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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931731/paternal-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-status-affects-dna-methylation-in-seeds
#1
Sandra Varga, Carl D Soulsbury
Most land plants grow in association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in their roots and these fungi can cause transgenerational effects on plants' offspring. These may be caused by changes in DNA methylation of the offspring. In this study, we compared the amount of global DNA methylation in seeds of the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum in relation to the gender and the AMF status of the parents producing the seeds. The amount of DNA methylated was positively related to seed mass. Seeds produced by females had a similar proportion of methylated DNA regardless of the AMF status of the father siring the seed...
September 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931070/atrazine-induced-epigenetic-transgenerational-inheritance-of-disease-lean-phenotype-and-sperm-epimutation-pathology-biomarkers
#2
Margaux McBirney, Stephanie E King, Michelle Pappalardo, Elizabeth Houser, Margaret Unkefer, Eric Nilsson, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Daniel Beck, Paul Winchester, Michael K Skinner
Ancestral environmental exposures to a variety of environmental toxicants and other factors have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The current study examined the potential transgenerational actions of the herbicide atrazine. Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides in the agricultural industry, in particular with corn and soy crops. Outbred gestating female rats were transiently exposed to a vehicle control or atrazine. The F1 generation offspring were bred to generate the F2 generation and then the F2 generation bred to generate the F3 generation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930553/fetal-nucleic-acids-in-maternal-plasma-from-biology-to-clinical-translation
#3
Neha Bunkar, Arpit Bhargava, Koel Chaudhury, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Nirmal Kumar Lohiya, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
Exposure to environmental contaminants during the critical window of pregnancy results in deregulation of highly coordinated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in prenatal growth. Such disturbances significantly alter the fetal programming, and lead to various developmental disorders immediately, over the lifetime, or transgenerationally. During the process of placental development, fetal nucleic acids enter maternal plasma as a result of necrotic, apoptotic, and inflammatory mechanisms. These nucleic acids reflect normal or abnormal ongoing cellular changes during prenatal fetal development...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928038/reach-and-effectiveness-of-the-national-diabetes-prevention-program-for-young-women
#4
Natalie D Ritchie, Katherine A Sauder, Stefka Fabbri
INTRODUCTION: Reducing obesity and diabetes risks among women of child-bearing age is urgently needed to halt the transgenerational cycle of disease. Interventions among pregnant women have largely been ineffective and may be initiated too late to improve maternal and child health. The National Diabetes Prevention Program is a widely disseminated lifestyle intervention that may help mitigate risks before pregnancy. However, the program has targeted relatively older adults, and effectiveness among women of child-bearing age remains largely unknown...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924262/prenatal-glucocorticoid-exposure-modifies-endocrine-function-and-behaviour-for-3-generations-following-maternal-and-paternal-transmission
#5
Vasilis G Moisiadis, Andrea Constantinof, Alisa Kostaki, Moshe Szyf, Stephen G Matthews
Fetal exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids programs long-term changes in the physiologic stress response and behaviours. However, it is not known whether effects manifest in subsequent generations of offspring following maternal (MT) or paternal (PT) transmission. We treated pregnant guinea pigs with three courses of saline or synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) at a clinically relevant dose. Altered cortisol response to stress and behaviours transmitted to juvenile female and male F2 and F3 offspring from both parental lines...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922932/racial-disparities-in-the-transgenerational-transmission-of-low-birthweight-risk
#6
Collette N Ncube, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Jessica G Burke, Feifei Ye, John Marx, Steven M Albert
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of maternal low birthweight (LBW) with infant LBW and infant LBW subgroups (i.e. moderate and very LBW), overall and among non-Hispanic (NH) white and NH black mothers. DESIGN: We conducted a population-based cohort study in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using linked birth record data of NH white and NH black mother-infant pairs (N = 6,633) born in 1979-1998 and 2009-2011, respectively. The exposure of interest was maternal LBW (birthweight <2500 grams) while the outcomes were infant LBW and LBW subgroups - moderate LBW (1,500-2,499 grams) or very LBW (<1,500 grams)...
September 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916718/potential-sperm-contributions-to-the-murine-zygote-predicted-by-in-silico-analysis
#7
Panagiotis Ntostis, Deborah Carter, David Iles, J D Huntriss, Maria Tzetis, David Miller
Paternal contributions to the zygote are thought to extend beyond delivery of the genome and paternal RNAs have been linked to epigenetic transgenerational inheritance in different species. In addition, sperm-egg fusion activates several downstream processes that contribute to zygote formation, including PLC zeta-mediated egg activation and maternal RNA clearance. Since a third of the preimplantation developmental period in the mouse occurs prior to the first cleavage stage, there is ample time for paternal RNAs or their encoded proteins potentially to interact and participate in early zygotic activities...
