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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719883/sublethal-insecticide-exposure-affects-reproduction-chemical-phenotype-as-well-as-offspring-development-and-antennae-symmetry-of-a-leaf-beetle
#1
Thorben Müller, Alexander Prosche, Caroline Müller
The area of agriculturally used land and following to that the use of pesticides are steadily increasing. Insecticides do not only reduce pest organisms on crops but can also affect non-target organisms when present in sublethal concentrations in the environment. We investigated the effects of an exposure to sublethal pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin) concentrations, at doses 20 and 60 times lower than the LC50, respectively, on reproductive traits and adult cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles of a leaf beetle (Phaedon cochleariae Fabricius)...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711787/seed-priming-and-transgenerational-drought-memory-improves-tolerance-against-salt-stress-in-bread-wheat
#2
Tahira Tabassum, Muhammad Farooq, Riaz Ahmad, Ali Zohaib, Abdul Wahid
This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of seed priming following terminal drought on tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat. Drought was imposed in field sown wheat at reproductive stage (BBCH growth stage 49) and was maintained till physiological maturity (BBCH growth stage 83). Seeds of bread wheat, collected from crop raised under terminal drought and/or well-watered conditions, were subjected to hydropriming and osmopriming (with 1.5% CaCl2) and were sown in soil-filled pots. After stand establishment, salt stress treatments viz...
July 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709042/perinatal-exposure-of-pregnant-rats-to-cypermethrin-delays-testicular-descent-impairs-fertility-in-f1-male-progeny-leading-to-developmental-defects-in-f2-generation
#3
Dipty Singh, Sharad Bhagat, Paula Raijiwala, Vikas Dighe, Geeta Vanage
Cypermethrin (CYP) is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and regarded as a potential endocrine disruptor. CYP exposure may pose a great risk to human health including adverse effect on their reproductive functions. This study aimed to delineate the effects of perinatal exposure of rats to CYP on the sexual maturation and fertility of F1 male progeny. Pregnant rats (F0) were gavaged daily with CYP (0, 1, 10, 25 mg/kg BW/day) and Diethylestilbestrol (DES, 10 μg/kg BW/day), as positive control from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 21...
July 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706074/germ-line-inherited-h3k27me3-restricts-enhancer-function-during-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#4
Fides Zenk, Eva Loeser, Rosaria Schiavo, Fabian Kilpert, Ozren Bogdanović, Nicola Iovino
Gametes carry parental genetic material to the next generation. Stress-induced epigenetic changes in the germ line can be inherited and can have a profound impact on offspring development. However, the molecular mechanisms and consequences of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance are poorly understood. We found that Drosophila oocytes transmit the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 to their offspring. Maternal contribution of the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of zeste, the enzymatic component of Polycomb repressive complex 2, is required for active propagation of H3K27me3 during early embryogenesis...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702320/parental-obesity-leads-to-metabolic-changes-in-the-f2-generation-in-drosophila
#5
Rebecca A S Palu, Sophia A Praggastis, Carl S Thummel
OBJECTIVE: A significant portion of the heritable risk for complex metabolic disorders cannot be attributed to classic Mendelian genetic factors. At least some of this missing heritability is thought to be due to the epigenetic influence of parental and grandparental metabolic state on offspring health. Previous work suggests that this transgenerational phenomenon is evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila. These studies, however, have all depended on dietary paradigms to alter parental metabolic state, which can have inconsistent heritable effects on the metabolism of offspring...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702319/grandpaternal-induced-transgenerational-dietary-reprogramming-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-skeletal-muscle
#6
Petter S Alm, Thais de Castro Barbosa, Romain Barrès, Anna Krook, Juleen R Zierath
OBJECTIVE: Parental nutrition and lifestyle impact the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. We have reported that grandpaternal chronic high-fat diet (HFD) transgenerationally impairs glucose metabolism in subsequent generations. Here we determined whether grandpaternal diet transgenerationally impacts the transcriptome and lipidome in skeletal muscle. Our aim was to identify tissue-specific pathways involved in transgenerational inheritance of environmental-induced phenotypes. METHODS: F0 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFD or chow for 12 weeks before breeding with chow-fed females to generate the F1 generation...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699097/early-preterm-birth-across-generations-among-whites-and-african-americans-a-population-based-study
#7
Rebecca A Dorner, Kristin M Rankin, James W Collins
Objectives To determine the extent to which non-Latina White and African-American mother's gestational age is associated with extremely early (<30 weeks), modestly early (30-33 weeks), and late (34-36 weeks) infant preterm birth (PTB) rates. Methods Race-specific stratified and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on the Illinois Transgenerational Birth File of non-Latino White and African-American infants (born 1989-1991) and their mothers (born 1956-1976). Results White mothers (n = 184) born at <30 weeks had a greater extremely early infant PTB rate than White mothers (n = 131,980) born at term: 1...
