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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107227/structural-level-differences-in-the-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-rate-in-south-africa-a-multilevel-assessment-of-individual-health-facility-and-provincial-level-predictors-of-infant-hiv-transmission
#1
S Woldesenbet, D J Jackson, C J Lombard, T H Dinh, V Ramokolo, T Doherty, G G Sherman, Y Pillay, A E Goga
OBJECTIVES: In 2010, South Africa reported an early mother to child transmission (MTCT) rate of 3.5% at 4-8 weeks postpartum. Provincial early MTCT rates ranged from 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-3.4%) to 5.9% (95% CI: 3.8-8.0%). We sought to determine reasons for these geographic differences in MTCT rates. METHODS: This study employed multilevel modelling using 2010 South African PMTCT evaluation (SAPMTCTE) data from 530 facilities. Interview data and infant blood samples were collected from 3085 mother-infant pairs at 4-8 weeks postpartum...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099649/revista-de-sa%C3%A3%C2%BAde-p%C3%A3%C2%BAblica-50-years-disseminating-the-knowledge-in-nutrition
#2
Rosely Sichieri, Rosangela A Pereira
This work describes and comments on articles in the area of Public Health Nutrition published in Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP - Public Health Journal) from 1967 to 2016. We searched in the PubMed database restricted to the periodical "Revista de Saúde Pública" and using terms related to key topics in the area of Public Health Nutrition. We retrieved 742 articles and, after exclusion of duplicates and articles unrelated to the subject, we analyzed 441 articles, grouped according to subject: dental caries, anemia, hypovitaminosis A, macro/micronutrients, malnutrition, nutritional assessment, overweight/obesity, food consumption, low birthweight, and breastfeeding...
December 22, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005394/the-past-and-future-of-breastfeeding-medicine-a-journal-for-a-defined-medical-specialty
#3
Arthur I Eidelman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984555/implementation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-life-in-pregnant-breastfeeding-hiv-women-option-b-alongside-rollout-and-changing-guidelines-for-art-initiation-in-rural-zimbabwe-the-lablite-project-experience
#4
Deborah Ford, Margaret Muzambi, Misheck J Nkhata, George Abongomera, Sarah Joseph, Makosonke Ndlovu, Travor Mabugu, Caroline Grundy, Adrienne K Chan, Fabian Cataldo, Cissy Kityo, Janet Seeley, Elly Katabira, Charles F Gilks, Andrew Reid, James Hakim, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Life-long ART for pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+) was rolled-out in Zimbabwe from 2014 with simultaneous raising of the CD4 treatment-threshold in non-pregnant/breastfeeding adults and children >5 years to 500 cells/mm. METHODS: Lablite is an implementation project in Zimbabwe, Malawi and Uganda evaluating ART rollout. Routine patient-level data were collected for 6 months prior to and 12 months after Option B+ rollout at a district hospital and three primary care facilities in Zimbabwe (two with outreach ART; one with no ART provision prior to Option B+)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959890/combined-oral-contraceptive-use-before-the-first-birth-and-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-risk
#5
Linda S Cook, Claire R Pestak, Andy Cy Leung, Helen Steed, Jill Nation, Kenneth Swenerton, Richard Gallagher, Anthony Magliocco, Martin Köbel, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Nhu Le
BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use reduces epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. However, little is known about risk with COC use before the first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). METHODS: This Canadian population-based case-control study (2001-2012) included 854 invasive cases/2139 controls aged ⩾40 years who were parous and had information on COC use. We estimated odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study site, age, parity, breastfeeding, age at FFTP, familial breast/ovarian cancer, tubal ligation, and body mass...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684560/methods-of-milk-expression-for-lactating-women
#6
Genevieve E Becker, Hazel A Smith, Fionnuala Cooney
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is important, however not all infants can feed at the breast and methods of expressing milk need evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To assess acceptability, effectiveness, safety, effect on milk composition, contamination and costs of methods of milk expression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (21 March 2016), handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings, and contacted experts in the field to seek additional published or unpublished studies...