September 15, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912738/prejudice-and-health-anxiety-about-radiation-exposure-from-second-generation-atomic-bomb-survivors-results-from-a-qualitative-interview-study
#8
Yuka Kamite
The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors' (SGS) psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS' experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900271/transgenerational-exposure-of-north-atlantic-bivalves-to-ocean-acidification-renders-offspring-more-vulnerable-to-low-ph-and-additional-stressors
#9
Andrew W Griffith, Christopher J Gobler
While early life-stage marine bivalves are vulnerable to ocean acidification, effects over successive generations are poorly characterized. The objective of this work was to assess the transgenerational effects of ocean acidification on two species of North Atlantic bivalve shellfish, Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians. Adults of both species were subjected to high and low pCO2 conditions during gametogenesis. Resultant larvae were exposed to low and ambient pH conditions in addition to multiple, additional stressors including thermal stress, food-limitation, and exposure to a harmful alga...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898977/from-the-cover-metabolomics-reveals-a-role-of-betaine-in-prenatal-dbp-exposure-induced-epigenetic-transgenerational-failure-of-spermatogenesis-in-rats
#10
Beilei Yuan, Wei Wu, Minjian Chen, Hao Gu, Qiuqin Tang, Dan Guo, Ting Chen, Yiqiu Chen, Chuncheng Lu, Ling Song, Yankai Xia, Daozhen Chen, Virender K Rehan, Jiahao Sha, Xinru Wang
There is increasing concern that early-life exposure to endocrine disruptors affects male offspring reproduction. However, whether di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used endocrine disruptor, has transgenerational effects and, if so, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. In our study, 5 of time-mated pregnant SD rats were exposed to 0 and 500 mg/kg DBP with corn oil as the vehicle via oral gavage from embryonic days (E8-E14). Epigenetic and metabolomic of testis were analyzed after post-natal 60 days...
August 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895918/trauma-affecting-asian-pacific-islanders-in-the-san-francisco-bay-area
#11
Pollie Bith-Melander, Nagia Chowdhury, Charulata Jindal, Jimmy T Efird
Trauma is a transgenerational process that overwhelms the community and the ability of family members to cope with life stressors. An anthropologist trained in ethnographic methods observed three focus groups from a non-profit agency providing trauma and mental health services to Asian Americans living in the San Francisco Bay Area of United States. Supplemental information also was collected from staff interviews and notes. Many of the clients were immigrants, refugees, or adult children of these groups. This report consisted of authentic observations and rich qualitative information to characterize the impact of trauma on refugees and immigrants...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892785/parental-gamma-irradiation-induces-reprotoxic-effects-accompanied-by-genomic-instability-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos
#12
Selma Hurem, Tânia Gomes, Dag A Brede, Elisabeth Lindbo Hansen, Stephen Mutoloki, Cristian Fernandez, Carmel Mothersill, Brit Salbu, Yetneberk A Kassaye, Ann-Karin Olsen, Deborah Oughton, Peter Aleström, Jan L Lyche
Gamma radiation represents a potential health risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota, due to its ability to ionize atoms and molecules in living tissues. The effects of exposure to (60)Co gamma radiation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) were studied during two sensitive life stages: gametogenesis (F0: 53 and 8.7mGy/h for 27 days, total doses 31 and 5.2Gy) and embryogenesis (9.6mGy/h for 65h; total dose 0.62Gy). Progeny of F0 exposed to 53mGy/h showed 100% mortality occurring at the gastrulation stage corresponding to 8h post fertilization (hpf)...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892281/transgenerational-and-developmental-plasticity-at-the-molecular-level-lessons-from-daphnia
#13
Alison M Bell, Laura R Stein
Listen to the news and you are bound to hear that researchers are increasingly interested in the biological manifestations of trauma that reverberate through the generations. Research in this area can be controversial in the public realm, provoking societal issues about personal responsibility (are we really born free or are we born with the burden of our ancestors' experience?). It is also a touchy subject within evolutionary biology because it provokes concerns about Lamarckianism and general scepticism about the importance of extra-genetic inheritance (Laland et al...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884077/environmentally-toxicant-exposures-induced-intragenerational-transmission-of-liver-abnormalities-in-mice
#14
Mohamed A Al-Griw, Soad A Treesh, Rabia O Alghazeer, Sassia O Regeai
Environmental toxicants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and pesticides have been shown to promote transgenerational inheritance of abnormal phenotypes and/or diseases to multiple subsequent generations following parental and/or ancestral exposures. This study was designed to examine the potential transgenerational action of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE) on transmission of liver abnormality, and to elucidate the molecular etiology of hepatocyte cell damage. A total of thirty two healthy immature female albino mice were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: a sham group, which did not receive any treatment; a vehicle group, which received corn oil alone, and TCE treated group (3 weeks, 100 μg/kg i...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883978/sanitation-for-all-the-global-opportunity-to-increase-transgenerational-health-gains-and-better-understand-the-link-between-ncds-and-ntds-a-scoping-review