July 11, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694462/transgenerational-inheritance-of-susceptibility-to-diabetes-induced-male-subfertility
#8
Gabriela Pavlinkova, Hasmik Margaryan, Eva Zatecka, Eliska Valaskova, Fatima Elzeinova, Alena Kubatova, Romana Bohuslavova, Jana Peknicova
Male infertility is a worldwide problem associated with genetic background, environmental factors, and diseases. One of the suspected contributing factors to male infertility is diabetes mellitus. We investigated the molecular and morphological changes in sperms and testicular tissue of diabetic males. The study was performed in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mouse model. Diabetes decreased sperm concentration and viability and increased sperm apoptosis. Changes in protamine 1/protamine 2 ratio indicated reduced sperm quality...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689743/insights-into-transgenerational-epigenetics-from-studies-of-ciliates
#9
REVIEW
Olivia A Pilling, Anna J Rogers, Bethaney Gulla-Devaney, Laura A Katz
Epigenetics, a term with many meanings, can be broadly defined as the study of dynamic states of the genome. Ciliates, a clade of unicellular eukaryotes, can teach us about the intersection of epigenetics and evolution due to the advantages of working with cultivable ciliate lineages, plus their tendency to express extreme phenotypes such as heritable doublet morphology. Moreover, ciliates provide a powerful model for studying epigenetics given the presence of dimorphic nuclei - a somatic macronucleus and germline micronucleus - within each cell...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688259/increased-tolerance-to-oil-exposure-by-the-cosmopolitan-marine-copepod-acartia-tonsa
#10
Kamille Elvstrøm Krause, Khuong V Dinh, Torkel Gissel Nielsen
Oil contamination is an environmental hazard to marine ecosystems, but marine organism tolerance to oil after many generations of exposure remains poorly known. We studied the effects of transgenerational oil exposure on fitness-related traits in a cosmopolitan neritic copepod, Acartia tonsa. Copepods were exposed to an oil compound, the PAH pyrene, at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 100+(the saturated pyrene concentration in seawater)nM over two generations and measured survival, sex ratio, size at maturity, grazing rate and reproductive success...
July 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686898/prenatal-transfer-of-decabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-209-results-in-disruption-of-the-thyroid-system-and-developmental-toxicity-in-zebrafish-offspring
#11
Zhihua Han, Yufei Li, Shenghu Zhang, Ninghui Song, Huaizhou Xu, Yao Dang, Chunsheng Liu, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu
Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) was one of most widely-used polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and is frequently detected in both abiotic and biotic samples from environment. However, knowledge of its transgenerational risks is limited. Here, 4-month-old zebrafish were exposed to various concentrations of BDE-209 (0, 3, 30 or 300μg/L) for 28days and spawned in clean water without BDE-209. Concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) as well as expressions of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were measured in offspring after exposure of adult zebrafish to BDE-209...
June 23, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683715/plant-rrbs-a-bisulfite-and-next-generation-sequencing-based-methylome-profiling-method-enriching-for-coverage-of-cytosine-positions
#12
Martin Schmidt, Michiel Van Bel, Magdalena Woloszynska, Bram Slabbinck, Cindy Martens, Marc De Block, Frederik Coppens, Mieke Van Lijsebettens
BACKGROUND: Cytosine methylation in plant genomes is important for the regulation of gene transcription and transposon activity. Genome-wide methylomes are studied upon mutation of the DNA methyltransferases, adaptation to environmental stresses or during development. However, from basic biology to breeding programs, there is a need to monitor multiple samples to determine transgenerational methylation inheritance or differential cytosine methylation. Methylome data obtained by sodium hydrogen sulfite (bisulfite)-conversion and next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide genome-wide information on cytosine methylation...
July 6, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673325/maternal-intake-of-high-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-diet-during-pregnancy-causes-transgenerational-increase-in-mammary-cancer-risk-in-mice
#13
Nguyen M Nguyen, Fabia de Oliveira Andrade, Lu Jin, Xiyuan Zhang, Madisa Macon, M Idalia Cruz, Carlos Benitez, Bryan Wehrenberg, Chao Yin, Xiao Wang, Jianhua Xuan, Sonia de Assis, Leena Hilakivi-Clarke
BACKGROUND: Maternal and paternal high-fat (HF) diet intake before and/or during pregnancy increases mammary cancer risk in several preclinical models. We studied if maternal consumption of a HF diet that began at a time when the fetal primordial germ cells travel to the genital ridge and start differentiating into germ cells would result in a transgenerational inheritance of increased mammary cancer risk. METHODS: Pregnant C57BL/6NTac mouse dams were fed either a control AIN93G or isocaloric HF diet composed of corn oil high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids between gestational days 10 and 20...
July 3, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668648/familial-digit-ratio-2d-4d-associations-in-a-general-population-sample-from-wales
#14
Gareth Richards, Wynford Bellin, William Davies
BACKGROUND: The relative length of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D) may be a sex-linked correlate of prenatal androgen exposure. However, the nature of the sex-linkage is controversial, with evidence for both X- and Y-linkage of the 2D:4D phenotype. AIMS: To examine transgenerational effects relating to sex-linkage. In addition, assortative mating on 2D:4D was considered, as well as associations between 2D:4D and age and sex. STUDY DESIGN: A family study was conducted...
