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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934559/psychological-perspectives-on-interrogation
#1
Aldert Vrij, Christian A Meissner, Ronald P Fisher, Saul M Kassin, Charles A Morgan, Steven M Kleinman
Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930080/seroprevalence-of-brucella-antibodies-in-harbor-seals-in-alaska-usa-with-age-regional-and-reproductive-comparisons
#2
A Hoover-Miller, J L Dunn, C L Field, G Blundell, S Atkinson
Populations of harbor seal Phoca vitulina in the Gulf of Alaska have dramatically declined during the past 4 decades. Numbers of seals in Glacier Bay, in southeast Alaska, USA, have also declined despite extensive protection. Causes of the declines and slow recovery are poorly understood. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that adversely affects reproduction in many domestic species. We measured the seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in 554 harbor seals in 3 Alaska locations: Prince William Sound (PWS), Glacier Bay (GB), and Tracy Arm Fords Terror (TAFT) Wilderness Area...
September 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928143/-it-wasn-t-a-medical-miracle-we-made-our-own-luck-lessons-from-london-and-manchester-terror-attacks
#3
Anne Gulland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924332/where-health-and-death-intersect-insights-from-a-terror-management-health-model
#4
Jamie Arndt, Jamie L Goldenberg
This paper offers an integrative understanding of the intersection between "health" and "death" from the perspective of the terror management health model. After highlighting the potential for health-related situations to elicit concerns about mortality, we turn to the question, how do thoughts of death influence health decision-making? Across varied health domains, the answer depends on whether these cognitions are in conscious awareness or not. When mortality concerns are conscious, people engage in healthy intentions and behavior if efficacy and coping resources are present...
2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921608/moral-bioenhancement-and-agential-risks-good-and-bad-outcomes
#5
Phil Torres
In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu argue that our collective existetial predicment is unprecedentedly dangerous due to climate change and terrorism. Given these global risks to human prosperity and survival, Persson and Savulescu argue that we should explore the radical possibility of moral bioenhancement in addition to cognitive enhancement. In this article, I argue that moral bioenhancements could nontrivially exacerbate the threat posed by certain kinds of malicious agents, while reducing the threat of other kinds...
September 18, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919115/global-regional-and-national-under-5-mortality-adult-mortality-age-specific-mortality-and-life-expectancy-1970-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#7
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905129/trauma-exposure-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-cohort-of-pregnant-peruvian-women
#8
Elizabeth J Levey, Bizu Gelaye, Karestan Koenen, Qiu-Yue Zhong, Archana Basu, Marta B Rondon, Sixto Sanchez, David C Henderson, Michelle A Williams
Women have a higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than men, with a peak during the reproductive years. PTSD during pregnancy adversely impacts maternal and infant health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of antepartum PTSD symptoms in a population of pregnant Peruvian women and to examine the impact of number of traumatic events and type of trauma experienced. The Traumatic Events Questionnaire was used to collect data about traumatic exposures. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was used to assess PTSD...
September 13, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905048/social-determinants-of-health-violent-radicalization-and-terrorism-a-public-health-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Héctor E Alcalá, Mienah Zulfacar Sharif, Goleen Samari
Background: Terrorism-related deaths are at an all-time high as there were 32,685 and 29,376 terrorism-related deaths in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Terrorism is defined as the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims. Terrorism is detrimental for mental health, premature mortality, and economic losses and undermines the central tenets of public health to improve the health and well-being of populations. Despite the impact terrorism has on avoidable morbidity and mortality, population health research largely overlooks social determinants of terrorism and risk factors that contribute to terrorist activities...
2017: Health Equity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903789/the-mind-of-suicide-terrorists
#10
Donatella Marazziti, Antonello Veltri, Armando Piccinni
After reviewing the available literature about the main hypotheses on suicide terrorism and the psychological characteristics of terrorists that have been proposed throughout the years, the present authors have put forward some personal considerations on what the distinctive traits of today's suicide bombers might be. In spite of the heterogeneity and paucity of "real" data, it is evident that there is no peculiar familial, educational, or socioeconomic factors that may account for religious radicalization leading to suicide terrorism...
September 14, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903669/the-evil-animal-a-terror-management-theory-perspective-on-the-human-tendency-to-kill-animals
#11
Uri Lifshin, Jeff Greenberg, Colin A Zestcott, Daniel Sullivan
This research tested whether support for the killing of animals serves a terror management function. In five studies, death primes caused participants to support the killing of animals more than control primes, unless the participants' self-esteem had been elevated (Study 4). This effect was not moderated by gender, preexisting attitudes toward killing animals or animal rights, perceived human-animal similarity, religiosity, political orientation, or by the degree to which the killing was justified. Support for killing animals after subliminal death primes was also associated with an increased sense of power and invulnerability (Study 5)...
