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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741144/tobacco-use-and-smoke-exposure-in-children-new-trends-harm-and-strategies-to-improve-health-outcomes
#1
REVIEW
Luv D Makadia, P Jervey Roper, Jeannette O Andrews, Martha S Tingen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Every day in the USA, approximately 4000 adolescents begin smoking and the adolescent brain is particularly susceptible to nicotine addiction. We present current pediatric trends on tobacco use and exposures, various new products used by adolescents, the adverse biological and behavioral effects of tobacco use and exposures, and tobacco control strategies to eliminate tobacco-related illnesses and deaths in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Twelve-20% of women continue to smoke during pregnancy...
August 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737706/redox-properties-of-tryptophan-metabolism-and-the-concept-of-tryptophan-use-in-pregnancy
#2
REVIEW
Kang Xu, Hongnan Liu, Miaomiao Bai, Jing Gao, Xin Wu, Yulong Yin
During pregnancy, tryptophan (Trp) is required for several purposes, and Trp metabolism varies over time in the mother and fetus. Increased oxidative stress (OS) with high metabolic, energy and oxygen demands during normal pregnancy or in pregnancy-associated disorders has been reported. Taking the antioxidant properties of Trp and its metabolites into consideration, we made four hypotheses. First, the use of Trp and its metabolites is optional based on their antioxidant properties during pregnancy. Second, dynamic Trp metabolism is an accommodation mechanism in response to OS...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734254/childhood-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-pbde-exposure-and-neurobehavior-in-children-at-8-years
#3
Ann M Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Changchun Xie, Glenys M Webster, Andreas Sjödin, Joseph M Braun, Kim N Dietrich, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure has been associated with decrements in IQ and increased attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder related behaviors in children; however, data are limited for the role of postnatal exposures. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between a series of childhood PBDE concentrations and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and externalizing problems at 8 years. METHODS: We used data from 208 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733891/consequences-of-bisphenol-a-perinatal-exposure-on-immune-responses-and-gut-barrier-function-in-mice
#4
Yann Malaisé, Sandrine Ménard, Christel Cartier, Corinne Lencina, Caroline Sommer, Eric Gaultier, Eric Houdeau, Laurence Guzylack-Piriou
The potent immunomodulatory effect of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A during development and consequences during life span are of increasing concern. Particular interests have been raised from animal studies regarding the risk of developing food intolerance and infection. We aimed to identify immune disorders in mice triggered by perinatal exposure to bisphenol A. Gravid mice were orally exposed to bisphenol (50 μg/kg body weight/day) from day 15 of pregnancy until weaning. Gut barrier function, local and systemic immunity were assessed in adult female offspring...
July 21, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729012/evidence-that-children-born-at-early-term-37-38-6-7-weeks-are-at-increased-risk-for-diabetes-and-obesity-related-disorders
#5
Dorit Paz Levy, Eyal Sheiner, Tamar Wainstock, Ruslan Sergienko, Daniella Landau, Asnat Walfisch
BACKGROUND: Prematurity is known to be associated with high rates of endocrine and metabolic complications in the offspring. Early term (37 0/7-38 6/7 weeks' gestation) born offspring were also shown to exhibit long term morbidity resembling that of late preterm, in several health categories. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether early term delivery impacts on the long-term endocrine and metabolic health of the offspring. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort analysis was performed, including all term singleton deliveries occurring during 1991-2013 at a single regional tertiary medical center...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722160/placental-proteomics-reveal-insights-into-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#6
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Sebastian Berger, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Heewon Seo, Greg A Johnson, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects of alcohol on the maternal-fetal interface, especially the placenta, have been less explored. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy significantly alters the placental protein profile in a rat FASD model METHODS: Pregnant rats were orogastrically treated daily with alcohol (4.5 g/kg, gestational day (GD) 5-10; 6...
