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Michael D Masucci, Amanda Lister, Cheryl M Corcoran, Gary Brucato, Ragy R Girgis
The Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS) contains criteria for the Attenuated Positive Symptom Syndrome (APSS), a period of subthreshold positive symptoms that predates full-blown psychosis. Motor abnormalities are often associated with these symptoms but have not been adequately studied. We assessed a diverse sample of 192 APSS participants (27.1% female; 47.9% white; mean age = 20.03 years) for motor dysfunction (SIPS G.3. score) at baseline and conversion to psychosis every 3 months for up to 2 years...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Sri Kasi Matta, Chunmei Zhang, Yalong Jiao, Anthony O'Mullane, Aijun Du
The development of two-dimensional (2D) photocatalysts with excellent visible light absorption and favorable band alignment is critical for highly-efficient water splitting. Here we systematically study the structural, electronic and optical properties of an experimentally unexplored 2D Silicon Diphosphide (SiP2) based on density functional theory (DFT). We found that the single-layer SiP2 is highly feasible to obtain experimentally by mechanical cleavage and it is dynamically stable by analyzing its vibrational normal mode...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Li Cui, Kai Yang, Hong-Zhe Li, Han Zhang, Jian-Qiang Su, Maria Paraskevaidi, Francis Luke Martin, Bin Ren, Yong-Guan Zhu
Nitrogen (N) fixation is the conversion of inert nitrogen gas (N2) to bioavailable N essential for all forms of life. N2-fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs), which play a key role in global N cycling, remain largely obscure because a large majority are uncultured. Direct probing of active diazotrophs in the environment is still a major challenge. Herein, a novel culture-independent single-cell approach combining resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy with 15N2 stable isotope probing (SIP) was developed to discern N2-fixing bacteria in a complex soil community...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yu Xia, Xianghua Wen, Bing Zhang, Yunfeng Yang
Understanding diversity and assembly patterns of microbial communities in activated sludge (AS) is pivotal for addressing fundamental ecological questions and wastewater treatment engineering. Recent applications of molecular methods especially next generation sequencing (NGS) have led to the explosion of information about AS community diversity, including the identification of uncultured taxa, and characterization of low-abundance but environmentally important populations such as antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens...
March 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Marie Toutfaire, Elise Dumortier, Antoine Fattaccioli, Martine Van Steenbrugge, Charlotte M Proby, Florence Debacq-Chainiaux
Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common type of non-melanoma skin cancer in white-skinned populations. cSCC is associated with sun exposure and aging, which is concomitant with an accumulation of senescent cells in the skin. The involvement of senescent cells in carcinogenesis has been highlighted in several cancer types and an interaction between cSCC cells and senescent cells is proposed, but still little explored. Tumor-associated effects are mostly attributed to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Giorgio Vilardi, Thanasis Mpouras, Dimitris Dermatas, Nicola Verdone, Angeliki Polydera, Luca Di Palma
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) particles, as well as two nanocomposites based on these novel nanomaterials, were employed as nano-adsorbents for the removal of hexavalent chromium, selenium and cobalt, from aqueous solutions. Nanomaterials characterization included the determination of their point of zero charge and particle size distribution. CNTs were further analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy to determine their morphology and structural properties...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Shuming Qiu, Guoai Xu, Haseeb Ahmad, Yanhui Guo
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an extensive and esteemed communication protocol employed to regulate signaling as well as for controlling multimedia communication sessions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed an improved smart card based authentication scheme for SIP based on Farash's scheme. Farash claimed that his protocol is resistant against various known attacks. But, we observe some accountable flaws in Farash's protocol. We point out that Farash's protocol is prone to key-compromise impersonation attack and is unable to provide pre-verification in the smart card, efficient password change and perfect forward secrecy...
2018: PloS One
Yaoming Peng, Jiabin Lin, Junyan Ma, Kaiqing Lin, Kaihong Xu, Jun Lin
S100 calcium-binding protein A6 (S100A6) is up-regulated in many malignancies and overexpression of S100A6 has been identified associated with proliferation, migration and invasion phenotype in several cancer cells. In the present study, we explored whether S100A6 plays a role in the development of endometriosis. Significantly higher levels of mRNA and protein expression of S100A6 were observed in ectopic endometrial tissues compared to eutopic and normal endometrial tissues. Silencing of S100A6 in ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) significantly inhibited cell viability, migration and invasion...
March 16, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Shanshan Feng, Qiaozhi Zhou, Bo Yang, Qianqian Li, Aiqin Liu, Yingying Zhao, Changqing Qiu, Jun Ge, Huihong Zhai
BACKGROUND: Calcyclin Binding Protein/(Siah-1 interacting protein) (CacyBP/SIP) acts as an oncogene in colorectal cancer. The nuclear accumulation of CacyBP/SIP has been linked to the proliferation of cancer cells. It has been reported that intracellular Ca2+ induces the nuclear translocation of CacyBP/SIP. However, the molecular mechanism of CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to test whether the Ca2+-dependent binding partner S100 protein is involved in CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation in colon cancer SW480 cells...
2018: PloS One
Nishanth Makthal, Hackwon Do, Arica R VanderWal, Randall J Olsen, James M Musser, Muthiah Kumaraswami
Bacterial virulence factor production is a highly coordinated process. The temporal pattern of bacterial gene expression varies in different host anatomic sites to overcome niche-specific challenges. The human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS) produces a potent secreted protease, SpeB, that is crucial for pathogenesis. Recently, we discovered that a quorum-sensing pathway comprised of a leaderless short peptide, SpeB-inducing peptide (SIP), and cytosolic global regulator, RopB, controls speB expression in concert with bacterial population density...