September 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566421/progress-in-pediatrics-in-2015-choices-in-allergy-endocrinology-gastroenterology-genetics-haematology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-oncology-and-pulmonology
#7
EDITORIAL
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565200/postpartum-anxiety-and-infant-feeding-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Victoria Fallon, Rachael Groves, Jason Christian Grovenor Halford, Kate Mary Bennett, Joanne Allison Harrold
There is increasing evidence for the effect of postpartum anxiety (PPA) on maternal and infant health outcomes. Despite evidence linking suboptimal infant-feeding outcomes with other indices of maternal mental health, the relationship between PPA and infant feeding has not yet been reviewed. A systematic review with narrative synthesis was conducted to examine the relationship between PPA and infant-feeding outcomes. Electronic searches were performed using specific keywords (eg, "postnatal anxiet*"; "breastfeed*")...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564780/health-literacy-and-women-s-reproductive-health-a-systematic-review
#9
Kimberly A Kilfoyle, Michelle Vitko, Rachel O'Conor, Stacy Cooper Bailey
BACKGROUND: Health literacy is thought to impact women's reproductive health, yet no comprehensive systematic reviews have been conducted on the topic. Our objective was to systematically identify, investigate, and summarize research on the relationship between health literacy and women's reproductive health knowledge, behaviors, and outcomes. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines were used to guide this review. English language, peer-reviewed research articles indexed in MEDLINE as of February 2015 were searched, along with study results posted on Clinicaltrials...
December 2016: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460268/exclusive-breastfeeding-duration-and-infant-infection
#10
M A Quigley, C Carson, A Sacker, Y Kelly
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We estimated the risk of infection associated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). SUBJECT/METHODS: We analysed the data on 15 809 term, singleton infants from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Infants were grouped according to months of EBF: never, <2, 2-4, 4-6 and 6 (the latter being World Health Organisation (WHO) policy since 2001: 'post-2001 WHO policy'). Among those EBF for 4-6 months, we separated those who started solids, but not formula, before 6 months, and were still breastfeeding at 6 months (that is, WHO policy before 2001: 'pre-2001 WHO policy'), from other patterns...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297376/expectant-parents-views-of-factors-influencing-infant-feeding-decisions-in-the-antenatal-period-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Coralie L Roll, Francine Cheater
OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors that influence expectant parents' infant feeding decisions in the antenatal period. DESIGN: Mixed method systematic review focussing on participant views data. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL, Medline, Embase and PsychInfo databases were interrogated using initial keywords and then refined terms to elicit relevant studies. Reference lists were checked and hand-searching was undertaken for 2 journals ('Midwifery' and 'Social Science and Medicine') covering a 3 year time period (January 2011-March 2014)...
August 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245206/efficacy-of-a-galactogogue-containing-silymarin-phosphatidylserine-and-galega-in-mothers-of-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
E Zecca, A A Zuppa, A D'Antuono, E Tiberi, L Giordano, T Pianini, C Romagnoli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Human milk (HM) is the best possible food for all infants, especially for preterm ones, but lactation and breastfeeding are very difficult for mothers of preterm babies and high rates of breastfeeding difficulties have been reported. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of a galactogogue containing silymarin-phosphatidylserine and galega in increasing milk production during the first month after delivery in a population of mothers of preterm infants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Mothers of infants with gestational age (GA) between 27(+0) and 32(+6) weeks were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind, randomized trial and were randomly allocated to receive either the galactogogue containing silymarin-phosphatidylserine and galega, 5 g/day (galactogogue group, GG), or a placebo, 5 g of lactose per day (placebo group, PG) from the 3rd to the 28th day after delivery...
June 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228507/a-well-baby-peer-counseling-program-is-not-associated-with-human-milk-receipt-in-the-nicu
#13
E Cornell, T Lerer, J I Hagadorn, D J Chapman, M Lussier, E Brownell
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of a non-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)-specific peer counseling (PC) program on the cessation of human milk receipt at and post-NICU discharge. STUDY DESIGN: A multivariable logistic regression model used data from 400 mother-infant dyads from a level IV NICU to compare cessation of human milk receipt at NICU discharge by PC program status. Kaplan-Meier distributions and a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model assessed the relationship between participants/non-participants and cessation of human milk post-NICU discharge...
