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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905293/long-term-exercise-in-mice-has-sex-dependent-benefits-on-body-composition-and-metabolism-during-aging
#1
Rachel C McMullan, Scott A Kelly, Kunjie Hua, Brian K Buckley, James E Faber, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Daniel Pomp
Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901338/determinant-factors-of-peak-treadmill-speed-in-physically-active-men
#2
Leonardo Alves Pasqua, Mayara V Damasceno, Salomão Bueno, Alessandro M Zagatto, Gustavo G DE Araújo, Adriano E Lima-Silva, Rômulo Bertuzzi
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to determine whether physiological factors and maximal dynamic strength are able to determine the peak treadmill speed (PTS) in physically active individuals. METHODS: One hundred and fifty physically active healthy males voluntarily visit the laboratory on three separate occasions and underwent the following activities: first visit: IPAQ (short version), anthropometric measurements, and a maximal incremental test performed for physiological variables (maximal oxygen uptake ( ) and respiratory compensation point (RCP); second visit: constant speed test for running economy (RE) measurement, and familiarization with the maximum dynamic strength (1RM) test in the leg press exercise; third visit: 1RM test...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900880/associations-of-nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-gene-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-with-sport-performance-and-relative-maximal-oxygen-uptake
#3
Jiang-Hua Li, Wei Chen, Xiao-Juan Zhu, Ya-Jun Lin, Li-Qiang Qiu, Can-Xin Cai, Ya-Hui Wang, Qun Xiong, Fei Chen, Li-Hui Chen
To observe the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) gene and sport performance and to analyse genotype associations of the associated SNPs with sport performance and relative maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]). Participants were selected from 685 Chinese Han male college students. The completion times of a 1000-m run and a 50-m run were used to reflect sport performance, respectively. Nineteen tagSNPs were genotyped with Polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896819/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-outcomes-after-the-comprehensive-stage-ii-procedure-in-patients-with-single-ventricles
#4
Daniel Gomez, Vicky Duffy, Diane Hersey, Carl Backes, Peter Rycus, Patrick McConnell, Jordan Voss, Mark Galantowicz, Clifford L Cua
Outcomes for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been described for patients with single ventricle physiology (SVP) undergoing cavopulmonary connection (Glenn procedure). An alternative surgical pathway for patients with SVP consists of an initial hybrid procedure followed by a comprehensive Stage II procedure. No data exist describing the outcomes of patients requiring ECMO after the comprehensive Stage II procedure. The goal of this study is to describe the outcomes for patients who required ECMO after the comprehensive Stage II procedure...
November 29, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895900/nutritional-implications-for-ultra-endurance-walking-and-running-events
#5
REVIEW
Eric Williamson
This paper examines the various nutritional challenges which athletes encounter in preparing for and participating in ultra-endurance walking and running events. Special attention is paid to energy level, performance, and recovery within the context of athletes' intake of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and various vitamins and minerals. It outlines, by way of a review of literature, those factors which promote optimal performance for the ultra-endurance athlete and provides recommendations from multiple researchers concerned with the nutrition and performance of ultra-endurance athletes...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895594/larval-exposure-to-chlorpyrifos-affects-nutritional-physiology-and-induces-genotoxicity-in-silkworm-philosamia-ricini-lepidoptera-saturniidae
#6
Moni K Kalita, Kishor Haloi, Dipali Devi
Chlorpyrifos is a most widely used organophosphate insecticide because of its cost effectiveness and degradable nature. However, this pesticide enters and contaminates the environment either by direct application, spray drifts or crop run off and shows adverse effect on the non-targeted organisms. Philosamia ricini (eri silkworm), one of the most exploited, domesticated and commercialized non mulberry silkworm is known for mass production of eri silk. The silkworm larvae get exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of food plants...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891171/a-rapid-approach-to-investigate-spatiotemporal-distribution-of-phytohormones-in-rice
#7
Wen-Jing Cai, Tian-Tian Ye, Qing Wang, Bao-Dong Cai, Yu-Qi Feng
BACKGROUND: Phytohormones play crucial roles in almost all stages of plant growth and development. Accurate and simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones enabled us to better understand the physiological functions and the regulatory networks of phytohormones. However, simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones in plant is still a challenge due to their low concentrations, structural and chemical diversity, and complex matrix of plant tissues. Therefore, development of a simple and selective method for the simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones is highly needed...
