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Toxoplasma gondii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224883/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-zoo-and-domestic-animals-in-jiangxi-province-china
#1
Houqiang Luo, Kun Li, Hui Zhang, Ping Gan, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaoxing Wu, Yanfang Lan, Jiaxiang Wang
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus)...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222824/curiosity-killed-the-cat-no-evidence-of-an-association-between-cat-ownership-and-psychotic-symptoms-at-ages-13-and-18-years-in-a-uk-general-population-cohort
#2
F Solmi, J F Hayes, G Lewis, J B Kirkbride
BACKGROUND: Congenital or early life infection with Toxoplasma gondii has been implicated in schizophrenia aetiology. Childhood cat ownership has been hypothesized as an intermediary marker of T. gondii infection and, by proxy, as a risk factor for later psychosis. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is, however, limited. METHOD: We used birth cohort data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to investigate whether cat ownership in pregnancy and childhood (ages 4 and 10 years) was associated with psychotic experiences (PEs) in early (age 13, N = 6705) and late (age 18, N = 4676) adolescence, rated from semi-structured interviews...
February 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221900/mental-health-disorders-associated-with-foodborne-pathogens
#3
Declan J Bolton, Lucy J Robertson
Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217119/seroprevalence-isolation-genotyping-and-pathogenicity-of-toxoplasma-gondii-strains-from-sheep-in-china
#4
YuRong Yang, YongJie Feng, QiuXia Yao, YingHua Wang, YaoYao Lu, HongDe Liang, XingQuan Zhu, LongXian Zhang
Toxoplasma gondii is an important cause of reproductive failure in small ruminants that also poses a risk to consumers who consume undercooked meat. However, little is known about sheep toxoplasmosis in China for the world. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep from China, to isolate T. gondii via bioassay in mice and to evaluate the virulence of the isolated T. gondii based on vero cell invasion and mice. A total of 840 samples (304 unfrozen hearts and 536 sera) from sheep in China were collected from 2014 to 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216007/microbiological-quality-of-pastrami-and-associated-surfaces-at-the-point-of-sale-in-kayseri-turkey
#5
Y Yildirim, N Ertas Onmaz, Z Gonulalan, S Al, A Yildirim, F Karadal, H Hizlisoy, Ş Pamuk
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to trace the possible relations between the hygienic status of slicing utensils and the microbiological quality of pastrami. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 75 pastrami retail markets were visited in Kayseri, Turkey, where the pastrami (a ready-to-eat meat product) is commonly produced and consumed. Sliced pastrami, the cutting board and knife surface swabs were collected from each pastrami retail point to trace possible sources of contamination...
February 16, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215867/seroepidemiology-and-risk-assessment-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-captive-wild-birds-and-mammals-in-two-zoos-in-the-north-of-portugal
#6
Ana Tidy, Sara Fangueiro, Jitender P Dubey, Luís Cardoso, Ana Patrícia Lopes
Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It can affect most warm-blooded animals but only felids are its definitive hosts. We determined seroprevalence and associated risk factors in birds and mammals kept in two zoological parks in northern Portugal. Sera from 77 birds and 42 mammals were assayed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off titre 20); 34.5% (41/119) were seropositive. All seropositive animals were apparently healthy except one seropostive mandarin (Aix galericulata) which had chorioretinitis...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214536/t-cell-immunoregulation-in-active-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#7
Cynthia A Cordeiro, Erica L M Vieira, Vinicius M Castro, Walderez O Dutra, Rogerio A Costa, Juliana L Orefice, Wesley R Campos, Fernando Orefice, Lucy H Young, Antonio Lucio Teixeira
Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important cause of infectious ocular disease. The physiopathology of retinochoroidal lesions associated with this infection is not completely understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate cytokine production by T cells from individuals with active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TR) comparing with controls. Eighteen patients with active TR and 15 healthy controls (6 controls IgG(+) to Toxoplasma and 9 negative controls) were included in the study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated in the presence or absence of T...
