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Physiology running

Mohammad Zarei, Arvin Najafi, Pejman Mansouri, Sadaf Sadeghi-Yazdankhah, Houshang Saberi, Mehran Moradi, Mahmoud Farzan
OBJECTIVES: Despite the progress in understanding acute pain physiology during recent decade, eighty percent of patients still suffer from post-operative discomfort. Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant agent that is approved for painful neuropathies in diabetic patients and post herpetic neuralgia. The main objective of the present study was to compare the improvement in post-operative pain management and patient lifestyle in 3 groups, as first group received placebo, second who received Pregabalin for one day and the last group those who received it for 14 days...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Rosario Scarfone, Antonio Ammendolia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands and technical-tactical performances of field players in Italian elite beach soccer team. METHODS: Three official matches of the Italian First Division beach soccer tournament were analyzed to evaluate the heart rate (HR) and time-motion analysis considering: standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting, and technical-tactical aspects. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of time on the physiological measures and time motion analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Cory W Baumann, Dongmin Kwak
PURPOSE: Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood's oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation...
September 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Laura A Thompson, Tracy A Romano
Increased pressure, associated with diving, can alter cell function through several mechanisms and has been shown to impact immune functions performed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in humans. While marine mammals possess specific adaptations which protect them from dive related injury, it is unknown how their immune system is adapted to the challenges associated with diving. The purpose of this study was to measure PBMC activation (IL2R expression) and Concanavalin A induced lymphocyte proliferation (BrdU incorporation) in belugas following in vitro pressure exposures during baseline, Out of Water Examination (OWE) and capture/release conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Nooshin Atashfeshan, Hamideh Razavi
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of the effect of mental fatigue on a cognitive task and determination of the right start time for rest breaks in work environments. BACKGROUND: Mental fatigue has been recognized as one of the most important factors influencing individual performance. Subjective and physiological measures are popular methods for analyzing fatigue, but they are restricted to physical experiments. Computational cognitive models are useful for predicting operator performance and can be used for analyzing fatigue in the design phase, particularly in industrial operations and inspections where cognitive tasks are frequent and the effects of mental fatigue are crucial...
October 13, 2016: Human Factors
Jin-Jin Lu, Bing-Jie Jia, Lin Yang, Wen Zhang, Xin Dong, Ping Li, Jun Chen
It has been proved that the purine metabolic pathway has been implicated in various biological disorders including gout, diabetes, coronary heart diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of the purine metabolic pathway in organisms reveals important alterations under different physiological and pathological conditions, which contributes to the pathological study, diagnosis, and therapy of related diseases. In the present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-UV-MS/MS) method was developed for conducting the comprehensive analysis of the metabolite profiles of the purine pathway in rat plasma through a single analysis...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Helios Pareja Galeano, Jose A Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jos J de Koning, Alejandro Lucia, Carl Foster
Despite some advances, how the millions of variations in the human genome influence athletic performance (especially in endurance events) remains largely unknown, and no single genetic test can really predict sports talent. However, there is experimental evidence coming from animal research that selecting for even a simple characteristic like running ability, can produce comparatively large and rapid changes in performance. That such selection has not been specifically documented in humans is more evidence of the limits of physiology-archeology than of the unlikelihood of selection for physical abilities...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Oliver Rawashdeh, Shannon J Clough, Randall L Hudson, Margarita L Dubocovich
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-often referred to as the master circadian clock-is essential in generating physiologic rhythms and orchestrating synchrony among circadian clocks. This study tested the hypothesis that periodic motivation induced by rhythmically pairing 2 reinforcing stimuli [methamphetamine (METH) and running wheel (RW)] restores autonomous circadian activity in arrhythmic SCN-lesioned (SCNX) C3H/HeN mice. Sham-operated and SCNX mice were treated with either METH (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle in association, dissociation, or absence of an RW...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
W P Martins, C O Nastri, L Rienzi, S Z van der Poel, C Gracia, C Racowsky
OBJECTIVES: Blastocyst transfer could be advantageous because it allows a more physiologic timing of exposure of the embryo to the uterine environment and permit embryo self-selection after activation of the embryonic genome on day 3. Conversely, the in vitro environment is probably inferior to that provided in vivo and in vitro culture beyond embryonic genomic activation could potentially harm embryos. Our objective was to identify, appraise and summarize the available evidence comparing the effectiveness of blastocyst and cleavage stage embryo transfer...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Anne Hseu, Mykayla Sandler, Dawn Ericson, Nohamin Ayele, Kosuke Kawai, Roger Nuss
INTRODUCTION: Although dyspnea with exercise in the pediatric population can be multifactorial, the diagnosis of paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (PVFMD) in this group is not well characterized. The objective of this study is to review the multiple causes of dyspnea with exercise in children, including the prevalence of PVFMD within this study population. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients seen at a tertiary pediatric hospital for exercise-induced dyspnea suspected to be related to PVFMD between January 2007 and July 2015...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Daniel Guerreiro Diniz, Marcus Augusto de Oliveira, Camila Mendes de Lima, César Augusto Raiol Fôro, Marcia Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, João Bento-Torres, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Daniel Clive Anthony, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the glial response to a standard environment and how the response may be associated with age-related cognitive decline in learning and memory. Here we investigated aging and environmental influences on hippocampal-dependent tasks and on the morphology of an unbiased selected population of astrocytes from the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, which is the main target of perforant pathway. RESULTS: Six and twenty-month-old female, albino Swiss mice were housed, from weaning, in a standard or enriched environment, including running wheels for exercise and tested for object recognition and contextual memories...
