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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104556/paternal-environmental-enrichment-transgenerationally-alters-affective-behavioral-and-neuroendocrine-phenotypes
#1
Shlomo Yeshurun, Annabel K Short, Timothy W Bredy, Terence Y Pang, Anthony J Hannan
Recent studies have demonstrated that paternal stress in rodents can result in modification of offspring behavior. Environmental enrichment, which enhances cognitive stimulation and physical activity, modifies various behaviors and reduces stress responses in adult rodents. We investigated the transgenerational influence of paternal environmental enrichment on offspring behavior and physiological stress response. Adult C57BL/6J male mice (F0) were exposed to either environmental enrichment or standard housing for four weeks and then pair-mated with naïve females...
January 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102915/transgenerational-effects-alter-plant-defense-and-resistance-in-nature
#2
Jack Colicchio
Trichomes, or leaf hairs, are epidermal extensions that take a variety of forms and perform many functions in plants, including herbivore defense. In this study, I document genetically determined variation, within-generation plasticity, and a direct role of trichomes in herbivore defense for Mimulus guttatus. After establishing the relationship between trichomes and herbivory, I test for transgenerational effects of wounding on trichome density and herbivore resistance. Patterns of inter-annual variation in herbivore density and the high cost of plant defense makes plant-herbivore interactions a system in which transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (TPP) is apt to evolve...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102339/effects-of-increased-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-deposition-on-offspring-performance-of-two-dominant-species-in-a-temperate-steppe-ecosystem
#3
Yang Li, Longyu Hou, Bing Song, Liuyi Yang, Linghao Li
Plants adapt to environment by plastic growth which will be transferred to offspring through transgenerational effect. Performance and response of maternal and offspring plant will affect population dynamics and community composition. However, it is scarcely understood how maternal nutrient environment affect the performance and response of offspring through transgenerational effect. Here we studied the impacts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enrichment on maternal and offspring performances and responses of Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093237/transgenerational-epigenetics-integrating-soma-to-germline-communication-with-gametic-inheritance
#4
REVIEW
Abhay Sharma
Evidence supporting germline mediated epigenetic inheritance of environmentally induced traits has increasingly emerged over the past several years. Although the mechanisms underlying this inheritance remain unclear, recent findings suggest that parental gamete-borne epigenetic factors, particularly RNAs, affect post-fertilization and developmental gene regulation, ultimately leading to phenotypic appearance in the offspring. Complex processes involving gene expression and epigenetic regulation are considered to perpetuate across generations...
January 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088028/role-of-small-rnas-in-epigenetic-reprogramming-during-plant-sexual-reproduction
#5
REVIEW
German Martinez, Claudia Köhler
Sexual reproduction, the formation of a new individual from specialized reproductive cells after fertilization, involves the precise orchestration of different developmental and genomic processes. These processes are to a large extent governed by small RNAs (sRNAs) that either belong to the class of micro RNAs (miRNAs) or small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The latter are derived from transposable elements (TEs) and involved in genome defense and transgenerational inheritance of heterochromatin identity, ensuring genome stability...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078101/intrauterine-diabetic-milieu-instigates-dysregulated-adipocytokines-production-in-f1-offspring
#6
Shady H Tawfik, Maha M Haiba, Mohamed I Saad, Taha M Abdelkhalek, Mervat Y Hanafi, Maher A Kamel
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine environment plays a pivotal role in the origin of fatal diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes is associated with low-grade inflammatory state and dysregulated adipokines production. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes on adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin and TNF-α) production in F1 offspring in rats. METHODS: The offspring groups were as follows: F1 offspring of control mothers under control diet (CD) (CF1-CD), F1 offspring of control mothers under high caloric diet (HCD) (CF1-HCD), F1 offspring of diabetic mothers under CD (DF1-CD), and F1 offspring of diabetic mothers under HCD (DF1-HCD)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077777/no-evidence-for-thermal-transgenerational-plasticity-in-metabolism-when-minimizing-the-potential-for-confounding-effects
#7
Ø N Kielland, C Bech, S Einum
Environmental change may cause phenotypic changes that are inherited across generations through transgenerational plasticity (TGP). If TGP is adaptive, offspring fitness increases with an increasing match between parent and offspring environment. Here we test for adaptive TGP in somatic growth and metabolic rate in response to temperature in the clonal zooplankton Daphnia pulex Animals of the first focal generation experienced thermal transgenerational 'mismatch' (parental and offspring temperatures differed), whereas conditions of the next two generations matched the (grand)maternal thermal conditions...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077626/low-dose-or-low-dose-rate-ionizing-radiation-induced-bioeffects-in-animal-models