February 15, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212887/erratum-to-toxoplasma-gondii-immune-mapped-protein-1-is-anchored-to-the-inner-leaflet-of-the-plasma-membrane-and-adopts-a-novel-protein-fold-biochim-biophys-acta-protein-proteomics-1865-2-2017-208-219
#8
Yonggen Jia, Stefi Benjamin, Qun Liu, Yingqi Xu, Sunil Kumar Dogga, Jing Liu, Stephen Matthews, Dominique Soldati-Favre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212681/toxoplasma-gondii-survey-in-cats-from-two-environments-of-the-city-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-by-modified-agglutination-test-on-sera-and-filter-paper
#9
Paula F Bolais, Philippe Vignoles, Pamela F Pereira, Rafael Keim, Abdelkrim Aroussi, Khadja Ismail, Marie-Laure Dardé, Maria Regina Amendoeira, Aurélien Mercier
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with a worldwide distribution, in warm-blood animals, including humans. Local conditions and environmental disturbances may influence transmission dynamics of a zoonotic agent. This study evaluates the epidemiology of T. gondii based on toxoplasmosis prevalence in two populations of cats living in distinct urbanization conditions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Among 372 domestic cats sampled, 265 were from a public shelter located downtown Rio and 107 from a relatively preserved wild environment in a residential area...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209732/direct-measurement-of-cortical-force-generation-and-polarization-in-a-living-parasite
#10
Rachel V Stadler, Lauren A White, Ke Hu, Brian P Helmke, William H Guilford
Apicomplexa is a large phylum of intracellular parasites that are notable for the diseases they cause, including toxoplasmosis, malaria and cryptosporidiosis. A conserved motile system is critical to their lifecycles as it drives directional gliding motility between cells, as well as invasion of and egress from host cells. However, our understanding of this system is limited by a lack of measurements of the forces driving parasite motion. We used a laser trap to measure the function of the motility apparatus of living Toxoplasma gondii by adhering a microsphere to the surface of an immobilized parasite...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209315/impact-of-apoe-genotypes-variations-on-toxoplasma-patients-with-dementia
#11
Raida S Yahya, Soha I Awad, Hatim A El-Baz, Niveen Saudy, Osama A Abdelsalam, Mohamed S Shehab Al-Din
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma deprives host neuron cells from cholesterol and leads to its ability to potentiate dementia. ApoE intermediates neuronal transmission of cholesterol, which is a key constituent for axonal development, redesigning occasions that are important for education and synaptic arrangement, development of memory and repair of neuron. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of ApoE genotypes on dementia associated with neurodegeneration in latent Toxoplasma gondii in elderly population...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207292/occurrence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-carcasses-of-pigs-reared-in-intensive-systems-in-northern-italy
#12
Roberto Papini, Pierluigi di Ciccio, Marianna Marangi, Sergio Ghidini, Emanuela Zanardi, Alberto Vergara, Annunziata Giangaspero, Simona Nardoni, Guido Rocchigiani, Francesca Mancianti, Adriana Ianieri
To evaluate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and to genetically characterize its isolates in carcasses of industrial fattening pigs, blood, diaphragm, and heart samples were collected from 375 carcasses of pigs slaughtered to be processed for Parma ham production. Pigs had been bred on approved farms (n = 75) located in the so-called Food Valley in Italy. Sera were examined for immunoglobulin G antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Both heart and diaphragm samples from seropositive carcasses were processed for the presence of T...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205520/cationic-amino-acid-transporters-play-key-roles-in-the-survival-and-transmission-of-apicomplexan-parasites
#13
Esther Rajendran, Sanduni V Hapuarachchi, Catherine M Miller, Stephen J Fairweather, Yeping Cai, Nicholas C Smith, Ian A Cockburn, Stefan Bröer, Kiaran Kirk, Giel G van Dooren
Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular parasites that scavenge essential nutrients from their hosts via transporter proteins on their plasma membrane. The identities of the transporters that mediate amino acid uptake into apicomplexans are unknown. Here we demonstrate that members of an apicomplexan-specific protein family-the Novel Putative Transporters (NPTs)-play key roles in the uptake of cationic amino acids. We show that an NPT from Toxoplasma gondii (TgNPT1) is a selective arginine transporter that is essential for parasite survival and virulence...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202940/mitochondrial-behaviour-throughout-the-lytic-cycle-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#14
Jana Ovciarikova, Leandro Lemgruber, Krista L Stilger, William J Sullivan, Lilach Sheiner
Mitochondria distribution in cells controls cellular physiology in health and disease. Here we describe the mitochondrial morphology and positioning found in the different stages of the lytic cycle of the eukaryotic single-cell parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The lytic cycle, driven by the tachyzoite life stage, is responsible for acute toxoplasmosis. It is known that whilst inside a host cell the tachyzoite maintains its single mitochondrion at its periphery. We found that upon parasite transition from the host cell to the extracellular matrix, mitochondrion morphology radically changes, resulting in a reduction in peripheral proximity...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193849/toxoplasma-gondii-exposure-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-control-study
#15
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Edna Madai Méndez-Hernández, José Manuel Salas-Pacheco, Luis Ángel Ruano-Calderón, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Francisco Xavier Castellanos-Juárez, Ada Agustina Sandoval-Carrillo, Oliver Liesenfeld, Agar Ramos-Nevárez
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and Parkinson's disease and to investigate whether T. gondii seropositivity is associated with the general characteristics of patients with Parkinson's disease. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Cases and controls were enrolled in Durango City, Mexico. PARTICIPANTS: 65 patients with Parkinson's disease and 195 age- and gender-matched control subjects without Parkinson's disease...
