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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905597/extremity-war-injuries-xii-homeland-defense-as-a-translation-of-war-lessons-learned
#1
Maj Daniel J Stinner, Andrew H Schmidt
The 12th Extremity War Injuries Symposium focused on issues related to the transitions in medical care that are occurring as the focus of the war on terror changes. The symposium highlighted the results of Department of Defense-funded research in musculoskeletal injury, the evolution of combat casualty care, and the readiness of the fighting force. Presentations and discussions focused on force readiness of both troops and their medical support as well as the maintenance of the combat care expertise that has been developed during the previous decade of conflict...
June 12, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904240/autologistic-models-for-benchmark-risk-or-vulnerability-assessment-of-urban-terrorism-outcomes
#2
Jingyu Liu, Walter W Piegorsch, A Grant Schissler, Susan L Cutter
We develop a quantitative methodology to characterize vulnerability among 132 U.S. urban centers ('cities') to terrorist events, applying a place-based vulnerability index to a database of terrorist incidents and related human casualties. A centered autologistic regression model is employed to relate urban vulnerability to terrorist outcomes and also to adjust for autocorrelation in the geospatial data. Risk-analytic 'benchmark' techniques are then incorporated into the modeling framework, wherein levels of high and low urban vulnerability to terrorism are identified...
June 2018: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A, (Statistics in Society)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897454/the-mediating-role-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-with-tendency-to-forgive-social-support-and-psychosocial-functioning-of-terror-survivors
#3
Michael Weinberg
The study reported in this article examined the relationship between psychosocial functioning and tendency to forgive, social support, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of terror survivors (N = 108). Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether PTSD symptoms mediated the association between tendency to forgive, social support, and psychosocial functioning. The findings demonstrated that the association between tendency to forgive and psychosocial functioning was mediated exclusively by PTSD symptoms, whereas the association between social support and psychosocial functioning was partially mediated by PTSD symptoms...
June 12, 2018: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891099/-personality-and-somatic-disorders
#4
J-M Darves-Bornoz
In the title of this text, by somatic disorders we mean those physical illnesses clearly related to a non-psychiatric medical field, frequently termed psychosomatic illnesses and somatoform disorders. For forty years, a trend of thought has focused with pertinence on the psychological peculiarities in patients with severe somatic diseases. Moreover, causality was often supposed in the regularly mentioned association between personality features and somatoform disorders. However, the revival of the study of the earlier field of relationships between mind and body by Briquet, Charcot, Janet and Freud in his first period has led to the reassessment of the meaning of these observations...
June 8, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882723/terrorism-vulnerability-organizations-ambiguous-expectations-and-employees-conflicting-priorities
#5
Syed Jamal Shah, Zhang Li, Salim Khan, Syed Asad Ali Shah, Dilawar Khan Durrani, Liaqat Ali, Bandana Das
This study demonstrates how field employees' perceived threat of terrorism (PTT) is magnified by the incompatibility between role demand (travel and work outdoors) and resource (terrorism endangered environment). With a foundation in the conservation of resource perspective and transactional theory of stress, a theoretical framework was proposed to test the mediating effect of role ambiguity (RA) and role conflict (RC) in the relationship between PTT and emotional exhaustion (EE). An approach involving confirmatory factor analysis and the structural equation was used for analysis...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881772/using-internet-search-data-to-examine-the-relationship-between-anti-muslim-and-pro-isis-sentiment-in-u-s-counties
#6
Christopher A Bail, Friedolin Merhout, Peng Ding
Recent terrorist attacks by first- and second-generation immigrants in the United States and Europe indicate that radicalization may result from the failure of ethnic integration-or the rise of intergroup prejudice in communities where "home-grown" extremists are raised. Yet, these community-level drivers are notoriously difficult to study because public opinion surveys provide biased measures of both prejudice and radicalization. We examine the relationship between anti-Muslim and pro-ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) Internet searches in 3099 U...
