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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673929/sleep-disorders-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-insights-into-types-relationship-to-obesity-and-high-altitude-and-possible-lines-of-management
#1
REVIEW
Ahmed M Kabel, Amani M Al Thumali, Khayriah A Aldowiala, Raghad D Habib, Shoroq S Aljuaid, Huda A Alharthi
A sleep disorder is a medical disorder of the sleep pattern of a person that may be serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental and emotional functioning. Disruptions in sleep can be caused by a variety of causes, from teeth grinding to night terrors. Sleep disorders are usually prevalent among adolescents and young adults, possibly due to factors related to life style, dietary habits, hormonal and emotional disturbances. Other factors that may precipitate sleep disorders include environmental, psychological and genetic factors...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665809/generating-evidence-for-health-policy-in-challenging-settings-lessons-learned-from-four-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-implementation-research-studies-in-nigeria
#2
Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Muktar H Aliyu, Olusegun A Adeyemi, Frank Oronsaye, Bolanle Oyeledun, Amaka G Ogidi, Echezona E Ezeanolue
BACKGROUND: Implementation research (IR) facilitates health systems strengthening and optimal patient outcomes by generating evidence for scale-up of efficacious strategies in context. Thus, difficulties in generating IR evidence, particularly in limited-resource settings with wide disease prevention and treatment gaps, need to be anticipated and addressed. Nigeria is a priority country for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). This paper analyses the experiences of four PMTCT IR studies in Nigeria, and proffers solutions to major challenges encountered during implementation...
April 17, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664277/nerve-agents-what-they-are-how-they-work-how-to-counter-them
#3
Stefano Costanzi, John-Hanson Machado, Moriah Mitchell
Nerve agents are organophosphorus chemical warfare agents that exert their action through the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, with a consequent overstimulation of cholinergic transmission followed by its shutdown. Beyond warfare, they have notoriously been employed in acts of terrorism as well as high profile assassinations. After a brief historical introduction on the development and deployment of nerve agents, this review provides a survey of their chemistry, the way they affect cholinergic transmission, the available treatment options, and the current directions for their improvement...
April 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624644/producing-internal-suspect-bodies-divisive-effects-of-uk-counter-terrorism-measures-on-muslim-communities-in-leeds-and-bradford
#4
Madeline-Sophie Abbas
Research on UK government counter-terrorism measures has claimed that Muslims are treated as a 'suspect community'. However, there is limited research exploring the divisive effects that membership of a 'suspect community' has on relations within Muslim communities. Drawing from interviews with British Muslims living in Leeds or Bradford, I address this gap by explicating how co-option of Muslim community members to counter extremism fractures relations within Muslim communities. I reveal how community members internalize fears of state targeting which precipitates internal disciplinary measures...
April 6, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599386/association-between-psychological-distress-and-mortality-the-case-of-israel
#5
Alexander Michael Ponizovsky, Ziona Haklai, Nehama Goldberger
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated the association between psychological distress (measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12) and risks of all-cause mortality and deaths from cardiovascular, cancer and other causes. We hypothesised that in the Israeli population permanently exposed to war/terror stressors, this relationship is absent. METHODS: We performed an analysis of data from participants in the Israel National Health Survey conducted in 2003-2004, who died during the follow-up decade...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596901/periaqueductal-gray-glutamatergic-cannabinoid-and-vanilloid-receptor-interplay-in-defensive-behavior-and-aversive-memory-formation
#6
Franklin P Back, Antonio P Carobrez
Stimulation of the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) in humans elicits sensations of fear and impending terror, and mediates predator defensive responses in rodents. In rats, pharmacological stimulation of the dorsolateral portion of the PAG (dlPAG) with N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) induces aversive conditioning that acts as an unconditioned stimulus (US). In the present work, we investigated the interplay between the vanilloid TRPV1 and cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the NMDA-dlPAG defensive response and in subsequent aversive learning...
March 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590541/are-we-prepared-for-nuclear-terrorism
#7
Robert P Gale, James O Armitage
No plan ever survives first contact with the enemy.— General Helmuth von Moltke, Prussian Army Chief of Staff Was von Moltke right, or was Winston Churchill, who said "He who fails to plan is planning to fail"? Recent events have increased concern about the consequences of nuclear terrorism...