February 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192629/the-effect-of-co-trimoxazole-on-serum-potassium-concentration-safety-evaluation-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Wei Yee Chan, Allan B Clark, Andrew M Wilson, Yoon K Loke
AIMS: Co-trimoxazole maintains a well-established role in the treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii and Toxoplasma gondii, as well as urinary tract infections. Observational studies report hyperkalemia associated with co-trimoxazole which may stem from an amiloride-like potassium sparing effect. Our study reports on changes in serum potassium on patients without acute infections, and the influence of concomitant anti-kaliuretic drugs on this effect. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial in patients with interstitial lung disease who were assigned to placebo or 960 mg twice daily co-trimoxazole...
February 13, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191447/reexamining-chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-surprising-activity-for-a-dormant-parasite
#17
Anthony P Sinai, Elizabeth A Watts, Animesh Dhara, Robert D Murphy, Matthew S Gentry, Abhijit Patwardhan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite over a third of the world's population being chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii, little is known about this largely asymptomatic phase of infection. This stage is mediated in vivo by bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The absence of overt symptoms has been attributed to the dormancy of bradyzoites. In this review, we reexamine the conventional view of chronic toxoplasmosis in light of emerging evidence challenging both the nature of dormancy and the consequences of infection in the CNS...
December 2016: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190399/a-community-based-survey-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-among-pregnant-women-in-rural-areas-of-taiz-governorate-yemen-the-risk-of-waterborne-transmission
#18
Mohammed A K Mahdy, Lina M Q Alareqi, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Samira M A Al-Eryani, Abdullah A Al-Mikhlafy, Abdulsalam M Al-Mekhlafi, Fawzya Alkarshy, Rohela Mahmud
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic coccidian parasite causing morbidity and mortality. In Yemen, T. gondii infection has been reported among pregnant women seeking healthcare in the main cities. However, no data are available on the prevalence of T. gondii infection and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in the rural communities of the country. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and identify its risk factors among pregnant women in the rural communities of Taiz governorate, Yemen...
February 13, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186826/cross-sectional-study-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-pig-farms-in-england
#19
Georgina Limon, Wendy Beauvais, Nikolaos Dadios, Isabelle Villena, Charlotte Cockle, Radu Blaga, Javier Guitian
Ingestion of undercooked meat has been proposed as an important source of human Toxoplasma gondii infection. To ascertain the contribution of meat consumption to the risk of human infection, estimates of the prevalence of infection in meat-producing animals are required. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess T. gondii infection in pigs raised in England, to identify risk factors for infection, and to compare performance of two serological tests: modified agglutination test (MAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186325/evaluation-of-the-immune-response-in-balb-c-mice-induced-by-a-novel-dna-vaccine-expressing-gra14-against-toxoplasma-gondii
#20
Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi Soteh, Mehdi Sharif, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Reza Valadan, Mohsen Tehrani, Alireza Khalilian, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Ahmad Daryani
Toxoplasma gondii can cause severe and even fatal disease in human beings and animals. Effective vaccines may contribute to control toxoplasmosis. GRA14, a novel secreted dense granule protein of T. gondii, has been proposed as a vaccine candidate due to its intervacuolar transport and unique topology in the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. In this study, we constructed a DNA vaccine encoding GRA14 of T. gondii. BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly three times at 2 week intervals and challenged with T...
February 10, 2017: Parasite Immunology
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