June 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873528/mental-disorders-personality-traits-and-grievance-fueled-targeted-violence-the-evidence-base-and-implications-for-research-and-practice
#7
Emily Corner, Paul Gill, Ronald Schouten, Frank Farnham
This article aims to move away from intuitive appeals that link mental disorder with violence such as terrorism, mass murder, and other targeted violence. The article synthesizes the existing evidence base regarding the relationship between mental disorders and personality traits and (a) attitudinal affinities with violent causes, and (b) a number of violent behaviors (including mass murder and terrorism). The evidence base is mixed and the research focus changed across time: from simple and unempirical assertions of causation to an almost complete rejection of their presence to a finer grained and disaggregated understanding...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867681/terror-management-in-a-multicultural-society-effects-of-mortality-salience-on-attitudes-to-multiculturalism-are-moderated-by-national-identification-and-self-esteem-among-native-dutch-people
#8
Mandy Tjew-A-Sin, Sander Leon Koole
Terror Management Theory (TMT; Greenberg et al., 1997) proposes that mortality concerns may lead people to reject other cultures than their own. Although highly relevant to multiculturalism, TMT has been rarely tested in a European multicultural society. To fill this void, two studies examined the effects of mortality salience (MS) among native Dutch people with varying levels of national identification and self-esteem. Consistent with TMT, MS led to less favorable attitudes about Muslims and multiculturalism among participants with high (rather than low) national identification and low (rather than high) self-esteem (Study 1)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861368/the-utility-of-point-of-care-ultrasound-in-targeted-automobile-ramming-mass-casualty-tarmac-attacks
#9
Hamid Shokoohi, Ali Pourmand, Keith Boniface, Rebecca Allen, Bruno Petinaux, Babak Sarani, James P Phillips
As terrorist actors revise their tactics to outmaneuver increasing counter-terrorism security measures, a recent trend toward less-sophisticated attack methods has emerged. Most notable of these "low tech" trends are the Targeted Automobile Ramming MAss Casualty (TARMAC) attacks. Between 2014 and November 2017, 18 TARMAC attacks were reported worldwide, resulting in 181 deaths and 679 injuries. TARMAC attack-related injuries are unique compared to accidental pedestrian trauma and other causes of mass casualty incidents (MCI), and therefore they require special consideration...
May 29, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799332/a-social-neuroscience-approach-to-conflict-resolution-dialogue-intervention-to-israeli-and-palestinian-youth-impacts-oxytocin-and-empathy
#10
Moran Influs, Maayan Pratt, Shafiq Masalha, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
The rapid increase in terror-related activities, shift of battlefield into civilian locations, and participation of youth in acts of violence underscore the need to find novel frameworks for youth interventions. Building on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and social neuroscience models we developed an eight-week dialogue group-intervention for youth growing up amidst intractable conflict. Eighty-eight Israeli-Jewish and Arab-Palestinian adolescents (16-18years) were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups...
May 25, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792463/terrorist-teams-as-loosely-coupled-systems
#11
Matthias Spitzmuller, Guihyun Park
Acts of terrorism can be harrowing and cause extensive damage, yet they occur far too frequently. How do terrorist groups organize and coordinate their attacks? What makes those groups simultaneously cohesive and flexible in a hostile environment? Different academic disciplines have contributed to a better understanding of the proliferation of terrorist acts in recent years. With very few exceptions, however, extant psychological research on terrorism has almost exclusively focused on the individual terrorist...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792447/the-source-model-of-group-threat-responding-to-internal-and-external-threats
#12
Katharine H Greenaway, Tegan Cruwys
We introduce a model of group threat that articulates the opposing effects of intergroup (between-groups) and intragroup (within-group) threat on identity processes and group relations. The source model of group threat argues that the perceived source of a threat is critical in predicting its consequences, such that perceptions of intergroup threat will strengthen (in)group identity processes and relations, whereas perceptions of intragroup threat has the potential to undermine the same. In addition to reviewing the large literature on intergroup threat and a smaller body of unsynthesized work on intragroup threat, we discuss how these processes are captured in representations of monsters (aliens, vampires, and zombies) in popular media and how these ideas can inform interpretation of current political debates, such as those around homegrown terrorism...
