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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447069/after-aylan-kurdi-how-tweeting-about-death-threat-and-harm-predict-increased-expressions-of-solidarity-with-refugees-over-time
#1
Laura G E Smith, Craig McGarty, Emma F Thomas
Viral social media content has been heralded for its power to transform policy, but online responses are often derided as "slacktivism." This raises the questions of what drives viral communications and what is their effect on support for social change. We addressed these issues in relation to Twitter discussions about Aylan Kurdi, a child refugee who died en route to the European Union. We developed a longitudinal paradigm to analyze 41,253 tweets posted 1 week before the images of Aylan Kurdi emerged, the week they emerged, and 10 weeks afterward-at the time of the Paris terror attacks...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444622/the-role-of-close-relationships-in-terror-management-a-systematic-review-and-research-agenda
#2
Nicholas Plusnin, Christopher A Pepping, Emiko S Kashima
Terror management theory outlines how humans seek self-esteem and worldview validation to manage death-related anxiety. Accumulating evidence reveals that close relationships serve a similar role. However, to date, there has been no synthesis of the literature that delineates when close relationships buffer mortality concerns, under what conditions, on which specific outcomes, and for whom. This systematic review presents over two decades of research to address these questions. Findings from 73 reviewed studies revealed that close relationships serve an important role in buffering death-related anxiety...
February 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431838/fabrication-of-a-self-assembled-and-flexible-sers-nanosensor-for-explosive-detection-at-parts-per-quadrillion-levels-from-fingerprints
#3
Thakshila Liyanage, Ashur Rael, Sidney Shaffer, Shozaf Zaidi, John V Goodpaster, Rajesh Sardar
Apart from high sensitivity and selectivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based trace explosive detection, efficient sampling of explosive residue from real world surfaces is very important for homeland security applications. Herein, we demonstrate an entirely new SERS nanosensor fabrication approach. The SERS nanosensor was prepared by self-assembling chemically synthesized gold triangular nanoprisms (Au TNPs), which we show display strong electromagnetic field enhancements at the sharp tips and edges, onto a pressure-sensitive flexible adhesive film...
February 12, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431496/penetrating-neck-injuries
#4
A M Khan, J C Fleming, J P Jeannon
Penetrating neck injuries are becoming more common because of the increasing prevalence of knife and gun crimes. The immediate and long-term consequences of injury to the neck can be significant because of the close relationship of important anatomical structures in a confined space. Delayed recognition of major injury and inadequate treatment results in high morbidity and mortality. Developing a clear understanding of the underlying anatomy, common mechanisms of injury and principles of management will provide first responders, emergency doctors and trauma surgeons with confidence in appropriate evidence-based management...
February 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413809/mass-violence-radicalization-and-terrorism-a-role-for-psychiatric-profession
#5
EDITORIAL
G Dom, M Schouler-Ocak, K Bhui, H Demunter, L Kuey, A Raballo, D Frydecka, B Misiak, P Gorwood, J Samochowiec
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412708/terrorism-as-disease-beware-of-misleading-metaphors
#6
Matthew Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409552/dying-for-the-group-towards-a-general-theory-of-extreme-self-sacrifice
#7
Harvey Whitehouse
Whether upheld as heroic or reviled as terrorism, throughout history people have been willing to lay down their lives for the sake of their groups. Why? Previous theories of extreme self-sacrifice have highlighted a range of seemingly disparate factors such as collective identity, outgroup hostility, and kin psychology. This paper attempts to integrate many of these factors into a single overarching theory based on several decades of collaborative research with a range of special populations, from tribes in Papua New Guinea to Libyan insurgents, and from Muslim fundamentalists in Indonesia to Brazilian football hooligans...
February 7, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404722/crisis-communication-in-public-health-emergencies-the-limits-of-legal-control-and-the-risks-for-harmful-outcomes-in-a-digital-age
#8
Paul Quinn
Communication by public authorities during a crisis situation is an essential and indispensable part of any response to a situation that may threaten both life and property. In the online connected world possibilities for such communication have grown further, in particular with the opportunity that social media presents. As a consequence, communication strategies have become a key plank of responses to crises ranging from epidemics to terrorism to natural disaster. Such strategies involve a range of innovative practices on social media...