March 29, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590045/the-spread-of-true-and-false-news-online
#8
Soroush Vosoughi, Deb Roy, Sinan Aral
We investigated the differential diffusion of all of the verified true and false news stories distributed on Twitter from 2006 to 2017. The data comprise ~126,000 stories tweeted by ~3 million people more than 4.5 million times. We classified news as true or false using information from six independent fact-checking organizations that exhibited 95 to 98% agreement on the classifications. Falsehood diffused significantly farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth in all categories of information, and the effects were more pronounced for false political news than for false news about terrorism, natural disasters, science, urban legends, or financial information...
March 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579487/factors-affecting-the-delivery-of-healthcare-on-a-humanitarian-operation-in-west-africa-a-qualitative-study
#9
Di Lamb
INTRODUCTION: Medical personnel in the UK Armed Forces are highly trained to deploy in support of military operations that assist humanitarian, peacekeeping, counter-terrorism and environmental catastrophes anywhere in the world. Such environments are often austere and successful outcomes demand an individual is highly resilient and able to adapt quickly to any situation. This qualitative study aimed to determine the factors that affect healthcare delivery on such missions by capturing the personal experiences of the first military personnel deployed on a humanitarian operation in support of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa between October 2014 and January 2015...
April 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569823/plasmonic-hotspots-in-the-air-omnidirectional-and-three-dimensional-platform-for-stand-off-in-air-sers-sensing-of-airborne-species
#10
Gia Chuong Phan-Quang, Hiang Kwee Lee, Hao Wen Teng, Charlynn Sher Lin Koh, Barnabas Qinwei Yim, Eddie Khay Ming Tan, Wee Lee Tok, In Yee Phang, Xing Yi Ling
Molecular-level airborne sensing is critical for early prevention of disasters, diseases and terrorism. Currently, most 2D surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates used for air sensing have only one functional surface and exhibit poor SERS active depth. Here, we introduce 'aerosolized plasmonic colloidosomes' (APC) as airborne plasmonic hotspots for direct in-air SERS measurements. Our APC functions as a macro-scale 3D and omnidirectional plasmonic cloud that receives laser irradiation and emits signals in all directions...
March 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557760/healthcare-provision-and-the-psychological-somatic-and-social-impact-on-people-involved-in-the-terror-attacks-in-january-2015-in-paris-cohort-study
#11
Stephanie Vandentorren, Philippe Pirard, Alice Sanna, Lyderic Aubert, Yvon Motreff, Nicolas Dantchev, Sophie Lesieur, Pierre Chauvin, Thierry Baubet
BACKGROUND: Terrorist attacks occurred in Paris in January 2015. Aims To assess the mental health impact and the access to psychomedical care of people exposed to the attacks. METHOD: We implemented an open-cohort design 6 and 18 months after the attacks. Exposed civilians and rescue workers were included according to the exposure criteria A for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-5. A face-to-face questionnaire conducted by trained psychologists was used to collect sociodemographic characteristics, exposure level, scores on psychometric scales, an international neuropsychiatric interview and access to care...
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555538/terrorism-and-travel-medicine-where-do-we-go-from-here
#12
EDITORIAL
Travis W Heggie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554942/radiation-induced-inflammation-and-autoimmune-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Rasoul Yahyapour, Peyman Amini, Saeed Rezapour, Mohsen Cheki, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Bagher Farhood, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Hengameh Fallah, Masoud Najafi
Currently, ionizing radiation (IR) plays a key role in the agricultural and medical industry, while accidental exposure resulting from leakage of radioactive sources or radiological terrorism is a serious concern. Exposure to IR has various detrimental effects on normal tissues. Although an increased risk of carcinogenesis is the best-known long-term consequence of IR, evidence has shown that other diseases, particularly diseases related to inflammation, are common disorders among irradiated people. Autoimmune disorders are among the various types of immune diseases that have been investigated among exposed people...
