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Kotaro Ozasa, Eric J Grant, Kazunori Kodama
Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
Vickie R Walker, Abee L Boyles, Katherine E Pelch, Stephanie D Holmgren, Andrew J Shapiro, Chad R Blystone, Michael J Devito, Retha R Newbold, Robyn Blain, Pamela Hartman, Kristina A Thayer, Andrew A Rooney
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of reports suggest early life exposures result in adverse effects in offspring who were never directly exposed; this phenomenon is termed "transgenerational inheritance." Given concern for public health implications for potential effects of exposures transmitted to subsequent generations, it is critical to determine how widespread and robust this phenomenon is and to identify the range of exposures and possible outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This scoping report examines the evidence for transgenerational inheritance associated with exposure to a wide range of stressors in humans and animals to identify areas of consistency, uncertainty, data gaps, and to evaluate general risk of bias issues for the transgenerational study design...
March 14, 2018: Environment International
Xiulin Wang, Xiaxiang Zhang, Jing Chen, Xiao Wang, Jian Cai, Qin Zhou, Tingbo Dai, Weixing Cao, Dong Jiang
Drought is the major abiotic stress that decreases plant water status, inhibits photosynthesis, induces oxidative stress, restricts growth and finally lead to the reduction of wheat yield. It has been proven that drought priming during vegetative growth stage could enhance tolerance to drought stress at grain filling in wheat. However, whether drought priming imposed at grain filling in parental plants could induce drought tolerance in the offspring is not known. In this study, drought priming was successively applied in the first, the second and the third generation of wheat to obtain the plants of T1 (primed for one generation), T2 (primed for two generations), T3 (primed for three generations)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Narges Pachenari, Hossein Azizi, Elmira Ghasemi, Maryam Azadi, Saeed Semnanian
During the past decades, the use/misuse of opioids has increased dramatically among adolescent population. It is now well acknowledged that various morphological and physiological changes occur in the brain during adolescence. During this critical period, brain development and maturation could be affected by several factors including stress, drug abuse, nutritional status, etc. Although studies on transgenerational effects of substances such as alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine have focused on both paternal and maternal drug exposure, most reports on transgenerational effects of morphine are restricted to maternal exposure...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
R M Tribe, P D Taylor, N M Kelly, D Rees, J Sandall, H P Kennedy
Caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates are increasing in many parts of the world due to a range of cultural and medical reasons, with limited consideration as to how 'mode of delivery' may impact on childhood and long-term health. However, babies born particularly by pre-labour caesarean section appear to have a subtly different physiology to those born by normal vaginal delivery, with both acute and chronic complications such as respiratory and other morbidities being apparent. It has been hypothesised that inherent mechanisms within the process of labour and vaginal delivery, far from being a passive mechanical process by which the fetus and placenta are expelled from the birth canal, may trigger certain protective developmental processes permissive for normal immunological and physiological development of the fetus postnatally...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Veronica Preite, Carla Oplaat, Arjen Biere, Jan Kirschner, Wim H van der Putten, Koen J F Verhoeven
DNA methylation is one of the mechanisms underlying epigenetic modifications. DNA methylations can be environmentally induced and such induced modifications can at times be transmitted to successive generations. However, it remains speculative how common such environmentally induced transgenerational DNA methylation changes are and if they persist for more than one offspring generation. We exposed multiple accessions of two different apomictic dandelion lineages of the Taraxacum officinale group ( Taraxacum alatum and T...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Alexandra Martins, Lúcia Guilhermino
The environmental contamination by microplastics is a global challenge to ecosystem and human health, and the knowledge on the long-term effects of such particles is limited. Thus, the effects of microplastics and post-exposure recovery were investigated over 4 generations (F0 , F1 , F2 , F3 ) using Daphnia magna as model. Effect criteria were parental mortality, growth, several reproductive parameters, and population growth rate. Microplastics exposure (0.1mg/l of pristine polymer microspheres 1-5μm diameter) caused parental mortality (10-100%), and significantly (p≤0...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
L A Mendes, V L Maria, J J Scott-Fordsmand, M J B Amorim
Effects of pollutants are mostly assessed using standard testing procedures, which cover a fraction of the animals' life cycle. Although, in nature species are exposed during multiple generations of sub-lethal doses of persistent chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the multigenerational (MG) effects of silver in Folsomia candida during 6 generations using the EC50 for reproduction as exposure concentration. We tested 9 different exposure scenarios, going from continuous 6 generations Ag exposure over pulse exposure (i...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Aoi Hosaka, Tetsuji Kakutani
Although transposable elements (TEs) have been regarded as genomic parasites, accumulating evidence suggests that they can also have beneficial roles in evolution of diverse biological processes. In this review, we focus on epigenetic control of TEs as sources of selectable phenotypic variation, with an emphasis on their connections to defense responses.