February 6, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400641/diagnosis-makes-a-difference-perceptions-of-older-persons-with-dementia-symptoms
#9
Jed A Diekfuss, Jessica De Larwelle, Susan H McFadden
Background/Study Context: Employing the stereotype content model and terror management theory, we examined whether stereotypes and feelings about persons with dementia vary depending on the type of dementia diagnosis and purported causes of the dementia. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to read one of four vignettes that depicted a man who consulted his doctor because of memory problems. All vignettes described the same symptoms and diagnostic tests, but each of four groups read a different result: all tests normal (Normal); Alzheimer's disease (AD); Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) associated with alcohol abuse; and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) associated with head injuries from playing football in high school and college...
February 5, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395272/status-and-drivers-of-maternal-newborn-child-and-adolescent-health-in-the-islamic-world-a-comparative-analysis
#10
Nadia Akseer, Mahdis Kamali, Nour Bakhache, Maaz Mirza, Seema Mehta, Sara Al-Gashm, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) period saw dramatic gains in health goals MDG 4 and MDG 5 for improving child and maternal health. However, many Muslim countries in the south Asian, Middle Eastern, and African regions lagged behind. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the status of, progress in, and key determinants of reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health in Muslim majority countries (MMCs). The specific objectives were to understand the current status and progress in reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health in MMCs, and the determinants of child survival among the least developed countries among the MMCs; to explore differences in outcomes and the key contextual determinants of health between MMCs and non-MMCs; and to understand the health service coverage and contextual determinants that differ between best and poor or moderate performing MMCs...
January 30, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394953/bcn057-induces-intestinal-stem-cell-repair-and-mitigates-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury
#11
Payel Bhanja, Andrew Norris, Pooja Gupta-Saraf, Andrew Hoover, Subhrajit Saha
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) results from the acute loss of intestinal stem cells (ISC), impaired epithelial regeneration, and subsequent loss of the mucosal barrier, resulting in electrolyte imbalance, diarrhea, weight loss, sepsis, and mortality. The high radiosensitivity of the intestinal epithelium limits effective radiotherapy against abdominal malignancies and limits the survival of victims of nuclear accidents or terrorism. Currently, there is no approved therapy to mitigate radiation toxicity in the intestine...
February 2, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391012/near-death-experiences-attacks-by-family-members-and-absence-of-health-care-in-their-home-countries-affect-the-quality-of-life-of-refugee-women-in-germany-a-multi-region-cross-sectional-gender-sensitive-study
#12
Jenny Jesuthasan, Ekin Sönmez, Ingar Abels, Christine Kurmeyer, Jana Gutermann, Renate Kimbel, Antje Krüger, Guenter Niklewski, Kneginja Richter, Ulrich Stangier, Anja Wollny, Ulrike Zier, Sabine Oertelt-Prigione, Meryam Shouler-Ocak
BACKGROUND: The year 2016 has marked the highest number of displaced people worldwide on record. A large number of these refugees are women, yet little is known about their specific situation and the hurdles they have to face during their journey. Herein, we investigated whether sociodemographic characteristics and traumatic experiences in the home country and during the flight affected the quality of life of refugee women arriving in Germany in 2015-2016. METHODS: Six hundred sixty-three women from six countries (Afghanistan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Somalia, and Eritrea) living in shared reception facilities in five distinct German regions were interviewed by native speakers using a structured questionnaire...
February 1, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360192/diagnostic-criteria-for-disorders-of-arousal-a-video-polysomnography-assessment
#13
Régis Lopez, Yun Shen, Sofiene Chenini, Anna Laura Rassu, Elisa Evangelista, Lucie Barateau, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess video-polysomnographic (vPSG) criteria and their cut-off values for the diagnosis of disorders of arousal (DOA; sleepwalking, sleep terror). METHODS: One hundred and sixty adult patients with DOA and 50 sex- and age-matched healthy participants underwent a clinical evaluation and vPSG assessment to quantify slow wave sleep (SWS) interruptions (SWS fragmentation index; slow/mixed and fast arousal ratios and indexes per hour) and the associated behaviors...
