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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769721/spatiotemporal-regulation-of-liquid-like-condensates-in-epigenetic-inheritance
#1
Gang Wan, Brandon D Fields, George Spracklin, Aditi Shukla, Carolyn M Phillips, Scott Kennedy
Non-membrane-bound organelles such as nucleoli, processing bodies, Cajal bodies and germ granules form by the spontaneous self-assembly of specific proteins and RNAs. How these biomolecular condensates form and interact is poorly understood. Here we identify two proteins, ZNFX-1 and WAGO-4, that localize to Caenorhabditis elegans germ granules (P granules) in early germline blastomeres. Later in germline development, ZNFX-1 and WAGO-4 separate from P granules to define an independent liquid-like condensate that we term the Z granule...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768613/helplessness-experienced-by-adolescent-mothers-and-pregnant-adolescents-sheltered-in-institutions
#2
Paula Orchiucci Miura, Leila Salomão de La Plata Cury Tardivo, Dora Mariela Salcedo Barrientos
The experience of helplessness or abandonment during pregnancy affects the emotional state of women, hindering their disposition in taking care of themselves and their baby. The aim of this study was to understand the emotional experience arising from intra-family violence experienced by institutionally sheltered adolescent mothers and pregnant adolescents. This study is exploratory, descriptive, clinical and qualitive. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a psychologist from the institution and with six adolescents in the institution: one pregnant girl and five mothers...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764658/transgenerational-effects-of-insecticides-implications-for-rapid-pest-evolution-in-agroecosystems
#3
REVIEW
Kristian Brevik, Leena Lindström, Stephanie D McKay, Yolanda H Chen
Although pesticides are a major selective force in driving the evolution of insect pests, the evolutionary processes that give rise to insecticide resistance remain poorly understood. Insecticide resistance has been widely observed to increase with frequent and intense insecticide exposure, but can be lost following the relaxation of insecticide use. One possible but rarely explored explanation is that insecticide resistance may be associated with epigenetic modifications, which influence the patterning of gene expression without changing underlying DNA sequence...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761415/effects-of-genetic-distance-on-heterosis-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-model-system
#4
Charlotte Jensen, Michael Ørsted, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen
Habitat fragmentation and small population sizes can lead to inbreeding and loss of genetic variation, which can potentially cause inbreeding depression and decrease the ability of populations to adapt to altered environmental conditions. One solution to these genetic problems is the implementation of genetic rescue, which re-establishes gene flow between separated populations. Similar techniques are being used in animal and plant breeding to produce superior production animals and plants. To optimize fitness benefits in genetic rescue programs and to secure high yielding domestic varieties in animal and plant breeding, knowledge on the genetic relatedness of populations being crossed is imperative...
May 14, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757283/protocol-for-acute-and-chronic-ecotoxicity-testing-of-the-turquoise-killifish-nothobranchius-furzeri
#5
Charlotte Philippe, Arnout F Gregoir, Eli S J Thoré, Gudrun De Boeck, Luc Brendonck, Tom Pinceel
The killifish Nothobranchius furzeri is an emerging model organism in the field of ecotoxicology and its applicability in acute and chronic ecotoxicity testing has been demonstrated. Overall, the sensitivity of the species to toxic compounds is in the range with, or higher than, that of other model species. This work describes protocols for acute, chronic, and multigenerational bioassays of single and combined stressor effects on N. furzeri. Due to its short maturation time and life-cycle, this vertebrate model allows the study of endpoints such as maturation time and fecundity within four months...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750268/inferring-and-modeling-inheritance-of-differentially-methylated-changes-across-multiple-generations
#6
Pascal Belleau, Astrid Deschênes, Marie-Pier Scott-Boyer, Mathieu Dalvai, Janice Bailey, Arnaud Droit
High-throughput methylation sequencing enables genome-wide detection of differentially methylated sites (DMS) or regions (DMR). Increasing evidence suggests that treatment-induced DMS can be transmitted across generations, but the analysis of induced methylation changes across multiple generations is complicated by the lack of sound statistical methods to evaluate significance levels. Due to software design, DMS detection was usually made on each generation separately, thus disregarding stochastic effects expected when a large number of DMS is detected in each generation...
