, Isolina Maria Xavier Rodrigues, Natália Cruz E Melo, Juliana Boaventura Avelar, Ana Maria Castro, Mariza Martins Avelino
The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of IgG avidity testing in newborns (NBs) diagnosed with early congenital toxoplasmosis. We collected samples from 88 puerperae infected by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and their NBs (48 acutely-infected puerperae (AIP) and 40 chronically-infected puerperae (CIP)), from two public maternity hospitals in Goiania city, Goias, Brazil, from 2010 to 2015. Specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG serum levels and IgG avidity tests were evaluated using chemiluminescence...
June 18, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628099/toxoplasma-depends-on-lysosomal-consumption-of-autophagosomes-for-persistent-infection
#15
Manlio Di Cristina, Zhicheng Dou, Matteo Lunghi, Geetha Kannan, My-Hang Huynh, Olivia L McGovern, Tracey L Schultz, Aric J Schultz, Alyssa J Miller, Beth M Hayes, Wouter van der Linden, Carla Emiliani, Matthew Bogyo, Sébastien Besteiro, Isabelle Coppens, Vern B Carruthers
Globally, nearly 2 billion people are infected with the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii(1). This persistent infection can cause severe disease in immunocompromised people and is epidemiologically linked to major mental illnesses(2) and cognitive impairment(3). There are currently no options for curing this infection. The lack of effective therapeutics is due partly to a poor understanding of the essential pathways that maintain long-term infection. Although it is known that Toxoplasma replicates slowly within intracellular cysts demarcated with a cyst wall, precisely how it sustains itself and remodels organelles in this niche is unknown...
June 19, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627357/the-heat-shock-protein-90-of-toxoplasma-gondii-is-essential-for-invasion-of-host-cells-and-tachyzoite-growth
#16
Hongchao Sun, Xunhui Zhuo, Xianfeng Zhao, Yi Yang, Xueqiu Chen, Chaoqun Yao, Aifang Du
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded vertebrates. Heat shock proteins (HSP) regulate key signal transduction events in many organisms, and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays an important role in growth, development, and virulence in several parasitic protozoa. Here, we discovered increased transcription of the Hsp90 gene under conditions for bradyzoite differentiation, i.e. alkaline and heat shock conditions in vitro, suggesting that Hsp90 may be connected with bradyzoite development in T...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626452/proteomic-differences-between-developmental-stages-of-toxoplasma-gondii-revealed-by-itraq-based-quantitative-proteomics
#17
Ze-Xiang Wang, Chun-Xue Zhou, Hany M Elsheikha, Shuai He, Dong-Hui Zhou, Xing-Quan Zhu
Toxoplasma gondii has a complex two-host life-cycle between intermediate host and definitive host. Understanding proteomic variations across the life-cycle stages of T. gondii may improve the understanding of molecular adaption mechanism of T. gondii across life-cycle stages, and should have implications for the development of new treatment and prevention interventions against T. gondii infection. Here, we utilized LC-MS/MS coupled with iTRAQ labeling technology to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) specific to tachyzoite (T), bradyzoites-containing cyst (C) and sporulated oocyst (O) stages of the cyst-forming T...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625894/evaluation-of-protective-immunity-induced-by-dna-vaccination-with-genes-encoding-toxoplasma-gondii-gra17-and-gra23-against-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-mice
#18
Wei-Ning Zhu, Jin-Lei Wang, Kai Chen, Dong-Mei Yue, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Si-Yang Huang, Xing-Quan Zhu
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoan, can cause serious public health problems and economic losses worldwide. Two novel dense granule proteins (GRA17 and GRA23) were recently identified as T. gondii-secreted proteins which are localized to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) and can mediate the movement of small molecules between the host cell and parasitophorous vacuole (PV). In the present study, we evaluated the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccination with genes encoding GRA17 and GRA23 against acute toxoplasmosis in mice...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624132/schizogony-and-gametogony-of-oocyst-deficient-t-263-strain-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#19
J P Dubey
Oocysts are important stage for the spread of Toxoplasma gondii because they are environmentally resistant. Among all hosts of T. gondii, only felids can excrete oocysts. Cats that have excreted T. gondii oocysts after primary infection develop immunity to re-excretion of oocysts, and this immunity appears to be long-lasting. It would be desirable to have a non-infectious vaccine for the prevention of T. gondii infection in cats and to understand mechanism of immunity to excretion of oocysts. An initial step will be to indentify stage/stages of the parasite for induction of immunity...
May 27, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622856/survey-for-selected-pathogens-in-wild-pigs-sus-scrofa-from-guam-marianna-islands-usa
#20
Christopher A Cleveland, Anthony DeNicola, J P Dubey, Dolores E Hill, Roy D Berghaus, Michael J Yabsley
Pigs (Sus scrofa) were introduced to Guam in the 1600's and are now present in high densities throughout the island. Wild pigs are reservoirs for pathogens of concern to domestic animals and humans. Exposure to porcine parvovirus, transmissible gastroenteritis, and Leptospira interrogans has been documented in domestic swine but data from wild pigs are lacking. The close proximity of humans, domestic animals, and wild pigs, combined with the liberal hunting of wild pigs, results in frequent opportunities for pathogen transmission...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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