March 12, 2018: Infection and Immunity
N-N Song, H-L Lu, C Lu, L Tong, S-Q Huang, X Huang, J Chen, Y-C Kim, W-X Xu
BACKGROUND: A major complication related to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in diabetic patients is chronic constipation. Constipation has serious negative impacts on quality of life; however, without a comprehensive understanding of the disease, currently available treatments cannot provide a cure. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive cells (PDGFRα+ cells), which form the SIP syncytium with interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscle cells, play important roles in GI motility...
March 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Yair Ziv, Kristen L Capps Umphlet, Stephanie Olarte, Jimmy Venza
The links between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), caregiver insightfulness and emotional availability, and the child's social information processing (SIP) and social behavior were examined in a sample of 15 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP). Children are typically referred to the TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Caregiver insightfulness was measured via an interview with the caregiver...
March 7, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Tero Tuomivirta, Minna Santalahti, Heikki Kiheri, Sari Timonen, Hui Sun, Hannu Fritze, Jussi Heinonsalo
Root-colonizing fungi can form mycorrhizal or endophytic associations with plant roots, the type of association depending on the host. We investigated the differences and similarities of the fungal communities of three boreal ericoid plants and one coniferous tree, and identified the community structure of fungi utilizing photosynthates from the plants studied. The fungal communities of roots and soils of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris and Pinus sylvestris were studied in an 18-month-long experiment where the plants were grown individually in natural substrate...
March 1, 2018: New Phytologist
Síntia Carla Corrêa Simioni, Michele Nayara Ribeiro, Vanessa Rios de Souza, Cleiton Antônio Nunes, Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro
In this study, we proposed the use of a multiple-sip temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) test alongside with an acceptance test over repeated consumption for the analysis of special beers, with the aim of contributing to a deeper understanding of consumer behavior regarding temporal descriptions and sensory acceptance. Consumers of special beers sequentially evaluated six sips of a particular type of beer by TDS analysis and an acceptance test was performed for each sip. Four different kinds of specialty beers were evaluated [Bohemian Pilsner (BP), Witbier (WB), Belgian Strong Ale Dubbel (BD), and Russian Imperial Stout (RS)]...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Talha Irfan Khan, Haris Sheh Zad, Ismail Lazoglu, Ozlem Yalcin
The aim of this work was to analyze a shrouded impeller pediatric ventricular assist device (SIP-VAD). This device has distinctive design characteristics and parameter optimizations for minimization of recirculation flow and reduction in high-stress regions that cause blood damage. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to analyze the optimized design. The bench-top prototype of SIP-VAD was manufactured with biocompatible stainless steel. A study on the hydrodynamic and hemodynamic performance of the SIP-VAD was conducted with predictions from CFD and actual experimentation values, and these results were compared...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Ilonka C Engelhardt, Amy Welty, Steven J Blazewicz, David Bru, Nadine Rouard, Marie-Christine Breuil, Arthur Gessler, Lucía Galiano, José Carlos Miranda, Aymé Spor, Romain L Barnard
Changes in frequency and amplitude of rain events, that is, precipitation patterns, result in different water conditions with soil depth, and likely affect plant growth and shape plant and soil microbial activity. Here, we used18 O stable isotope probing (SIP) to investigate bacterial and fungal communities that actively grew or not upon rewetting, at three different depths in soil mesocosms previously subjected to frequent or infrequent watering for 12 weeks (equal total water input). Phylogenetic marker genes for bacteria and fungi were sequenced after rewetting, and plant-soil microbial coupling documented by plant13 C-CO2 labeling...
February 23, 2018: ISME Journal
Jordan S Robinson, Robert L Collins, Brian I Miller, Vitor H Pacheco, Nicholas M Wisdom
Objective: The current study sought to evaluate and replicate the severe impairment profile (SIP) of the Word Memory Test (WMT) in patients referred for dementia evaluations. Method: The sample consisted of 125 patients referred for a neuropsychological evaluation at a large Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Patients were assigned a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) by blind raters, and were classified according to their performance on performance validity testing. Subsequent chart reviews were conducted to help in more accurately determining the presence of severe memory impairment likely due to an underlying dementing process versus poor effort/task engagement...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
S O'Toole, F Mullan
An acidic diet has been associated with erosive tooth wear. However, some people who consume dietary acids develop erosive tooth wear and some do not. This review paper provides an overview of the risk factors of dietary acid consumption which increase the likelihood of developing severe erosive tooth wear. Increased frequency of dietary acid consumption, particularly between meals appears to be the predominant risk factor. However, habitually drinking acidic drinks by sipping them slowly or swishing, rinsing or holding acidic drinks in the mouth before swallowing will also increase risk of progression...
February 23, 2018: British Dental Journal
Song-Can Chen, Gui-Lan Duan, Kai Ding, Fu-Yi Huang, Yong-Guan Zhu
Identifying functional microorganisms involved in the degradation of high-molecular-mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMM-PAHs) in agricultural soil environments could assist in developing bioremediation strategies for soil PAH-contamination. Active populations of HMM-PAHs degraders in agricultural soils are currently poorly understood. In this study, we identified aerobic pyrene-degrading bacteria in agricultural and industrial soils by 13C-pyrene incubations followed by DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and high-throughput sequencing...
February 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Sara J Kuik, Michelle E van der Laan, Margot T Brouwer-Bergsma, Jan B F Hulscher, Anthony R Absalom, Arend F Bos, Elisabeth M W Kooi
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants requiring surgery are at risk of impaired neurocognitive development caused, possibly, by cerebral ischemia associated with impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation (CAR). We evaluated CAR before, during, and after laparotomy. STUDY DESIGN: This was a hypothesis generating prospective observational cohort study. SUBJECTS: We included preterm infants requiring surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP)...
February 14, 2018: Early Human Development
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