2016: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884206/large-scale-benchmarking-reveals-false-discoveries-and-count-transformation-sensitivity-in-16s-rrna-gene-amplicon-data-analysis-methods-used-in-microbiome-studies
#8
Jonathan Thorsen, Asker Brejnrod, Martin Mortensen, Morten A Rasmussen, Jakob Stokholm, Waleed Abu Al-Soud, Søren Sørensen, Hans Bisgaard, Johannes Waage
BACKGROUND: There is an immense scientific interest in the human microbiome and its effects on human physiology, health, and disease. A common approach for examining bacterial communities is high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, aggregating sequence-similar amplicons into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Strategies for detecting differential relative abundance of OTUs between sample conditions include classical statistical approaches as well as a plethora of newer methods, many borrowing from the related field of RNA-seq analysis...
November 25, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875261/the-apparently-contradictory-energetics-of-hopping-and-running-the-counter-intuitive-effect-of-constraints-resolves-the-paradox
#9
Anne K Gutmann, John E A Bertram
Metabolic rate appears to increase with rate of force application for running. Leg function during ground contact is similar in hopping and running so one might expect that this relationship would hold for hopping as well. Surprisingly, metabolic rate appeared to decrease with increasing force rate for hopping. However, this paradox is the result of comparing different cross sections of the metabolic cost landscapes for hopping and running. The apparent relationship between metabolic rate and force rate observed in treadmill running is likely not a fundamental characteristic of muscle physiology, but a result of runners responding to speed constraints, i...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874965/somatostatin-agonist-pasireotide-inhibits-exercise-stimulated-growth-in-the-male-siberian-hamster-phodopus-sungorus
#10
Rebecca Dumbell, Ines Petri, Frank Scherbarth, Victoria Diedrich, Herbert A Schmid, Stephan Steinlechner, Perry Barrett
The Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is a seasonal mammal, exhibiting a suite of physiologically and behaviourally distinct traits dependent on the time of year and governed by changes in perceived day length (photoperiod). These attributes include significant weight loss, reduced food intake, gonadal atrophy, and pelage change with short day photoperiod as in winter. The central mechanisms driving seasonal phenotype change during winter are mediated by a reduced availability of hypothalamic tri-iodothyronine (T3), but downstream mechanisms responsible for physiological and behavioural changes are yet to be fully elucidated...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869182/the-effects-of-non-self-sustained-oscillators-on-the-en-trainment-ability-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#11
Changgui Gu, Ming Tang, Jos H T Rohling, Huijie Yang
In mammals, the circadian rhythms of behavioral and physiological activities are regulated by an endogenous clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN is composed of ~20,000 neurons, of which some are capable of self-sustained oscillations, while the others do not oscillate in a self-sustainable manner, but show arrhythmic patterns or damped oscillations. Thus far, the effects of these non-self-sustained oscillatory neurons are not fully explored. Here, we examined how the proportion of the non-self-sustained oscillators affects the free running period under constant darkness and the ability to entrain to the light-dark cycle...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849498/explaining-performance-on-military-tasks-in-the-canadian-armed-forces-the-importance-of-morphological-and-physical-fitness-characteristics
#12
Hans Christian Tingelstad, Daniel Theoret, Michael Spicovck, Francois Haman
Several occupations apply physical fitness tests to assess occupational physical performance to confirm that their employees meet minimum physical employment standards. Knowledge about factors affecting performance on these physical fitness tests could provide valuable information concerning mode of training. The main purpose of this study was to determine which morphological and/or physiological characteristics could explain overall performance outcome on six complex military tasks used to measure Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members' occupational fitness...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846901/a-method-for-automated-pathogenic-content-estimation-with-application-to-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Xiaoyuan Zhou, Christine Nardini
BACKGROUND: Sequencing technologies applied to mammals' microbiomes have revolutionized our understanding of health and disease. Hence, to assess diseases' progression as well as therapies longterm effects, the impact of maladies and drugs on the gut-intestinal (GI) microbiome has to be evaluated. Typical metagenomic analyses are run to associate to a condition (disease, therapy, diet) a pool of bacteria, whose eubiotic/dysbiotic potential is assessed either by α-diversity, a measure of the varieties populating the microbiome, or by Firmicutes to Bacteroides ratio, associated to systemic inflammation, and finally by manual and direct inspection of bacteria's biological functions, when known...
November 15, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837269/internal-and-external-morphology-of-adults-of-the-appendicularian-oikopleura-dioica-an-sem-study
#14
Takeshi A Onuma, Miho Isobe, Hiroki Nishida
The appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, is a planktonic tunicate that retains a swimming tadpole shape throughout its life. It has relatively few cells and exhibits fast development, yet it has a basic chordate body plan. In this study, the morphology of adults was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fine 3D images of most organs were taken. The trunk epidermis is organized into bilateral territories secreting the house that includes the food-trapping filter. The pharynx extends ventrally and posteriorly to the gill openings and esophagus, respectively...