September 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087576/doubly-blind-a-systematic-review-of-gender-in-randomised-controlled-trials
#14
REVIEW
Susan P Phillips, Katarina Hamberg
BACKGROUND: Although observational data show social characteristics such as gender or socio-economic status to be strong predictors of health, their impact is seldom investigated in randomised controlled studies (RCTs). OBJECTIVE & DESIGN: Using a random sample of recent RCTs from high-impact journals, we examined how the most often recorded social characteristic, sex/gender, is considered in design, analysis, and interpretation. Of 712 RCTs published from September 2008 to 31 December 2013 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Lancet, Canadian Medical Association Journal, or New England Journal of Medicine, we randomly selected 57 to analyse funding, methods, number of centres, documentation of social circumstances, inclusion/exclusion criteria, proportions of women/men, and reporting about sex/gender in analyses and discussion...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27067889/cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-financial-incentive-for-mothers-to-improve-breast-feeding-in-areas-with-low-breastfeeding-rates-the-nosh-study-protocol
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Clare Relton, Mark Strong, Mary J Renfrew, Kate Thomas, Julia Burrows, Barbara Whelan, Heather M Whitford, Elaine Scott, Julia Fox-Rushby, Nana Anoyke, Sabina Sanghera, Maxine Johnson, Easton Sue, Stephen Walters
INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies...
April 11, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27026428/bioimpedance-spectroscopy-in-the-infant-effect-of-milk-intake-and-extracellular-fluid-reservoirs-on-resistance-measurements-in-term-breastfed-infants
#16
Z Gridneva, A R Hepworth, L C Ward, C T Lai, P E Hartmann, D T Geddes
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bioimpedance spectroscopy is an accurate non-invasive method for measuring body composition in adults, but in infants it requires further testing and validation. Of the few studies of bioimpedance conducted in infants, none have comprehensively investigated the effect of milk intake volume. This study assessed the effect of the milk intake, feed duration and the volume of the infant's stomach and bladder on the resistance values pre-/post-feed to establish the feasibility of using these values interchangeably during data collection...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004492/antenatal-breastfeeding-intention-confidence-and-comfort-in-obese-and-non-obese-primiparous-australian-women-associations-with-breastfeeding-duration
#17
R M Newby, P S W Davies
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal adiposity is known to affect breastfeeding initiation and duration via both antenatal and postnatal factors. This study investigates associations between maternal pregravid body mass index (BMI), breastfeeding duration and antenatal breastfeeding confidence, intention and social comfort among primiparous Australian women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Women in their first pregnancy (n=462) were recruited by convenience sampling in Queensland, Australia...
August 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26914010/the-effect-of-between-breast-differences-on-human-milk-macronutrients-content
#18
N Pines, D Mandel, F B Mimouni, H Moran Lev, L Mangel, R Lubetzky
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the effect of maternal handedness and preferential side of breastfeeding upon macronutrients concentration in human milk (HM). We aimed to compare macronutrients content of HM from both breasts, taking into account the self-reported preferential feeding ('dominant') breast, breast size and handedness (right versus left). We tested the null hypothesis that macronutrients content of HM is not affected by breast dominancy, breast size or maternal handedness...
July 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26902540/health-regulatory-communications-of-well-established-safety-related-pharmacogenomics-associations-in-six-developed-countries-an-evaluation-of-alignment
#19
W C Tan-Koi, Evelyn S H Lim, Y Y Teo
Recommendations on genetic testing are typically conveyed by drug regulatory authorities through drug labels, which are legal requirements for market authorization of drugs. We conducted a cross-sectional study of drug labels focusing on three crucial aspects of regulatory pharmacogenomics communications: (i) intent; (ii) interpretation in the local context; and (iii) implications of the genetic information. Labels of drugs associated with well-established safety-related genetic markers for adverse drug reactions across six developed countries of United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Singapore were reviewed...
February 23, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26856486/efficacy-of-the-theory-of-planned-behavior-in-predicting-breastfeeding-meta-analysis-and-structural-equation-modeling
#20
J L Guo, T F Wang, J Y Liao, C M Huang
PURPOSE: This study assessed the applicability and efficacy of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting breastfeeding. BACKGROUND: The TPB assumes a rational approach for engaging in various behaviors, and has been used extensively for explaining health behavior. However, most studies have tested the effectiveness of TPB constructs in predicting how people perform actions for their own benefit rather than performing behaviors that are beneficial to others, such as breastfeeding infants...
February 2016: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
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