July 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721102/vulvar-varicosities-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention
#7
Sergey G Gavrilov
OBJECTIVE: Vulvar varicosity is a relatively common venous disorder in women with varicose veins of the pelvis and lower extremities and in pregnant women, but there is little information in the medical literature concerning its diagnosis and management. The aim of this study was to describe our experience with 101 women with vulvar varicosities who were examined and treated at our center during 2000-2014. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 with 61 women with varicose veins of the pelvis and enlarged vulvar veins, and group 2 with 40 pregnant women (11-38 weeks of pregnancy) with vulvar varicosities...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715959/preeclampsia-and-maternal-risk-of-breast-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#8
Meizhen Sun, Yongling Fan, Yuanyuan Hou, Yanyan Fan
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, including preeclampsia (PE) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), may influence the maternal risk of breast cancer. However, results of the cohort studies were inconsistent. METHODS: An updated meta-analysis of cohort studies was performed to evaluate the association between PE, PIH and maternal breast cancer incidence. Relevant studies were identified via searching of PubMed and Embase databases. A random effect model was applied to synthesize the results...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714660/maternal-mortality-in-the-developed-world-a-review-of-surveillance-methods-levels-and-causes-of-maternal-deaths-during-2006-2010
#9
Andreea A Creanga
This article provides an overview of surveillance methods, levels, and causes of maternal mortality in developed countries (Europe and the United States) during 2006-2010. Accurate identification of maternal deaths is not always possible, and no two countries in the world use the same surveillance methods for maternal mortality. Despite limitations (underestimation, missclassification), routine vital registration systems are the backbone of maternal mortality surveillance systems in developed countries. Enhanced surveillance methods involve linkages between deaths of women of reproductive age and births within the preceding year, or the use of additional data sources for maternal deaths...
July 17, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714607/new-insights-into-how-serotonin-selective-reuptake-inhibitors-shape-the-developing-brain
#10
REVIEW
Jay A Gingrich, Heli Malm, Mark S Ansorge, Alan Brown, Andre Sourander, Deepika Suri, Cátia M Teixeira, Martha K Caffrey Cagliostro, Darshini Mahadevia, Myrna M Weissman
Development passes through sensitive periods, during which plasticity allows for genetic and environmental factors to exert indelible influence on the maturation of the organism. In the context of central nervous system (CNS) development, such sensitive periods shape the formation of neuro-circuits that mediate, regulate, and control behavior. This general mechanism allows for development to be guided by both the genetic blueprint, as well as the environmental context. While allowing for adaptation, such sensitive periods are also windows of vulnerability during which external and internal factors can confer risk to brain disorders by derailing adaptive developmental programs...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713594/small-molecule-big-prospects-microrna-in-pregnancy-and-its-complications
#11
REVIEW
Meng Cai, Gopi K Kolluru, Asif Ahmed
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression in the posttranscriptional level. Unlike siRNA, microRNAs are "fine-tuners" rather than "switches" in the regulation of gene expression; thus they play key roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis. The aberrant microRNA expression is implicated in the disease process. To date, numerous studies have demonstrated the regulatory roles of microRNAs in various pathophysiological conditions. In contrast, the study of microRNA in pregnancy and its associated complications, such as preeclampsia (PE), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and preterm labor, is a young field...
2017: Journal of Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712189/maternal-mortality-in-pakistan-is-there-any-metamorphosis-towards-betterment
#12
Nusrat Nisar, Razia Mustafa Abbasi, Shehla Raza Chana, Noushaba Rizwan, Razia Badar
BACKGROUND: Every year more than half million mother die due to pregnancy related preventable causes like haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis, and obstructed labour and unsafe abortion. Among these deaths 99% occur in developing countries. The study was conducted to assess the maternal death rate and to analyse its trends over a period of 20 years in tertiary care hospital in Sindh Province Pakistan. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of maternal mortality records were carried out for a period of 20 years from 1986-1995 and 2011-2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and gynaecology Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hyderabad Sindh Pakistan...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709727/consensus-bundle-on-severe-hypertension-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum-period
#13
Peter S Bernstein, James N Martin, John R Barton, Laurence E Shields, Maurice L Druzin, Barbara M Scavone, Jennifer Frost, Christine H Morton, Catherine Ruhl, Joan Slager, Eleni Z Tsigas, Sara Jaffer, M Kathryn Menard
Complications arising from hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are among the leading causes of preventable severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Timely and appropriate treatment has the potential to significantly reduce hypertension-related complications. To assist health care providers in achieving this goal, this patient safety bundle provides guidance to coordinate and standardize the care provided to women with severe hypertension during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This is one of several patient safety bundles developed by multidisciplinary work groups of the National Partnership for Maternal Safety under the guidance of the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705740/proteomics-analysis-of-human-placenta-reveals-glutathione-metabolism-dysfunction-as-the-underlying-pathogenesis-for-preeclampsia
#14
Xiaohan Jin, Zhongwei Xu, Jin Cao, Ping Shao, Maobin Zhou, Zhe Qin, Yan Liu, Fang Yu, Xin Zhou, Wenjie Ji, Wei Cai, Yongqiang Ma, Chengyan Wang, Nana Shan, Ning Yang, Xu Chen, Yuming Li
Hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP) refers to a series of diseases that cause the hypertension during pregnancy, including HDP, preeclampsia (PE) and eclampsia. This study screens differentially expressed proteins of placenta tissues in PE cases using 2D LC-MS/MS quantitative proteomics strategy. A total of 2281 proteins are quantified, of these, 145 altering expression proteins are successfully screened between PE and control cases (p<0.05). Bioinformatics analysis suggests that these proteins are mainly involved in many biological processes, such as oxidation reduction, mitochondrion organization, and acute inflammatory response...