May 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745724/radiosensitivity-and-transgenerational-effects-in-non-human-species
#7
C Adam-Guillermin, T Hertal-Aas, D Oughton, L Blanchard, F Alonzo, O Armant, N Horemans
The ALLIANCE working group on effects of ionising radiation on wildlife brings together European researchers to work on the topics of radiosensitivity and transgenerational effects in non-human biota. Differences in radiation sensitivity across species and phyla are poorly understood, but have important implications for understanding the overall effects of radiation and for radiation protection; for example, sensitive species may require special attention in monitoring and radiation protection, and differences in sensitivity between species also lead to overall effects at higher levels (community, ecosystem), since interactions between species can be altered...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741588/paternal-developmental-toxicant-exposure-is-associated-with-epigenetic-modulation-of-sperm-and-placental-pgr-and-igf2-in-a-mouse-model
#8
Tianbing Ding, Shilpa Mokshagundam, Paolo F Rinaudo, Kevin G Osteen, Kaylon L Bruner-Tran
Preterm birth (PTB), parturition prior to 37 weeks gestation, is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. The causes of spontaneous PTB are poorly understood; however, recent studies suggest this condition may arise as a consequence of the parental fetal environment. Specifically, we previously demonstrated that developmental exposure of male mice (F1 animals) to the environmental endocrine disruptor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with reduced sperm quantity/quality in adulthood and control female partners frequently delivered preterm...
May 7, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738444/the-effects-of-trauma-with-or-without-ptsd-on-the-transgenerational-dna-methylation-alterations-in-human-offsprings
#9
REVIEW
Nagy A Youssef, Laura Lockwood, Shaoyong Su, Guang Hao, Bart P F Rutten
Exposure to psychological trauma is a strong risk factor for several debilitating disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Besides the impact on mental well-being and behavior in the exposed individuals, it has been suggested that psychological trauma can affect the biology of the individuals, and even have biological and behavioral consequences on the offspring of exposed individuals. While knowledge of possible epigenetic underpinnings of the association between exposure to trauma and risk of PTSD has been discussed in several reviews, it remains to be established whether trauma-induced epigenetic modifications can be passed from traumatized individuals to subsequent generations of offspring...
May 8, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734028/environmental-hormesis-and-its-fundamental-biological-basis-rewriting-the-history-of-toxicology
#10
REVIEW
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Edward J Calabrese
It has long been debated whether a little stress may be "good" for you. Extensive evidence has now sufficiently accumulated demonstrating that low doses of a vast range of chemical and physical agents induce protective/beneficial effects while the opposite occurs at higher doses, a phenomenon known as hormesis. Low doses of environmental agents have recently induced autophagy, a critical adaptive response that protects essentially all cell types, as well as being transgenerational via epigenetic mechanisms...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733421/chemotherapeutic-drugs-alter-functional-properties-and-proteome-of-mouse-testicular-germ-cells-in-vitro
#11
Polash Chandra Karmakar, Yeon-Jin Cho, Yong-Hee Kim, Sang-Eun Jung, Ju-Hee Jin, Bang-Jin Kim, Woo-Sung Kwon, Young-Hyun Kim, Myung-Geol Pang, Buom-Yong Ryu
Many of the testicular cancer-survived patients, treated with chemotherapeutic drugs, show infertility, preimplantation and postimplantation loss, and germ cell abnormality. Studies examining the negative effects of chemotherapeutic drugs on testicular germ cells are ongoing; however, information on the stemness properties and proteomic profiles of these cells are lacking. The present study investigated the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs etoposide, cisplatin, bleomycin, and their combination (BEP) on the physiology and stem cell activity of mouse germ cells in vitro...