#15
REVIEW
Shiva Raj Mishra, Meghnath Dhimal, Parash Mani Bhandari, Bipin Adhikari
The global sanitation divide is narrowing. However, in many countries in Asia and Africa, the gap between rural and urban sanitation coverage is rather widening. Moreover, there is an increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), notwithstanding to the already high burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). A scientific query is building on how the global 'sanitation for all' goal will address the dual burden of NTDs and NCDs, and help further understand the link between the two. This paper aims to discuss the link between i) sanitation and NTDs, and ii) sanitation and NCDs through a scoping review of the literature...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877596/what-the-human-sperm-methylome-tells-us
#16
Cristina Camprubí, Riccardo Aiese Cigliano, Albert Salas-Huetos, Nicolas Garrido, Joan Blanco
AIM: To characterize the sperm methylome in semen samples from 19 donors with proven fertility. MATERIALS & METHODS: Bisulfite-converted sperm DNA was hybridized on the HumanMethylation450 Infinium BeadChip platform. CpG fluorescence intensities were extracted and converted to β-values. RESULTS: The sperm methylome is highly homogeneous and hypomethylated. Genes with hypomethylated promoters are ontologically associated to biological functions related to spermatogenesis and embryogenesis...
September 7, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876910/dynamic-transgenerational-fate-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-dioxins-furans-in-lactating-cows-and-their-offspring
#17
Christian Bogdal, Selina Züst, Peter Schmid, Tenzing Gyalpo, Anicia Zeberli, Konrad Hungerbühler, Markus Zennegg
We report on two farms in Switzerland heavily contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins (PCDD/Fs), occurring in the first case from diffuse sources and in the second case from PCB-containing wall paint. Extensive measurements of PCBs and PCDD/Fs on site (soil, forage, and paint) and in cattle (blood, fat, and milk) allowed validation of our novel dynamic toxicokinetic model, which includes the transfer of contaminants from the mother cows to their suckling calf and the uptake of soil by grazing cattle...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867213/transgenerational-pancreatic-impairment-with-igf2-h19-epigenetic-alteration-induced-by-p-p-dde-exposure-in-early-life
#18
Yang Song, Lei Yang
The hypothesis of fetal origins indicates that exposures in early development could induce epigenetic modifications in the male germ-line, affecting the susceptibility of adult-onset disease for generations. p,p'-DDE, the primary metabolite of persistent organochlorine pesticide DDT, is highly correlated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and a strong contributing factor to type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, ancestral p,p'-DDE exposure could induce transgenerational impaired male fertility with sperm Igf2 hypomethylation...
September 1, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855720/side-effects-of-pesticides-on-the-generalist-endoparasitoid-palmistichus-elaeisis-hymenoptera-eulophidae
#19
Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, José Cola Zanuncio, Mabio Chrisley Lacerda, Carlos Frederico Wilcken, Flávio Lemes Fernandes, Wagner de Souza Tavares, Marcus Alvarenga Soares, Carlos Sigueyuki Sediyama
New plant protection strategies focus on minimizing chemical pesticide use and increasing their compatibility with biological control agents. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate, diflubenzuron, malathion, tebuconazole and triflumuron (at 720, 45, 400, 150 and 20 g ai ha(-1), respectively), pesticides authorized for soybean crops in Brazil, on the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) reared on Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The emergence and female numbers produced per P...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844887/metabolic-epigenetic-and-transgenerational-effects-of-gut-bacterial-choline-consumption
#20
Kymberleigh A Romano, Ana Martinez-Del Campo, Kazuyuki Kasahara, Carina L Chittim, Eugenio I Vivas, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Emily P Balskus, Federico E Rey
Choline is an essential nutrient and methyl donor required for epigenetic regulation. Here, we assessed the impact of gut microbial choline metabolism on bacterial fitness and host biology by engineering a microbial community that lacks a single choline-utilizing enzyme. Our results indicate that choline-utilizing bacteria compete with the host for this nutrient, significantly impacting plasma and hepatic levels of methyl-donor metabolites and recapitulating biochemical signatures of choline deficiency. Mice harboring high levels of choline-consuming bacteria showed increased susceptibility to metabolic disease in the context of a high-fat diet...
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
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