July 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704926/a-label-free-and-ultrasensitive-immunosensor-for-detection-of-human-chorionic-gonadotrophin-based-on-graphene-fets
#15
Kamrul Islam, Ahmed Suhail, Genhua Pan
We report on a label-free immunosensor based on graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) for the ultrasensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG), as an indicator of pregnancy and related disorders, such as actopic pregnancy, choriocarcinoma and orchic teratoma. Pyrene based bioactive ester was non-covalently anchored onto the graphene channel in order to retain the sp² lattice. The G-FET transfer characteristics showed repeatable and reliable responses in all surface modifying steps using a direct current (DC) readout system...
July 12, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704729/longitudinal-association-between-physical-activity-engagement-during-adolescence-and-mental-health-outcomes-in-young-adults-a-21-year-birth-cohort-study
#16
Shuichi Suetani, Abdullah Mamun, Gail M Williams, Jake M Najman, John J McGrath, James G Scott
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies provide mixed evidence that physical activity engagement (PAE) in adolescence is associated with later mental health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the association between PAE at age 14 and mental health outcomes at age 21 using a large birth cohort study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective data from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, consisting of 3493 young adults, were analyzed. PAE at age 14 was estimated using self-report, and participants were categorized into; (1) frequent, (2) infrequent, or (3) no PAE group...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701410/maternal-alcohol-use-disorder-and-child-school-attendance-outcomes-for-non-indigenous-and-indigenous-children-in-western-australia-a-population-cohort-record-linkage-study
#17
Katherine Hafekost, David Lawrence, Colleen O'Leary, Carol Bower, James Semmens, Stephen R Zubrick
OBJECTIVES: Examine the relationship between maternal alcohol use disorder and child school attendance outcomes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children in Western Australia. DESIGN: Population cohort study. SETTING: Routinely collected linked administrative health, education and child protection data. PARTICIPANTS: Those in-scope for the study were women with a birth recorded on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System (1989-2007)...
July 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701338/lifestyle-in-progression-from-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-to-chronic-hypertension-in-nurses-health-study-ii-observational-cohort-study
#18
Simon Timpka, Jennifer J Stuart, Lauren J Tanz, Eric B Rimm, Paul W Franks, Janet W Rich-Edwards
Objectives To study the association between lifestyle risk factors and chronic hypertension by history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP: gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia) and investigate the extent to which these risk factors modify the association between HDP and chronic hypertension.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2013).Participants 54 588 parous women aged 32 to 59 years with data on reproductive history and without previous chronic hypertension, stroke, or myocardial infarction...
July 12, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700807/association-of-antidepressant-medication-use-during-pregnancy-with-intellectual-disability-in-offspring
#19
Alexander Viktorin, Rudolf Uher, Alexander Kolevzon, Abraham Reichenberg, Stephen Z Levine, Sven Sandin
Importance: Maternal antidepressant medication use during pregnancy has previously been associated with adverse outcomes in offspring, but to our knowledge, the association with intellectual disability (ID) has not been investigated. Objectives: To examine the association of maternal antidepressant medication use during pregnancy with ID in offspring and investigate the importance of parental mental illness for such an association. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based cohort study of 179 007 children born from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2007, with complete parental information from national registers who were followed up from birth throughout 2014...
July 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699111/hla-class-ib-in-pregnancy-and-pregnancy-related-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Gry Persson, Wenna Nascimento Melsted, Line Lynge Nilsson, Thomas Vauvert F Hviid
The HLA class Ib genes, HLA-E, HLA-F, and HLA-G, were discovered long after the classical HLA class Ia genes. The elucidation of their functions had a modest beginning. However, their basic functions and involvement in pathophysiology and a range of diseases are now emerging. Although results from a range of studies support the functional roles for the HLA class Ib molecules in adult life, especially HLA-G and HLA-F have most intensively been, and were also primarily, studied in relation to reproduction and pregnancy...
July 11, 2017: Immunogenetics
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