April 27, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732173/alterations-in-sperm-dna-methylation-non-coding-rna-expression-and-histone-retention-mediate-vinclozolin-induced-epigenetic-transgenerational-inheritance-of-disease
#12
Millissia Ben Maamar, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Daniel Beck, Margaux McBirney, Eric Nilsson, Rachel Klukovich, Yeming Xie, Chong Tang, Wei Yan, Michael K Skinner
Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation can be induced by several toxicants, such as vinclozolin. This phenomenon can involve DNA methylation, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and histone retention, and/or modification in the germline (e.g. sperm). These different epigenetic marks are called epimutations and can transmit in part the transgenerational phenotypes. This study was designed to investigate the vinclozolin-induced concurrent alterations of a number of different epigenetic factors, including DNA methylation, ncRNA, and histone retention in rat sperm...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732172/transgenerational-epigenetic-inheritance-in-birds
#13
REVIEW
Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna, Mireille Morisson, Laurence Liaubet, T Bas Rodenburg, Elske N de Haas, Ľubor Košťál, Frédérique Pitel
While it has been shown that epigenetics accounts for a portion of the variability of complex traits linked to interactions with the environment, the real contribution of epigenetics to phenotypic variation remains to be assessed. In recent years, a growing number of studies have revealed that epigenetic modifications can be transmitted across generations in several animal species. Numerous studies have demonstrated inter- or multi-generational effects of changing environment in birds, but very few studies have been published showing epigenetic transgenerational inheritance in these species...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732171/pohad-why-we-should-study-future-fathers
#14
Adelheid Soubry
The growing field of 'Developmental Origin of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) generally reflects environmental influences from mother to child. The importance of maternal lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures before and during gestation period is well recognized. However, few epidemiological designs explore potential influences from the paternal environment on offspring health. This is surprising given that numerous animal models have provided evidence that the paternal environment plays a role in a non-genetic inheritance of pre-conceptional exposures through the male germ line...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731155/understanding-the-mechanisms-of-transgenerational-mental-health-impacts-in-refugees
#15
Grant Sara, Peter Brann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727808/an-investigation-of-the-mentalization-based-model-of-borderline-pathology-in-adolescents
#16
Jeremy Quek, Clair Bennett, Glenn A Melvin, Naysun Saeedi, Michael S Gordon, Louise K Newman
OBJECTIVE: According to mentalization-based theory, transgenerational transmission of mentalization from caregiver to offspring is implicated in the pathogenesis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent research has demonstrated an association between hypermentalizing (excessive, inaccurate mental state reasoning) and BPD, indicating the particular relevance of this form of mentalizing dysfunction to the transgenerational mentalization-based model. As yet, no study has empirically assessed a transgenerational mentalization-based model of BPD...
April 14, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727470/transgenerational-epigenetics-inheritance-of-global-cytosine-methylation-and-methylation-related-epigenetic-markers-in-the-shrub-lavandula-latifolia
#17
Carlos M Herrera, Conchita Alonso, Mónica Medrano, Ricardo Pérez, Pilar Bazaga
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The ecological and evolutionary significance of natural epigenetic variation (i.e., not based on DNA sequence variants) variation will depend critically on whether epigenetic states are transmitted from parents to offspring, but little is known on epigenetic inheritance in nonmodel plants. METHODS: We present a quantitative analysis of transgenerational transmission of global DNA cytosine methylation (= proportion of all genomic cytosines that are methylated) and individual epigenetic markers (= methylation status of anonymous MSAP markers) in the shrub Lavandula latifolia...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722828/ros-and-redox-balance-as-multifaceted-players-of-cross-tolerance-epigenetic-and-retrograde-control-of-gene-expression
#18
V Locato, S Cimini, L De Gara
This review provides an update of the plant redox signalling network implicated in stress responses, in particular in cross-tolerance acquisition. The interplay between reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS-derived signals and antioxidative pathways is discussed in plant acclimation to stress at short and long term. Retrograde pathways occurring between chloroplasts, mitochondria and nucleus involve oxidative and antioxidative signals that, working in a synergistic or antagonistic mode, control the expression of specific patterns of genes following stress perception...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710633/endocrine-disruptors-in-breeding-ponds-and-reproductive-health-of-toads-in-agricultural-urban-and-natural-landscapes
#19
Veronika Bókony, Bálint Üveges, Nikolett Ujhegyi, Viktória Verebélyi, Edina Nemesházi, Olivér Csíkvári, Attila Hettyey
Many chemical pollutants have endocrine disrupting effects which can cause lifelong reproductive abnormalities in animals. Amphibians are the most threatened group of vertebrates, but there is little information on the nature and quantity of pollutants occurring in typical amphibian breeding habitats and on the reproductive capacities of amphibian populations inhabiting polluted areas. In this study we investigated the occurrence and concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals in the water and sediment of under-studied amphibian breeding habitats in natural, agricultural and urbanized landscapes...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708895/offspring-of-parents-with-mood-disorders-time-for-more-transgenerational-research-screening-and-preventive-intervention-for-this-high-risk-population
#20
Dominique Maciejewski, Manon Hillegers, Brenda Penninx
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Offspring of parents with mood disorders (major depressive and bipolar disorder) are at increased risk for developing mood disorders. In this review, an overview regarding the intergenerational transmission of mood disorders, screening, and preventive intervention is given for this vulnerable group. RECENT FINDINGS: Offspring of parents with depression have a 40% chance of developing a depression, whereas offspring of parents with bipolar disorder have a 10% chance of developing a bipolar disorder by adulthood...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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