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Andrew Thwaites, Brian R Glasberg, Ian Nimmo-Smith, William D Marslen-Wilson, Brian C J Moore
Acoustic signals pass through numerous transforms in the auditory system before perceptual attributes such as loudness and pitch are derived. However, relatively little is known as to exactly when these transformations happen, and where, cortically or sub-cortically, they occur. In an effort to examine this, we investigated the latencies and locations of cortical entrainment to two transforms predicted by a model of loudness perception for time-varying sounds: the transforms were instantaneous loudness and short-term loudness, where the latter is hypothesized to be derived from the former and therefore should occur later in time...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jessica Rankin, Vincent J Wang, Fariba Goodarzian, Hollie A Lai
IMPORTANCE: Neonatal and infant lumbar puncture is a commonly performed procedure in emergency departments, yet traumatic and unsuccessful lumbar punctures occur 30% to 50% of the time. Dehydration may be a risk factor for unsuccessful lumbar punctures, but to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the use of intravenous (IV) fluid bolus prior to lumbar puncture. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of IV fluid bolus administration with the sonographic measure of the neonatal and infant lumbar subarachnoid space...
March 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Ümit Aydin, Johannes Vorwerk, Matthias Dümpelmann, Philipp Küpper, Harald Kugel, Marcel Heers, Jörg Wellmer, Christoph Kellinghaus, Jens Haueisen, Stefan Rampp, Hermann Stefan, Carsten H Wolters
We investigated two important means for improving source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. The first investigation is about the optimal choice of the number of epileptic spikes in averaging to (1) sufficiently reduce the noise bias for an accurate determination of the center of gravity of the epileptic activity and (2) still get an estimation of the extent of the irritative zone. The second study focuses on the differences in single modality EEG (80-electrodes) or MEG (275-gradiometers) and especially on the benefits of combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis...
2015: PloS One
Andrew Thwaites, Ian Nimmo-Smith, Elisabeth Fonteneau, Roy D Patterson, Paula Buttery, William D Marslen-Wilson
A primary objective for cognitive neuroscience is to identify how features of the sensory environment are encoded in neural activity. Current auditory models of loudness perception can be used to make detailed predictions about the neural activity of the cortex as an individual listens to speech. We used two such models (loudness-sones and loudness-phons), varying in their psychophysiological realism, to predict the instantaneous loudness contours produced by 480 isolated words. These two sets of 480 contours were used to search for electrophysiological evidence of loudness processing in whole-brain recordings of electro- and magneto-encephalographic (EMEG) activity, recorded while subjects listened to the words...
2015: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Li Su, Isma Zulfiqar, Fawad Jamshed, Elisabeth Fonteneau, William Marslen-Wilson
A wide variety of evidence, from neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, and imaging studies in humans and animals, suggests that human auditory cortex is in part tonotopically organized. Here we present a new means of resolving this spatial organization using a combination of non-invasive observables (EEG, MEG, and MRI), model-based estimates of spectrotemporal patterns of neural activation, and multivariate pattern analysis. The method exploits both the fine-grained temporal patterning of auditory cortical responses and the millisecond scale temporal resolution of EEG and MEG...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Keith Widmeier
A variety of chronic pathologies often come along with the aging process and are experienced by many patients in late adulthood. EMS providers must be aware of the various challenges of transporting the geriatric population. And although an emphasis is often placed on the physical and medical issues associated with this population, it's also imperative to look at the whole picture to help prevent issues before they become an emegent problem. This includes being vigilant for elder abuse and neglect, as well as potential home hazards-including fall potentials and maintaining colder home temperatures-and dangerous cost-cutting measures, such as sharing medications...
August 2013: JEMS: a Journal of Emergency Medical Services
Rachel L Moseley, Friedemann Pulvermüller, Bettina Mohr, Michael V Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Yury Shtyrov
Reading utilises at least two neural pathways. The temporal lexical route visually maps whole words to their lexical entries, whilst the nonlexical route decodes words phonologically via parietal cortex. Readers typically employ the lexical route for familiar words, but poor comprehension plus precocity at mechanically 'sounding out' words suggests that differences might exist in autism. Combined MEG/EEG recordings of adults with autistic spectrum conditions (ASC) and controls while reading revealed preferential recruitment of temporal areas in controls and additional parietal recruitment in ASC...
January 2014: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Peter Peyk, Andrea De Cesarei, Markus Junghöfer
EMEGS (electromagnetic encephalography software) is a MATLAB toolbox designed to provide novice as well as expert users in the field of neuroscience with a variety of functions to perform analysis of EEG and MEG data. The software consists of a set of graphical interfaces devoted to preprocessing, analysis, and visualization of electromagnetic data. Moreover, it can be extended using a plug-in interface. Here, an overview of the capabilities of the toolbox is provided, together with a simple tutorial for both a standard ERP analysis and a time-frequency analysis...
2011: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Gonzalo Alarcón, Zaloa Agirre-Arrizubieta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2011: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
M E Pflieger, R E Greenblatt, J Kirkish
Different modeling frameworks (such as error analyses for dipole localization [Fuchs, 1998] [Huizenga, 2001]; crosstalk and point spread analyses for linear estimators [Liu, 2002]; etc.) have demonstrated improved three-dimensional (3D) resolution for combined MEG/EEG (or EMEG) source estimation. Complementary to these, an empirical analysis of 2D surface data suggested that MEG and EEG information content could be superadditive [Pflieger, 2000]. Taking a hybrid approach in the present study, we made simulations within a regional activity estimation (REGAE, [Pflieger, 2001]) framework, which quantifies the ability of EMEG to discriminate brain activity originating within a 3D region of interest (ROI) from simultaneous non-ROI activity...
2004: Neurology & Clinical Neurophysiology: NCN
C T De Rosa, H R Pohl, H Hansen, R C Leonard, J Holler, D Jones
We were requested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to clarify the relationships among the minimal risk level (MRL), action level, and environmental media evaluation guide (EMEG) for dioxin established by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). In response we developed a document entitled "Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil, Part I: ATSDR Interim Policy Guideline"; and a supporting document entitled "Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil, Part II: Technical Support Document"...
1999: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
D Neubüser, P Bailer, K Bosselmann
With the aid of the carbon dioxide hysteroscope, 152 patients underwent transuterine tubal sterilization. 106 women had high frequency current coagulations of the tubes. At follow-up examinations 62 tubes were occluded and 30 showed a unilateral tubal occlusion. These results did not improve by using the thermo coagulation method since only 10 out of 24 patients showed bilateral tubal occlusion and two unilateral tubal occlusions. Up to 20 months following the transuterine tubal sterilization, 28 of the 152 women became pregnant...
September 1977: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
N A Hargett, R Ritch, J Mardirossian, M A Kass, S M Podos
In three cases acetohexamide (Dymelor), an oral hypoglycemic agent, was mistakenly given to patients instead of acetazolamide (Diamox), which had been prescribed for their glaucoma. A number of similarities, including the fact that both medications are 250-mg white tablets, with similar generic and brand names which are generically repackaged medications juxtaposed on the pharmacist's shelf, predispose to the inadvertent substitution of one medication for the other. In one instance a systemic hypoglycemic reaction resulting in head trauma and confusion ended in an emegency hospital admission following the substitution of acetohexamide for acetazolamide...
October 1977: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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