#8
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Animal experimental studies indicate that acute or chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) (≤100 mSv) or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation (LDRIR) (<6 mSv/h) exposures may be harmful. It induces genetic and epigenetic changes and is associated with a range of physiological disturbances that includes altered immune system, abnormal brain development with resultant cognitive impairment, cataractogenesis, abnormal embryonic development, circulatory diseases, weight gain, premature menopause in female animals, tumorigenesis and shortened lifespan...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069706/dna-sequence-properties-that-predict-susceptibility-to-epiallelic-switching
#9
Marco Catoni, Jayne Griffiths, Claude Becker, Nicolae Radu Zabet, Carlos Bayon, Mélanie Dapp, Michal Lieberman-Lazarovich, Detlef Weigel, Jerzy Paszkowski
Transgenerationally heritable epialleles are defined by the stable propagation of alternative transcriptional states through mitotic and meiotic cell cycles. Given that the propagation of DNA methylation at CpG sites, mediated in Arabidopsis by MET1, plays a central role in epigenetic inheritance, we examined genomewide DNA methylation in partial and complete loss-of-function met1 mutants. We interpreted the data in relation to transgenerational epiallelic stability, which allowed us to classify chromosomal targets of epigenetic regulation into (i) single copy and methylated exclusively at CpGs, readily forming epialleles, and (ii) transposon-derived, methylated at all cytosines, which may or may not form epialleles...
January 9, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068507/reducing-recurrence-of-bacterial-skin-infections-in-aboriginal-children-in-rural-communities-new-ways-of-thinking-new-ways-of-working
#10
Susan Thomas, Kristy Crooks, Kylie Taylor, Peter D Massey, Ruth Williams, Glenn Pearce
Reports from health workers, school staff and community members in rural NSW suggested that bacterial skin infections are a significant health issue for Aboriginal children and their families, affecting quality of life and contributing to poor school attendance. Current NSW treatment guidelines do not incorporate important sociocultural factors or ways of living in Aboriginal communities. The aim of this qualitative study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of parents and carers of Aboriginal children affected by skin infections and of other community members, health workers and school staff, and what actions have been considered successful or unsuccessful in reducing the recurrence of infection...
January 10, 2017: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067237/environmental-stresses-induce-transgenerationally-inheritable-survival-advantages-via-germline-to-soma-communication-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
Saya Kishimoto, Masaharu Uno, Emiko Okabe, Masanori Nono, Eisuke Nishida
Hormesis is a biological phenomenon, whereby exposure to low levels of toxic agents or conditions increases organismal viability. It thus represents a beneficial aspect of adaptive responses to harmful environmental stimuli. Here we show that hormesis effects induced in the parental generation can be passed on to the descendants in Caenorhabditis elegans. Animals subjected to various stressors during developmental stages exhibit increased resistance to oxidative stress and proteotoxicity. The increased resistance is transmitted to the subsequent generations grown under unstressed conditions through epigenetic alterations...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061388/ancestral-benzo-a-pyrene-exposure-affects-bone-integrity-in-f3-adult-fish-oryzias-latipes
#12
Frauke Seemann, Chang-Bum Jeong, Ge Zhang, Miles Teng Wan, Baosheng Guo, Drew Ryan Peterson, Jae-Seong Lee, Doris Wai-Ting Au
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at an environmentally relevant concentration (1μg/L) has previously been shown to affect bone development in a transgenerational manner in F3 medaka (Oryzias latipes) larvae (17dph). Here, we provide novel histomorphometric data demonstrating that the impaired bone formation at an early life stage is not recoverable and can result in a persistent transgenerational impairment of bone metabolism in F3 adult fish. A decrease in bone thickness and the occurrence of microcracks in ancestrally BaP-treated adult male fish (F3) were revealed by MicroCt measurement and histopathological analysis...
December 23, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059593/clinical-relevance-of-epigenetics-in-the-onset-and-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Linda Sommese, Alberto Zullo, Francesco Paolo Mancini, Rossella Fabbricini, Andrea Soricelli, Claudio Napoli
Epigenetics is involved in the altered expression of gene networks that underlie insulin resistance and insufficiency. Major genes controlling β-cell differentiation and function, such as PAX4, PDX1, and GLP1 receptor, are epigenetically controlled. Epigenetics can cause insulin resistance through immunomediated pro-inflammatory actions related to several factors, such as NF-kB, osteopontin, and Toll-like receptors. Hereafter, we provide a critical and comprehensive summary on this topic with a particular emphasis on translational and clinical aspects...
