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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352279/girls-in-the-boat-sex-differences-in-rowing-performance-and-participation
#1
Kevin G Keenan, Jonathon W Senefeld, Sandra K Hunter
Men outperform women in many athletic endeavors due to physiological and anatomical differences (e.g. larger and faster muscle); however, the observed sex differences in elite athletic performance are typically larger than expected, and may reflect sex-related differences in opportunity or incentives. As collegiate rowing in the United States has been largely incentivized for women over the last 20 years, but not men, the purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in elite rowing performance over that timeframe...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339992/effects-of-passive-and-active-rest-on-physiological-responses-and-time-motion-characteristics-in-different-small-sided-soccer-games
#2
Ersan Arslan, Utku Alemdaroglu, Yusuf Koklu, Tahir Hazir, Surhat Muniroglu, Baris Karakoc
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resting regimes on physiological responses and time motion characteristics between bouts during small sided games (SSGs) in young soccer players. Sixteen players (average age 16.87 ± 0.34 years; body height 176.69 ± 3.21 cm; body mass 62.40 ± 2.59 kg; training experience 3.75 ± 0.44 years) performed four bouts 2-a-side, 3-a-side and 4-a-side games with three minutes active (SSGar: Running at 70% of HRmax) and passive (SSGpr) rest between bouts at two-day intervals...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339987/physiological-demands-morphological-characteristics-physical-abilities-and-injuries-of-female-soccer-players
#3
Zoran Milanović, Goran Sporiš, Nic James, Nebojša Trajković, Aleksandar Ignjatović, Hugo Sarmento, Athos Trecroci, Bruno Miguel Borges Mendes
The popularity of female soccer is increasing as well as the number of females playing soccer. Similarly, over the last twenty or so years, research in soccer has increased significantly, but a large disparity exists in the volume of studies involving male and female players. As a consequence of this, female players remain less well understood compared to males. The purpose of the present narrative review was to describe morphological characteristics, physiological demands, physical abilities and injuries in female soccer players...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337562/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-lead-optimization-ii-rational-bioavailability-design-by-global-sensitivity-analysis-to-identify-properties-affecting-bioavailability
#4
Pankaj R Daga, Michael B Bolger, Ian Haworth, Robert Daniel Clark, Eric J Martin
When medicinal chemists need to improve oral bioavailability (%F) during lead optimization, they systematically modify compound properties mainly based on their own experience and general rules of thumb. However, at least a dozen properties can influence %F, and the difficulty of multi-parameter optimization for such complex non-linear processes grows combinatorially with the number of variables. Furthermore, strategies can be in conflict. For example, adding a polar or charged group will generally increase solubility but decrease permeability...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330044/effects-of-acupuncture-on-the-heart-rate-variability-cortisol-levels-and-behavioural-response-induced-by-thunder-sound-in-beagles
#5
Carolina Elisabetta Martins Maccariello, Carla Caroline Franzini de Souza, Laura Morena, Daniel Penteado Martins Dias, Magda Alves de Medeiros
Sound stimuli such as fireworks, firearms, and claps of thunder have been used as a stress reactivity model for dogs. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat and prevent physiological and behavioural disorders induced by stress. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on cardiac autonomic modulation (heart rate variability - HRV), behavioural (reactivity) and endocrine (cortisol levels) responses in dogs exposed to sounds of thunder. Twenty-four laboratory beagles (12 males and 12 females, 1-6years old) with no history of phobia to thunder were subjected to a sound stimulus that consisted of a standardized recording of thunder over a 150s period with a maximum intensity of 103-104dB...
January 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327122/understanding-qi-running-in-the-meridians-as-interstitial-fluid-flowing-via-interstitial-space-of-low-hydraulic-resistance
#6
Wei-Bo Zhang, De-Xian Jia, Hong-Yan Li, Yu-Long Wei, Huang Yan, Peng-Na Zhao, Fei-Fei Gu, Guang-Jun Wang, Yan-Ping Wang
Qi, blood and the meridians are fundamental concepts in Chinese medicine (CM), which are components of the human body and maintain physiological function. Pathological changes of qi, blood and meridians may lead to discomfort and disease. Treatment with acupuncture or herbal medicine aims to regulate qi and blood so as to recover normal function of the meridians. This paper explores the nature of qi as well as compares and correlates them with the structures of the human body. We propose a conceptualization of qi as being similar to the interstitial flfl uid, and the meridians as being similar to interstitial space of low hydraulic resistance in the body...