January 23, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360024/three-perspectives-on-mental-health-told-through-storycorps-liza-long-and-michael
#14
Jessica C Tomazic, Joy O Ogunmuyiwa, Gretchen A Ferber
By examining mental illness through the lens of intimate firsthand accounts of caregivers and patients, including caregiver blogposts and a conversation between Liza Long and her son as recorded by StoryCorps, we demonstrate how new media can be leveraged to shift societal perceptions of those with mental illness from blameworthy potential perpetrators of terror to vulnerable persons in need of compassion and support. Exploring patient, caregiver, and societal roles through a close reading of new media firsthand accounts, we argue for shared responsibility in caring for those with mental illness and, in particular, for physicians to leverage their unique knowledge of the patient experience by promoting media coverage of stories of mental illness recovery...
January 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352827/political-terrorism-and-affective-polarization-in-black-and-red-terrorists-in-italy-during-the-years-1968-1988
#15
Matteo Pacini, Icro Maremmani
Psychiatric evaluations of violent political crime were mostly performed on a case-by-case basis in a forensic environment, which made them unduly dependent on categories of presumed dangerousness and legal responsibility, rather than on a clinical definition of their mental status. In referring to such "clinical" definitions, the disorder we have in mind is not limited to the major, agitated psychotic manias or mixed states. The presence of a dominant temperament, or protracted hypomania, is enough by itself to explain an individual's engagement in a wide range of activities, not necessarily sociopathic or violent...
January 21, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341860/risk-management-of-free-radicals-involved-in-air-travel-syndromes-by-antioxidants
#16
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331345/14th-of-july-terror-attack-in-nice-france
#17
Federico Solla, Joseph Carboni, Jean Bréaud, Philippe Babe, Gilles Brézac, Nathalie Chivoret, Audrey Dupont, Arnaud Fernandez
On July 14th, 2016, a terrorist attack by truck occurred in Nice (France), during the traditional fireworks for Bastille Day. The authors present the point of view of the doctors from Lenval University Children's Hospital, which is located near the attack place and had to manage 47 casualties including 12 adults.
January 10, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329259/extreme-overvalued-beliefs-how-violent-extremist-beliefs-become-normalized
#18
Tahir Rahman
Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority...
January 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329047/the-connection-between-subjective-nearness-to-death-and-depressive-symptoms-the-mediating-role-of-meaning-in-life
#19
Yoav S Bergman, Ehud Bodner, Ye'ela Haber
Depression is characterized by a wide range of emotional, cognitive, and physical symptoms. Two prominent features of depressive symptoms are a sense that life has no meaning on the one hand, and that life is not worth living on the other hand. In recent years, the subjective perception of how close one feels to his/her death has gained importance as a significant factor associated with various aspects of physical and psychological well-being. Thus, the current study examined the connection between subjective nearness-to-death, meaning in life, and depressive symptoms, and assessed whether meaning in life mediates the connection between subjective nearness-to-death and depressive symptoms...
January 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320548/primed-for-death-law-enforcement-citizen-homicides-social-media-and-retaliatory-violence
#20
Vladimir Bejan, Matthew Hickman, William S Parkin, Veronica F Pozo
We examine whether retaliatory violence exists between law enforcement and citizens while controlling for any social media contagion effect related to prior fatal encounters. Analyzed using a trivariate dynamic structural vector-autoregressive model, daily time-series data over a 21-month period captured the frequencies of police killed in the line of duty, police deadly use of force incidents, and social media coverage. The results support a significant retaliatory violence effect against minorities by police, yet there is no evidence of retaliatory violence against law enforcement officers by minorities...
2018: PloS One
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