January 6, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057214/chromatin-remodeling-and-plant-immunity
#14
W Chen, Q Zhu, Y Liu, Q Zhang
Chromatin remodeling, an important facet of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, is performed by two major types of multisubunit complexes, covalent histone- or DNA-modifying complexes, and ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes. Snf2 family DNA-dependent ATPases constitute the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes, which accounts for energy supply during chromatin remodeling. Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of chromatin remodeling in the establishment of long-lasting, even transgenerational immune memory in plants, which is supported by the findings that DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and histone methylation can prime the promoters of immune-related genes required for disease defense...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051947/early-life-effects-on-adult-physical-activity-concepts-relevance-and-experimental-approaches
#15
Theodore Garland, Marcell D Cadney, Robert A Waterland
Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment)...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051176/transgenerational-epimutations-induced-by-multi-generation-drought-imposition-mediate-rice-plant-s-adaptation-to-drought-condition
#16
Xiaoguo Zheng, Liang Chen, Hui Xia, Haibin Wei, Qiaojun Lou, Mingshou Li, Tiemei Li, Lijun Luo
Epigenetic mechanisms are crucial mediators of appropriate plant reactions to adverse environments, but their involvement in long-term adaptation is less clear. Here, we established two rice epimutation accumulation lines by applying drought conditions to 11 successive generations of two rice varieties. We took advantage of recent technical advances to examine the role of DNA methylation variations on rice adaptation to drought stress. We found that multi-generational drought improved the drought adaptability of offspring in upland fields...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050628/epigenetic-modifications-and-reprogramming-in-paternal-pronucleus-sperm-preimplantation-embryo-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Yuki Okada, Kosuke Yamaguchi
Pronuclear/zygotic stage is the very first stage of life. In this period, paternal pronucleus undergoes massive chromatin remodeling called "paternal reprogramming" including protamine-histone replacement and subsequent acquisition of epigenetic modifications. Although these consecutive events are required for the initiation of maternal-zygotic transition, the precise role of paternal reprogramming and its effect on subsequent embryonic development has been largely unknown to date. Recently, various new techniques, especially next-generation sequencing (NGS) and RNAi microinjection contribute to unveil the epigenetic transition from both paternal and maternal to early preimplantation embryos, suggesting not only the simple transcriptional regulation by transcription factors but also dynamic structural alteration of chromatin to initiate the wave of zygotic gene transcription...
January 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035341/stage-dependent-nutritional-regulation-of-transgenerational-longevity
#18
Ilianna G Roussou, Charalambos Savakis, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Athanasios Metaxakis
BACKGROUND: Statistical analyses in human populations have associated limited food availability during development with increased longevity of next generations. In support, recent findings in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed nutritional effects on transgenerational longevity. OBJECTIVES: In this study we tested the effect of nutrition on longevity of future generations in Drosophila and whether this is sex-specific. METHODS: We reared male larvae and adults of Drosophila under different food conditions and performed lifespan analyses in F2 generation...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033505/transgenerational-transmission-of-an-anticholinergic-endophenotype-with-memory-dysfunction
#19
Wolfram Doehner, Lieselotte Praße, James Wolpers, Martina K Brückner, Uwe Ueberham, Thomas Arendt
Impaired cholinergic neurotransmission associated with cognitive dysfunction occurs in various mental disorders of different etiologies including Alzheimer's disease and postalcoholic dementia and others. To address the question whether there exists a common endophenotype with a defined genetic and/or epigenetic signature causing mental dysfunction in these disorders, we investigated 2 generations of offspring born to alcohol-treated mothers. Here, we show that memory impairment and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine occurs in both F1 (exposed to ethanol in utero) and F2 generation (never been exposed to ethanol)...
December 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018290/effects-of-chronic-social-stress-and-maternal-intranasal-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-on-offspring-interferon-%C3%AE-and-behavior
#20
Christopher A Murgatroyd, Alexandria Hicks-Nelson, Alexandria Fink, Gillian Beamer, Kursat Gurel, Fawzy Elnady, Florent Pittet, Benjamin C Nephew
Recent studies support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of early-life adversity and transgenerational stress on neural plasticity and behavior are mediated by inflammation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the immune and behavioral programing effects of intranasal (IN) vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) treatment of chronic social stress (CSS)-exposed F1 dams on F2 juvenile female offspring. It was hypothesized that maternal AVP and OXT treatment would have preventative effects on social stress-induced deficits in offspring anxiety and social behavior and that these effects would be associated with changes in interferon-γ (IFNγ)...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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