November 11, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837099/tau-isoforms-imbalance-impairs-the-axonal-transport-of-the-amyloid-precursor-protein-in-human-neurons
#15
Valentina Lacovich, Sonia L Espindola, Matías Alloatti, Victorio Pozo Devoto, Lucas Cromberg, Mária Čarná, Giancarlo Forte, Jean-Marc Gallo, Luciana Bruno, Gorazd B Stokin, M Elena Avale, Tomás L Falzone
: Tau, as a microtubule-associated protein, participates in key neuronal functions such as the regulation of microtubule dynamics, axonal transport and neurite outgrowth. Alternative splicing of exon 10 in the tau primary transcript gives rise to protein isoforms with three (3R) or four (4R) microtubule binding repeats. While tau isoforms are balanced in the normal adult human brain, imbalances in 3R:4R ratio have been tightly associated to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830328/diurnal-physiological-and-immunological-responses-to-a-10-km-run-in-highly-trained-athletes-in-an-environmentally-controlled-condition-of-6%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c
#16
Boukhemis Boukelia, M C Fogarty, R C R Davison, G D Florida-James
PURPOSE: The Clara cell protein CC16, secreted from Clara cells in the lung, is discussed as a potential biomarker for toxic effects on the airways. An increased concentration of CC16 in serum may be caused by increased permeability of the lungs. To investigate the changes in P-CC16 in response to an intense exercise bout performed at different times of day (9 am and 4 pm) of highly trained individuals. METHOD: Using a crossover randomized design, 8 runners (mean VO2max 71 ml kg(-1) min(-1), SD 6) performed a 10-km time trial run, at 9 am and 4 pm, in an environmental chamber set at 6 °C...
November 9, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827928/comparative-transcriptional-analysis-of-loquat-fruit-identifies-major-signal-networks-involved-in-fruit-development-and-ripening-process
#17
Huwei Song, Xiangxiang Zhao, Weicheng Hu, Xinfeng Wang, Ting Shen, Liming Yang
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is an important non-climacteric fruit and rich in essential nutrients such as minerals and carotenoids. During fruit development and ripening, thousands of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from various metabolic pathways cause a series of physiological and biochemical changes. To better understand the underlying mechanism of fruit development, the Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the global changes of gene transcription levels...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826878/optimization-of-running-strategies-according-to-the-physiological-parameters-for-a-two-runners-model
#18
Camilla Fiorini
In order to describe the velocity and the anaerobic energy of two runners competing against each other for middle-distance races, we present a mathematical model relying on an optimal control problem for a system of ordinary differential equations. The model is based on energy conservation and on Newton's second law: resistive forces, propulsive forces and variations in the maximal oxygen uptake are taken into account. The interaction between the runners provides a minimum for staying 1 m behind one's competitor...
November 8, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822290/dietary-selenium-augments-sarcoplasmic-calcium-release-and-mechanical-performance-in-mice
#19
Dóra Bodnár, Olga Ruzsnavszky, Tamás Oláh, Beatrix Dienes, Ildikó Balatoni, Éva Ungvári, Ilona Benkő, Beáta Babka, József Prokisch, László Csernoch, Péter Szentesi
BACKGROUND: As an essential trace element selenium plays a significant role in many physiological functions of the organs. It is found within muscles as selenocystein in selenoprotein N, which is involved in redox-modulated calcium homeostasis and in protection against oxidative stress. METHODS: The effects of two different selenium compounds (selenate and NanoSe in 0.5 and 5 ppm concentration for two weeks) on muscle properties of mice were examined by measuring in vivo muscle performance, in vitro force in soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles and changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in single fibers from flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813393/the-effect-of-a-short-term-training-period-on-physiological-parameters-and-running-performance-intensity-distribution-versus-constant-intensity-exercise
#20
Vicente J Clemente-Suárez, Athanasios A Dalamitros, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
BACKGROUND: This study compared the effect of two training strategies differing on the weekly intensity distribution on physiological parameters and running performance in moderately trained endurance athletes. METHODS: Thirty male athletes were equally divided into three groups, one following an increasing weekly aerobic intensity distribution (EXP1), one with constant weekly aerobic intensitydistribution (EXP2) and a control one, following a freely chosen program (CON)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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