March 20, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541042/when-you-become-a-superman-subliminal-exposure-to-death-related-stimuli-enhances-men-s-physical-force
#14
Naoaki Kawakami, Emi Miura, Masayoshi Nagai
Research based on terror management theory (TMT) has consistently found that reminders to individuals about their mortality engender responses aimed at shoring up faith in their cultural belief system. Previous studies have focused on the critical role that the accessibility of death-related thought plays in these effects. Moreover, it has been shown that these effects occur even when death-related stimuli are presented without awareness, suggesting the unconscious effects of mortality salience. Because one pervasive cultural ideal for men is to be strong, we hypothesized that priming death-related stimuli would lead to increasing physical force for men, but not for women...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534740/biomphalaria-camerunensis-as-a-viable-alternative-intermediate-host-for-schistosoma-mansoni-in-southern-cameroon
#15
Alvine C Kengne-Fokam, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Mohamed Bagayan, Flobert Njiokou
BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni was mapped in Cameroon in the 1990s and preventive chemotherapy launched since 2005. A situation analysis conducted in 2011 revealed an increase in schistosomiasis transmission, especially in the equatorial part of the country, despite the fact that Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the main intermediate host of this parasite, is now scarce in many foci. Biomphalaria camerunensis, restricted to the equatorial part of the country, is considered as a less suitable host for S...
March 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530885/radiofrequency-ablation-of-asymptomatic-brugada-syndrome-don-t-go-burning-my-heart
#16
Sami Viskin
Terror-Mori-Ex-Abrupto is the Latin term for "fear of dropping dead." Based on frequent email consultations I receive from patients with "suspected Brugada syndrome" (BrS), it seems that a terrifying anticipation of dying is more dominant among asymptomatic patients with BrS than in other arrhythmogenic diseases. The tragic death of a young British man that went viral over Facebook, led >10,000 British citizens to petition their Parliament, requesting that all patients with asymptomatic BrS be given the choice of an implantable defibrillator (ICD) even in the absence of markers indicating increased risk Already, 1 in 2 patients undergoing ICD implantation for BrS are asymptomatic and 1 in 5 are not only free of symptoms, but do not even have the Brugada electrocardiogram (ECG) spontaneously...
March 12, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519909/principles-for-designing-and-delivering-psychosocial-and-mental-healthcare
#17
REVIEW
Richard Williams, V Kemp
The development of the UK's military policy includes the potential for military organisations to deploy in support of humanitarian aid operations. This paper offers an overview of the risks to people's mental health of their exposure to emergencies, major incidents, disasters, terrorism, displacement, postconflict environments in which humanitarian aid is delivered, and deployments to conflict zones. It summarises the psychosocial approach recommended by many contemporary researchers and practitioners. It differentiates the extremely common experience of distress from the mental disorders that people who are affected may develop and introduces the construct of psychosocial resilience...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513914/aftermath-of-terror-a-nationwide-longitudinal-study-of-posttraumatic-stress-and-worry-across-the-decade-following-the-september-11-2001-terrorist-attacks
#18
Dana Rose Garfin, Michael J Poulin, Scott Blum, Roxane Cohen Silver
Research conducted in the early years after the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in New York, Pennsylvania, and Washington, DC demonstrated adverse psychological outcomes among residents of the United States who were exposed to the attacks both directly and indirectly via the media. However, less is known about the impact of this collective trauma over time. Beginning at the end of December 2006, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents (Cohort 2, N = 1,613) examined the long-term effects of 9/11, with annual assessments administered every year for 3 years...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504064/media-effects-in-youth-exposed-to-terrorist-incidents-a-historical-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Betty Pfefferbaum, Phebe Tucker, Rose L Pfefferbaum, Summer D Nelson, Pascal Nitiéma, Elana Newman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews the evidence on the relationship between contact with media coverage of terrorist incidents and psychological outcomes in children and adolescents while tracing the evolution in research methodology. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of recent events in the USA have moved from correlational cross-sectional studies examining primarily television coverage and posttraumatic stress reactions to longitudinal studies that address multiple media forms and a range of psychological outcomes including depression and anxiety...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498033/media-exposure-to-terrorism-and-people-s-risk-perception-the-role-of-environmental-sensitivity-and-psychophysiological-response-to-stress
#20
Enrico Rubaltelli, Sara Scrimin, Ughetta Moscardino, Giulia Priolo, Giulia Buodo
Terrorist attacks have a destabilizing impact on the general population, causing distress and fear. However, not all individuals are equally susceptible to the effects of terror threat. This study aimed to examine whether exposure to terrorism-related pictures interacted with individual differences in environmental sensitivity and psychophysiological response to stress to explain people's risk perception, operationalized as perceived likelihood of a terrorist attack and willingness to trade off one's privacy to increase national security...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
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