June 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892547/non-rapid-eye-movement-arousal-parasomnias-in-children
#12
Vijayabharathi Ekambaram, Kiran Maski
Parasomnia is a common pediatric sleep disorder that can cause parents or caregivers distress when experienced by their children. Based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, parasomnias can be divided into two subgroups: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias and rapid eye movement (REM) parasomnias. REM sleep parasomnias include nightmares, REM behavior disorder, and sleep paralysis, whereas NREM sleep parasomnias include disorders of arousal such as confusional arousals, sleepwalking, sleep talking, night terrors, and sleep-related eating disorder...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886492/the-dynamics-of-prehospital-hospital-care-and-modes-of-transport-during-civil-conflict-and-terrorist-incidents
#13
S Celik, R Dursun, A Aycan, H Gönüllü, C Adanaş, M Eryılmaz, E Gönüllü, M E Akyol, S Keskin, C Güloğlu
OBJECTIVE: Prehospital and hospital care during incidents of mass violence and civil conflict involve a number of aspects that distinguish it from care during times of peace. We aimed to analyze the dynamics and outcomes of prehospital and hospital care during ongoing conflicts. STUDY DESIGN: Multicentric prospective observational study. METHOD: Patients enrolled in the study, which was conducted in Turkey, were all injured in armed conflict and taken to level 1 trauma centers...
September 5, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878705/children-affected-by-war-and-armed-conflict-parental-protective-factors-and-resistance-to-mental-health-symptoms
#14
Michelle Slone, Anat Shoshani
This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873421/russian-isolates-enlarge-the-known-geographic-diversity-of-francisella-tularensis-subsp-mediasiatica
#15
Vitalii Timofeev, Irina Bakhteeva, Galina Titareva, Pavel Kopylov, David Christiany, Alexander Mokrievich, Ivan Dyatlov, Gilles Vergnaud
Francisella tularensis, a small Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of infecting a wide range of animals, including humans, and causes a plague-like disease called tularemia-a highly contagious disease with a high mortality rate. Because of these characteristics, F. tularensis is considered a potential agent of biological terrorism. Currently, F. tularensis is divided into four subspecies, which differ in their virulence and geographic distribution. Two of them, subsp. tularensis (primarily found in North America) and subsp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872019/offline-terrorism-and-syria-a-crisis-of-the-world
#16
Richard Horton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870267/evil-terrorism-and-psychiatry
#17
Donatella Marazziti, Stephen M Stahl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863326/confocal-epifluorescence-sensor-with-an-arc-shaped-aperture-for-slide-based-pcr-quantification
#18
Jui-Hong Weng, Lin-Chi Chen
The increasing needs of point-of-care diagnostics, quarantine of epidemic pathogens, and prevention of terrorism's bio-attacks have promised the future of portable real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) sensors. This work aims at developing a highly sensitive and low-cost light emitting diode (LED)-based epifluorescence sensor module for qPCR sensor development and relevant bioassay applications. Inspired by the light stop design and dark-field detection of microscopes, this paper first reports a compact confocal LED epifluorescence sensor using a light stop with an arc-shaped aperture for enhancing the flexibility of quick DNA and PCR detection...
August 24, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861900/does-persisting-fear-sustain-catatonia
#19
M Fink, E Shorter
OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychological substrate of catatonia. METHOD: Reviewing the historical descriptions and explanations of catatonic behaviours by clinicians from its delineation in the 19th century to the present. RESULTS: Patients with catatonia are often haunted by fears and terrors; this has not been widely appreciated, and certainly was lost from view in the days when catatonia was considered a subtype of schizophrenia. The report contributes to resolving a major question in catatonia: is the mind in stupor inactive, as the blank state that we picture in anesthetized patients, or is the mind active, so preoccupied as to exclude all other influences...
August 31, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853121/characteristics-of-us-combat-veterans-2001-2011-who-remain-on-active-duty-after-upper-extremity-amputations
#20
Sara H Kift, Taylor J Bates, Nathan A Franklin, Anthony E Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Return to duty following traumatic amputations has been extensively studied in those with lower extremity amputation. As upper extremity amputations occur less frequently, the issue of return to duty for those with upper extremity amputations has received relatively little research. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate at which service members remain on active duty at least one year after having sustained traumatic upper extremity amputations during Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and other overseas contingency operations of the Global War on Terrorism...
July 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
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