June 29, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659598/differential-effects-of-developmental-thermal-plasticity-across-three-generations-of-guppies-poecilia-reticulata-canalization-and-anticipatory-matching
#15
Amélie Le Roy, Isabella Loughland, Frank Seebacher
Developmental plasticity can match offspring phenotypes to environmental conditions experienced by parents. Such epigenetic modifications are advantageous when parental conditions anticipate offspring environments. Here we show firstly, that developmental plasticity manifests differently in males and females. Secondly, that under stable conditions, phenotypic responses (metabolism and locomotion) accumulate across several generations. Metabolic scope in males was greater at warmer test temperatures (26-36 °C) in offspring bred at warm temperatures (29-30 °C) compared to those bred at cooler temperatures (22-23 °C), lending support to the predictive adaptive hypothesis...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658637/assessing-multigenerational-effects-of-prednisolone-to-the-freshwater-snail-physa-acuta-gastropoda-physidae
#16
Navdeep Bal, Anu Kumar, Dayanthi Nugegoda
Prednisolone (PDS), a potent synthetic glucocorticoid is widely prescribed for its exceptional anti-inflammatory properties. Several studies have detected the environmental presence of PDS in water bodies which has led to an ecological concern for its toxicity to non-target aquatic biota. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to PDS on different life-cycle stages and generations of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta. This continuous exposure over a period of multiple generations resulted in generational impairments at measured endpoints...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655328/epigenetic-and-chromatin-based-mechanisms-in-environmental-stress-adaptation-and-stress-memory-in-plants
#17
REVIEW
Jörn Lämke, Isabel Bäurle
Plants frequently have to weather both biotic and abiotic stressors, and have evolved sophisticated adaptation and defense mechanisms. In recent years, chromatin modifications, nucleosome positioning, and DNA methylation have been recognized as important components in these adaptations. Given their potential epigenetic nature, such modifications may provide a mechanistic basis for a stress memory, enabling plants to respond more efficiently to recurring stress or even to prepare their offspring for potential future assaults...
June 27, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649046/transgenerational-endocrine-disruption-and-neurotoxicity-in-zebrafish-larvae-after-parental-exposure-to-binary-mixtures-of-decabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-209-and-lead
#18
Lianguo Chen, Xianfeng Wang, Xiaohua Zhang, Paul K S Lam, Yongyong Guo, James C W Lam, Bingsheng Zhou
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals are two key groups of electric and electronic equipment contaminants. Despite their co-occurrence in aquatic environments, their combined effects remain largely unknown, particularly under a chronic exposure regime. In the present study, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of BDE-209 and lead (Pb), or their binary mixtures, for 3 months. After chronic parental exposure, increased transfer of BDE-209 and Pb to the offspring eggs was activated in the coexposure groups, with BDE-197 being the predominant PBDE congener, indicating the dynamic metabolism of BDE-209 in parental zebrafish...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648595/molecular-evidence-of-offspring-liver-dysfunction-after-maternal-exposure-to-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#19
Yanan Hao, Jing Liu, Yanni Feng, Shuai Yu, Weidong Zhang, Lan Li, Lingjiang Min, Hongfu Zhang, Wei Shen, Yong Zhao
Recently, reproductive, embryonic and developmental toxicity have been considered as one important sector of nanoparticle (NP) toxicology, with some studies already suggesting varying levels of toxicity and possible transgenerational toxic effects. Even though many studies have investigated the toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), little is known of their impact on overall reproductive outcome and transgenerational effects. Previously we found ZnO NPs caused liver dysfunction in lipid synthesis...
June 23, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642778/characterization-of-salt-induced-epigenetic-segregation-by-genome-wide-loss-of-heterozygosity-and-its-association-with-salt-tolerance-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#20
Min Li, Wen-Sheng Wang, Yun-Long Pang, Jessica R Domingo, Jauhar Ali, Jian-Long Xu, Bin-Ying Fu, Elec B Venus, Zhi-Kang Li
In a breeding effort to develop salt tolerant (ST) rice varieties by designed QTL pyramiding, large numbers of progenies derived from four crosses between salt- or drought- tolerant BC2F5 IR64 introgression lines, were subjected to severe salt stress, resulting in 422 ST plants. The progeny testing of the selected F3 lines under more severe salt stress resulted in identification of 16 promising homozygous lines with high levels of ST. Genetic characterization of the 422 ST F3 progeny and 318 random F2 plants from the same four crosses using 105 segregating SSR markers lead to three interesting discoveries: (1) salt stress can induce genome-wide epigenetic segregation (ES) characterized by complete loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and nearly complete loss of an allele (LOA) in the F3 progenies of four rice populations in a single generation; (2) ∼25% of the stress-induced ES loci were transgenerational and inherited from their salt- and drought- selected parents; and (3) the salt-induced LOH and LOA loci (regions) appeared to contain genes/alleles associated with ST and/or drought tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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