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Shlomo Yeshurun, Anthony J Hannan
In recent years, striking new evidence has demonstrated non-genetic inheritance of acquired traits associated with parental environmental exposures. In particular, this transgenerational modulation of phenotypic traits is of direct relevance to psychiatric disorders, including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other anxiety disorders. Here we review the recent progress in this field, with an emphasis on acquired traits of psychiatric illnesses transmitted epigenetically via the male lineage. We discuss the transgenerational effects of paternal exposure to stress vs...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rafal Woycicki, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Gerlinde A S Metz, Olga Kovalchuk
Recent advances in cancer treatments have led to significant increases in cure rates. Most cancer patients are treated with various cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. These treatment modalities are mutagenic and genotoxic and cause a wide array of late-occurring health problems, and even exert a deleterious influence on future offspring. The adverse effects from exposed parents on offspring are referred to as transgenerational effects, and currently little is known about chemotherapy-induced transgenerational effects...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Birgit Arabin, Nina Timmesfeld, Kathrin Noever, Susann Behnam, Christin Ellermann, Mirjam Jenny
The rates of overweight, obesity and morbid obesity cause major public health problems in both the developed and the developing world. In this paper, we review the prevalence, the impact on short- and long-term health of mother and offspring and the burden for societies. In addition, we try to demonstrate that scientific publications and guidelines per se have not yet interrupted the vicious cycle of transgenerational transfer and the risks of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. We propose some different ways to improve health literacy to better communicate the serious facts into effective information for health care politicians and providers and mainly to present and future parents...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Hannah B Gold, Yoon Hee Jung, Victor G Corces
Transgenerational inheritance requires mechanisms by which epigenetic information is transferred via gametes. Canonical thought holds that mammalian sperm chromatin would be incapable of carrying epigenetic information as post-translational modifications of histones because of their replacement with protamine proteins. Further, compaction of the sperm genome would hinder DNA accessibility of proteins involved in transcriptional regulation and genome architecture. In this review, we delineate the paternal chromatin remodeling events during spermatogenesis and fertilization...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jinzhi Lei, Qing Nie, Dong-Bao Chen
Experimental evidence shows that parental psychological stress affects the long-term health of offspring in an inheritable fashion. Although epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, miRNA, and histone modifications, are involved in transgenerational programming, the underlining mechanisms of transgenerational inheritance remain unsolved. Here, we present a single-cell based computational model for transgenerational inheritance for investigating the long-term dynamics of phenotype changes in response to parental stress...
February 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
R Barouki, E Melén, Z Herceg, J Beckers, J Chen, M Karagas, A Puga, Y Xia, L Chadwick, W Yan, K Audouze, R Slama, J Heindel, P Grandjean, T Kawamoto, K Nohara
A variety of experimental and epidemiological studies lend support to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. Yet, the actual mechanisms accounting for mid- and long-term effects of early-life exposures remain unclear. Epigenetic alterations such as changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and the expression of certain RNAs have been suggested as possible mediators of long-term health effects of environmental stressors. This report captures discussions and conclusions debated during the last Prenatal Programming and Toxicity meeting held in Japan...
February 27, 2018: Environment International
Jisu Yang, Nivedita Chatterjee, Youngho Kim, Ji-Yeon Roh, Jung-Hwan Kwon, Myung-Sook Park, Jinhee Choi
As part of a study to explore the long-term effects of the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident, transgenerational toxicity and associated epigenetic changes were investigated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Under experimental conditions, worms were exposed to Iranian heavy crude oil (IHC) under three different scenarios: partial early-life exposure (PE), partial late-life exposure (PL), and whole-life exposure (WE). Growth, reproduction, and histone methylation were monitored in the exposed parental worms (P0) and in three consecutive unexposed offspring generations (F1-3 )...
February 21, 2018: Chemosphere
James W Collins, Allison Mariani, Kristin Rankin
Background The relationship between African-American women's upward economic mobility and small for gestational age (weight for gestational < 10th percentile, SGA) rates is incompletely understood. Objective To ascertain the extent to which African-American women's upward economic mobility from early-life impoverishment is coupled with reduced SGA rates. Methods Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were completed on the Illinois transgenerational dataset of African-American infants (1989-1991) and their Chicago-born mothers (1956-1976) with linked U...
March 1, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Nisha Padmanabhan, Joanna Rakoczy, Monika Kondratowicz, Katerina Menelaou, Georgina E T Blake, Erica D Watson
The exposure to adverse environmental conditions (e.g. poor nutrition) may lead to increased disease risk in an individual and their descendants. In some cases, the results may be sexually dimorphic. A range of phenotypes has been associated with deficiency in or defective metabolism of the vitamin folate. However, the molecular mechanism linking folate metabolism to development is still not well defined nor is it clear whether phenotypes are sex-specific. The enzyme methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is required for the progression of folate metabolism and the utilization of methyl groups from the folate cycle...
October 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Mark A Rothstein, Heather L Harrell, Gary E Marchant
Human transmission to offspring and future generations of acquired epigenetic modifications has not been definitively established, although there are several environmental exposures with suggestive evidence. This article uses three examples of hazardous substances with greater exposures in vulnerable populations: pesticides, lead, and diesel exhaust. It then considers whether, if there were scientific evidence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, there would be greater attention given to concerns about environmental justice in environmental laws, regulations, and policies at all levels of government...
July 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Antje Horsch, Leah Gilbert, Stefano Lanzi, Justine Gross, Bengt Kayser, Yvan Vial, Umberto Simeoni, Didier Hans, Alexandre Berney, Urte Scholz, Ruben Barakat, Jardena J Puder
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) carries prenatal and perinatal risk for the mother and her offspring as well as longer-term risks for both the mother (obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease) and her child (obesity, type 2 diabetes). Compared with women without GDM, women with GDM are twice as likely to develop perinatal or postpartum depression. Lifestyle interventions for GDM are generally limited to physical activity and/or nutrition, often focus separately on the mother or the child and take place either during or after pregnancy, while their results are inconsistent...
February 27, 2018: BMJ Open
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