May 24, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792077/symptoms-of-ptsd-in-frontline-journalists-a-retrospective-examination-of-18-years-of-war-and-conflict
#13
Anthony Feinstein, Jonas Osmann, Viral Patel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to determine the frequency and severity of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in journalists covering conflict. METHODS: PTSD data (Impact of Event Scale-Revised) collected over an 18-year period from 684 conflict journalists were analyzed retrospectively for frequency and severity of reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms. Conflicts covered were civil wars in the Balkans ( n = 140 journalists), 9/11 attack in New York City ( n = 46), Iraq war ( n = 84), Mexico drug wars ( n = 104), civil war in Syria ( n = 59), Kenya election violence/Al-Shabab terror ( n = 57), state-sanctioned media intimidation in Iran ( n = 114), and the current migration crisis in Europe ( n = 80)...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787438/predicting-the-public-health-consequences-of-a-nuclear-terrorism-attack-drawing-on-the-experiences-of-hiroshima-and-fukushima
#14
Timothy J Jorgensen
The increasing threat of nuclear terrorism warrants consideration of the health consequences of a terrorist incident should preventive measures fail. Although there has not yet been a nuclear terrorist attack of any kind, experiences with the aftermath of the bombing of Hiroshima and the core meltdowns at Fukushima can provide useful insight and allow some inferences to be made regarding the types of casualties that might be sustained and the rescue efforts that might be required. There are many parallels between the events at Hiroshima and what might be expected from an improvised nuclear device, and there are parallels between the radioactivity released to the environment at Fukushima and the aftermath of a radiological dispersal device attack...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784656/lessons-identified-from-the-2017-manchester-and-london-terrorism-incidents-part-two-the-reception-and-definitive-care-hospital-phases
#15
REVIEW
Paul Hunt
The provision of medical care during the reception and definitive care phases of a terrorist incident will likely take place in designated receiving hospitals such as Major Trauma Centres. There is a need for an enhanced capability in such units to receive, initially manage and hold casualties with more serious injuries. Also, even less severely injured casualties may require significant time and clinical input such as risk management in potential bloodborne viruses.The distribution of casualties from the incident scene requires advance consideration of the injury pattern and regional network organisation of specialist services, such as maxillofacial, neurosurgery or severe burns care...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784655/lessons-identified-from-the-2017-manchester-and-london-terrorism-incidents-part-3-the-postincident-and-recovery-phase
#16
REVIEW
Paul Hunt
This is the third paper in a three-part series detailing the lessons identified during the National Health Service (NHS) England clinical debrief meetings which followed the response to the 2017 Manchester and London terrorist incidents. It covers the postincident and recovery phases including rehabilitation, bereavement support, psychological support, network and regional lessons, NHS communications and supply organisations. It also summarises the military application of these lessons and outlines the next steps for further development...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783887/a-vision-for-global-heath-diplomacy-in-the-foreign-policy-process-using-smart-power-to-prevent-and-resolve-international-conflict
#17
Sebastian Kevany
In the twenty-first Century, the developed world attempts to provide global health assistance, to poorer countries - at least in part in the pursuit and maintenance of world order and stability. Rarely, however - and in most cases, then on an ad hoc basis - are related foreign policy tools deployed in combination with each other. Nonetheless, there is currently greater openness than ever before to such interdigitation. Not least this reflects the unprecedented challenges of modern political and security conditions - struggling to operate amidst a broader culture of global adverserialism, and conflict which conventional systems of intervention have struggled to successfully resolve...
May 21, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780033/public-attitudes-in-england-towards-the-sharing-of-personal-data-following-a-mass-casualty-incident-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
G James Rubin, Rebecca Webster, Antonia N Rubin, Richard Amlot, Nick Grey, Neil Greenberg
OBJECTIVES: To assess public attitudes towards data sharing to facilitate a mental health screening programme for people caught up in a mass casualty incident. DESIGN: Two, identical, cross-sectional, online surveys, using quotas to ensure demographic representativeness of people aged 18-65 years in England. Participants were randomly allocated to consider a scenario in which they witness a terrorism-related radiation incident or mass shooting, after which a police officer records their contact details...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779724/the-emerging-use-of-social-media-for-health-related-purposes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-scoping-review
#19
Emily Hagg, V Susan Dahinten, Leanne M Currie
BACKGROUND: Social media allows for instant access to, and dissemination of, information around the globe. Access to social media in low- and middle-income countries has increased exponentially in recent years due to technological advances. Despite this growth, the use of social media in low- and middle-income countries is less well-researched than in high-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To identify, explore and summarize the current state of the literature on the use of social media for health in low- and middle-income countries...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776132/universality-and-correlations-in-individuals-wandering-through-an-online-extremist-space
#20
Z Cao, M Zheng, Y Vorobyeva, C Song, N F Johnson
The "out of the blue" nature of recent terror attacks and the diversity of apparent motives highlight the importance of understanding the online trajectories that individuals follow prior to developing high levels of extremist support. Here we show that the physics of stochastic walks, with and without temporal correlation, provides a unifying description of these online trajectories. Our unique data set comprising all users of a global social media site reveals universal characteristics in individuals' online lifetimes...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
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