October 10, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Chun-Mei Wang, Zeng-Run Xia, Guo-Qiang Wu, Hui-Jun Yuan, Xin-Rui Wang, Jin-Hua Li, Fu-Ping Tian, Qian Zhang, Xin-Qiang Zhu, Jiong-Jie He, Tanweer Kumar, Xiao-Li Wang, Jin-Lin Zhang
Hordeum brevisubulatum, called as wild barley, is a useful monocotyledonous halophyte for soil improvement in northern China. Although previously studied, its main salt tolerance mechanism remained controversial. The current work showed that shoot Na(+) concentration was increased rapidly with stress time and significantly higher than in wheat during 0-168h of 100mM NaCl treatment. Similar results were also found under 25 and 50mM NaCl treatments. Even K(+) was increased from 0.01 to 50mM in the cultural solution, no significant effect was found on tissue Na(+) concentrations...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Marie Aarrebo Jensen, Åse Marie Hansen, Jesper Kristiansen, Kirsten Nabe-Nielsen, Anne Helene Garde
Night work is associated with a large range of acute health problems and possibly also health consequences in the long run. Yet, only very few field studies specifically investigate the effects of consecutive night shift on key physiological regulatory systems. In this field study, we investigated the effects of consecutive night shifts on three hormones, melatonin, cortisol, and testosterone, among police officers at work. More specifically, the aim was to investigate how the diurnal rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, and testosterone responded to two, four, and seven consecutive night shifts and a corresponding number of days for recovery...
August 11, 2016: Chronobiology International
Tatsuro Amano, Masaki Ishitobi, Yukio Ogura, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Shunsaku Koga, Takeshi Nishiyasu, Narihiko Kondo
Changing stride frequency may influence oxygen uptake and heart rate during running as a function of running economy and central command. This study investigated the influence of stride frequency manipulation on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running. Seven healthy endurance runners ran on a treadmill at a velocity of 15km/h for 60min in a controlled environmental chamber (ambient temperature 27°C and relative humidity 50%), and stride frequency was manipulated. Stride frequency was intermittently manipulated by increasing and decreasing frequency by 10% from the pre-determined preferred frequency...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Hideyuki Nukaga, Tomotaka Takeda, Kazunori Nakajima, Keishiro Narimatsu, Takamitsu Ozawa, Keiichi Ishigami, Kazuo Funato
Teeth clenching has been shown to improve remote muscle activity (by augmentation of the Hoffmann reflex), and joint fixation (by decreased reciprocal inhibition) in the entire body. Clenching could help maintain balance, improve systemic function, and enhance safety. Teeth clenching from a sports dentistry viewpoint was thought to be important and challenging. Therefore, it is quite important to investigate mastication muscles' activity and function during sports events for clarifying a physiological role of the mastication muscle itself and involvement of mastication muscle function in whole body movement...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
Ravishekar Ravi Kannan, Z J Chen, Narender Singh, Andrzej Przekwas, Renishkumar Delvadia, Geng Tian, Ross Walenga
The models used for modeling the airflow in the human airways are either 0D compartmental or full 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. In the former, airways are treated as compartments and the computations are performed with several assumptions, thereby generating a low fidelity solution. The CFD method displays extremely high fidelity since the solution is obtained by solving the conservation equations in a physiologically consistent geometry. However, CFD models (i) require millions of degrees of freedom (DOF) to accurately describe the geometry and to reduce the discretization errors, (ii) have convergence problems and (iii) require several days to simulate a few breathing cycles...
October 5, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Martine van Zijll Langhout, Charles G B Caraguel, Jacobus P Raath, Wayne S J Boardman
Nineteen white rhinoceroses ( Ceratotherium simum ) were anesthetized with 4 mg of etorphine hydrochloride; 35-40 mg of midazolam; and 7,500 international units of hyaluronidase for dehorning purposes at a game ranch in South Africa, to investigate this anesthetic combination. Median time to recumbency was 548 sec (range 361-787 sec). Good muscle relaxation and no muscle rigidity or tremors were observed in 18 animals, and only 1 individual showed slight tremors. In addition, all animals received butorphanol i...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
M B Rominger, E-M Müller-Stuler, M Pinto, A S Becker, K Martini, T Frauenfelder, V Klingmüller
PURPOSE: To build a simple model to teach and validate non-pulsatile and pulsatile flow quantification in ultrasound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The setting consists of the following connected components: (1) medical syringe pump producing an adjustable constant flow (ml/min), (2) modulator modifying constant flow to a reproducible pulsatile flow, (3) water tank containing a diagonal running silicone tube (0.5 mm inner diameter), and (4) a fixated ultrasound probe (L9 Linear Array 9 MHz, GE Logiq E9) measuring the flow inside the tube...
September 2016: Ultrasound Int Open
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