January 9, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325455/influence-of-middle-distance-running-on-muscular-micro-rnas
#7
Elisa Danese, Marco Benati, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Cantor Tarperi, Gian Luca Salvagno, Elisa Paviati, Martina Montagnana, Federico Schena, Giuseppe Lippi
A specific subset of micro RNAs (miRs), including miR-133 and miR-206, is specifically expressed in muscle tissue, so that they are currently defined as muscular miRs (myomiRs). To further elucidate the role of myomiRs in muscle biology, we measured miR-133a and miR-206 in plasma of 28 middle-age recreational athletes. The study population consisted of 28 middle aged, recreation athletes (11 women and 17 men; mean age, 46 years) who completed a 21.1 km, half-marathon. The plasma concentration of miR-133a and miR-206, the serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK) and high-sensitivity (HS) cardiac troponin T (cTnT), as well as capillary lactate, were measured before and immediately after the run...
January 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319584/physiological-responses-to-overdressing-and-exercise-heat-stress-in-trained-runners
#8
Brett R Ely, Laurie A Blanchard, Jared R Steele, Michael A Francisco, Samuel N Cheuvront, Christopher T Minson
Heat acclimation is the best strategy to improve performance in a hot environment. Many athletes seeking the benefits of heat acclimation lack access to a hot environment for exercise, and thus rely on over-dressing to simulate environmental heat stress. It is currently unknown whether this approach produces the requisite thermoregulatory strain necessary for heat acclimation in trained men and women. PURPOSE: To compare physiological and cellular responses to exercise in a hot environment (HOT; 40°C, 30%rh) with minimal clothing (clo= 0...
January 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316273/pilot-project-physiologic-responses-to-a-high-intensity-active-video-game-with-copd-patients-tools-for-home-rehabilitation
#9
Andrée-Anne Parent, Vincent Gosselin-Boucher, Marilyn Houle-Peloquin, Claude Poirier, Alain-Steve Comtois
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a respiratory condition that causes a significant deterioration of the quality of life. However, exercise can improve the quality of life for COPD patients and it is for this reason previous study observed the effects of active video games to increase exercise. Using motion capture devices with short bursts of exercise never been tried with COPD patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to observe the feasibility of using this device safely and easily with COPD patients...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315164/effects-of-strength-training-on-postpubertal-adolescent-distance-runners
#10
Richard C Blagrove, Louis P Howe, Emily J Cushion, Adam Spence, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar, Philip R Hayes
PURPOSE: Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However the effects on adolescent (<18 years) runners remains elusive. This randomized control trial aimed to examine the effect of strength training on several important physiological and neuromuscular qualities associated with distance running performance. METHODS: Participants (n=25, 13 female, 17...
January 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314862/exploring-the-utility-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-as-a-population-health-surveillance-indicator-for-children-and-youth-an-international-analysis-of-results-from-the-20-m-shuttle-run-test
#11
Justin J Lang
Emerging evidence has demonstrated the strong link between cardiorespiratory fitness and multiple aspects of health (i.e., physiological, physical, psychosocial, cognitive), independent of physical activity, among school-aged children and youth. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a trait that does not vary substantially from day-to-day, and provides an indication of recent physical activity levels, making it an important possible indicator of population health. Thus, the objective of this dissertation was to investigate the utility of cardiorespiratory fitness, measured using the 20-m shuttle run test, as a broad, holistic health indicator for population health surveillance among children and youth...
January 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313181/intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-during-spinal-surgery-technical-review-in-open-and-minimally-invasive-approaches
#12
REVIEW
Fabio Cofano, Francesco Zenga, Marco Mammi, Roberto Altieri, Nicola Marengo, Marco Ajello, Paolo Pacca, Antonio Melcarne, