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Physiology running

Toni Caparrós, Martí Casals, Álvaro Solana, Javier Peña
The primary purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for sports injuries in professional basketball. An observational retrospective cohort study involving a male professional basketball team, using game tracking data was conducted during three consecutive seasons. Thirty-three professional basketball players took part in this study. A total of 29 time-loss injuries were recorded during regular season games, accounting for 244 total missed games with a mean of 16.26 ± 15.21 per player and season...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Julita Sadowska, Andrzej K Gębczyński, Marek Konarzewski
The majority of studies show that metabolic rates are usually repeatable at the individual level, although their repeatabilities tend to decline with time and to be strongly affected by physiological changes. Changes in individual repeatabilities may therefore affect putative differences between experimental groups or populations. This problem is particularly relevant to artificial selection experiments that apply the selection protocol at early life stages, running the risk of a poor correlation of the trait with itself throughout the life cycle of individuals...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Yun Xie, Zhanchao Li, Jian Zhou
The Hamiltonian replica exchange Monte Carlo (H-REMC) algorithm was applied to study protein adsorption and its performance was compared with that of the temperature replica exchange Monte Carlo (T-REMC). Comparisons indicate that the simulation results are consistent but the computational efficiency is improved for H-REMC. H-REMC could accurately and efficiently identify the preferred orientations of glucose oxidase (GOx) on charged surfaces; different preferential GOx orientations on different surfaces and solution conditions could be spotted with a much fewer number of simulation runs...
May 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiaomei Kang, Qingqun Kong, Yi Zeng, Bo Xu
Compared to computer vision systems, the human visual system is more fast and accurate. It is well accepted that V1 neurons can well encode contour information. There are plenty of computational models about contour detection based on the mechanism of the V1 neurons. Multiple-cue inhibition operator is one well-known model, which is based on the mechanism of V1 neurons' non-classical receptive fields. However, this model is time-consuming and noisy. To solve these two problems, we propose an improved model which integrates some additional other mechanisms of the primary vision system...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Per Morten Fredriksen, Asgeir Mamen, Heidi Gammelsrud, Morten Lindberg, Ole Petter Hjelle
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting running performance in children. METHOD: A cross-sectional study exploring the relationships between height, weight, waist circumference, muscle mass, body fat percentage, relevant biomarkers, and the Andersen intermittent running test in 2272 children aged 6 to 12 years. Parental education level was used as a non-physiological explanatory variable. RESULTS: Mean values (SD) and percentiles are presented as reference values...
May 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Ross A Chesham, Josephine N Booth, Emma L Sweeney, Gemma C Ryde, Trish Gorely, Naomi E Brooks, Colin N Moran
BACKGROUND: The Daily Mile is a physical activity programme made popular by a school in Stirling, Scotland. It is promoted by the Scottish Government and is growing in popularity nationally and internationally. The aim is that each day, during class time, pupils run or walk outside for 15 min (~1 mile) at a self-selected pace. It is anecdotally reported to have a number of physiological benefits including increased physical activity, reduced sedentary behaviour, increased fitness and improved body composition...
May 10, 2018: BMC Medicine
Ioan O Neaga, Stephanie Hambye, Ede Bodoki, Claudio Palmieri, Eugénie Ansseau, Alexandra Belayew, Radu Oprean, Bertrand Blankert
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominantly inherited degenerative disease with a slow progression. At the present, there is no commercially available treatment, but sustained effort is currently undertaken for the development of a promising lead compound. In the present paper we report the development of a fast, versatile, and cost-effective affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) method for the screening and identification of potential drug candidates targeting pathological ARN probes relevant for DM1...
May 8, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Paulo A I Pontes, Rafael O Chaves, Roberto C Castro, Érica F de Souza, Marcos C R Seruffo, Carlos R L Francês
Background: The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most used diagnostic tool in medicine; in this sense, it is essential that medical undergraduates learn how to interpret it correctly while they are still on training. Naturally, they go through classic learning (e.g., lectures and speeches). However, they are not often efficiently trained in analyzing ECG results. In this regard, methodologies such as other educational support tools in medical practice, such as educational software, should be considered a valuable approach for medical training purposes...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jeong Rim Ko, Dae Yun Seo, Se Hwan Park, Hyo Bum Kwak, Min Kim, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
Cereblon (CRBN) has been reported as a negative regulator of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Aerobic exercise training has been shown to increase AMPK, which resulted in glucose regulation in skeletal muscle. However, the expression level of CRBN and its interaction with the physiological modulation of glucose are still unclear. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-week-old, n = 18) were assigned to control, streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg)-induced diabetic group, and STZ + exercise (STZ + EXE) group with six rats in each group...
May 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sarah E Fritz, Nazmul Haque, J Robert Hogg
Cell-free systems are widely used to study mechanisms and regulation of translation, but the use of in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNAs as translation substrates limits their efficiency and utility. Here, we present an approach for in vitro translation of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes affinity purified in association with tagged mRNAs expressed in mammalian cells. We show that in vitro translation of purified mRNPs is much more efficient than that achieved using standard IVT mRNA substrates and is compatible with physiological ionic conditions...
May 3, 2018: RNA
Sin Ho Kweon, Jongbin Lee, Chunghun Lim, Joonho Choe
Post-translational control is a crucial mechanism for circadian timekeeping. Evolutionarily conserved kinases and phosphatases have been implicated in circadian phosphorylation and degradation of clock-relevant proteins, which sustain high-amplitude rhythms with 24 hr periodicity in animal behaviors and physiology. Here, we report a novel clock function of the heterodimeric Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin and its regulator sarah ( sra ) in Drosophila Genomic deletion of the sra locus dampened circadian locomotor activity rhythms in free-running constant dark after entrainment in light-dark cycles...
May 3, 2018: Genetics
Brian Hanley, Florentina J Hettinga
The aim of this study was to analyse qualification patterns in middle distance running and identify whether athletes adopt theoretically optimal tactics, or whether the will to win overrides these. The performances of 295 men and 258 women finalists in the Olympic and IAAF World Championship 800 m and 1500 m events from 1999 to 2017 were analysed across all three rounds of competition. Finishing position, time and ranking amongst all competitors were found for each athlete. Position in the final was correlated with finishing position in the heats and semi-finals (all P < 0...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Volker Scheer, Leoni Cramer, Hans-Christian Heitkamp
BACKGROUND: Running is a popular recreational activity and additional weight is often carried in backpacks on longer runs. Our aim was to examine running economy and other physiological parameters while running with a 1kg and 3 kg backpack at different submaximal running velocities. METHODS: 10 male recreational runners (age 25 ± 4.2 years, VO2peak 60.5 ± 3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed runs on a motorized treadmill of 5 minutes durations at three different submaximal speeds of 70, 80 and 90% of anaerobic lactate threshold (LT) without additional weight, and carrying a 1kg and 3 kg backpack...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Patrick J Griffin, Luke Hughes, Conor Gissane, Stephen D Patterson
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of local and remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on repeated sprint exercise. METHODS: Twelve males (age 22 ± 2 years; stature 1.79±0.07 m; body mass 77.8±8.4 kg; mean ± SD) completed four trials consisting of remote (arm) and local (leg) IPC and SHAM interventions prior to repeated sprint exercise (3 x (6 x 15 + 15-m) shuttle sprints), in a double-blind, randomised, crossover designed study. These tests were immediately preceded by IPC (4 x 5 minute intervals at 220 mmHg bilateral occlusion) or SHAM treatment (4 x 5 minute intervals at 20 mmHg bilateral occlusion)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
César Augusto da Silva, Lucas Helal, Roberto Pacheco da Silva, Karlyse Claudino Belli, Daniel Umpierre, Ricardo Stein
BACKGROUND: Although compression garments are used to improve sports performance, methodological approaches and the direction of evidence regarding garments for use in high-intensity exercise settings are diverse. OBJECTIVES: Our primary aim was to summarize the association between lower-limb compression garments (LLCGs) and changes in sports performance during high-intensity exercise. We also aimed to summarize evidence about the following physiological parameters related to sports performance: vertical jump height (VJ), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2 submax), blood lactate concentrations ([La]), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, 6-20 Borg scale)...
May 2, 2018: Sports Medicine
Long Tang, Amelia A Wolf, Yang Gao, Cheng Huan Wang
In an attempt to clarify the role of environmental and biotic interactions on plant growth, there has been a long-running ecological debate over whether the intensity and importance of competition stabilizes, increases or decreases across environmental gradients. We conducted an experiment in a Chinese estuary to investigate the effects of a non-resource stress gradient, soil salinity (from 1.4‰ to 19.0‰ salinity), on the competitive interactions between native Phragmites australis and invasive Spartina alterniflora...
May 1, 2018: Ecology
Nuttiiya Seekhao, Caroline Shung, Joseph JaJa, Luc Mongeau, Nicole Y K Li-Jessen
Fast and accurate computational biology models offer the prospect of accelerating the development of personalized medicine. A tool capable of estimating treatment success can help prevent unnecessary and costly treatments and potential harmful side effects. A novel high-performance Agent-Based Model (ABM) was adopted to simulate and visualize multi-scale complex biological processes arising in vocal fold inflammation and repair. The computational scheme was designed to organize the 3D ABM sub-tasks to fully utilize the resources available on current heterogeneous platforms consisting of multi-core CPUs and many-core GPUs...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Toru Ishihara, Noriteru Morita, Toshihiro Nakajima, Koichi Okita, Masato Sagawa, Koji Yamatsu
The aim of this study was to determine, using structural equation modeling, the comprehensive relationships of achievement motivation (self-fulfillment achievement motivation [SFAM] and competitive achievement motivation [CAM]), daily behaviors (exercise habits, screen time, and learning duration), body mass index [BMI], and cardiorespiratory fitness [CRF]) with academic performance among schoolchildren. Three hundred twenty-five schoolchildren (172 males and 153 females; 12-13 years old) were recruited. Academic performance was assessed using the total grade points in 8 academic subjects (GP8); CRF using the 20-m shuttle run; and achievement motivation, daily behaviors, and socioeconomic status using questionnaires...
April 25, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Run Chu, Nian Lai Chen
The effects of different intensities of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic characteristics, photosynthetic pigment content and chloroplast ultrastructure of Phragmites australis were studied in this paper. The results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and the degree of degradation increased with the increasing irradiation intensity. The intercellular CO2 content increased and the photosynthetic efficiency decreased significantly compared with the control...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Fuxun Ai, Nico Eisenhauer, Yuwei Xie, Jianguo Zhu, Alexandre Jousset, Wenchao Du, Ying Yin, Xiaowei Zhang, Rong Ji, Hongyan Guo
The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in the environment have been rising due to human activities. Elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels have been shown to affect plant physiology and soil microbes, which may alter the degradation of organic pollutants. Here, we study the effect of eCO2 on PAH accumulation in a paddy soil grown with rice. We collected soil and plant samples after rice harvest from a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system, which had already run for more than 15 years...
2018: PloS One
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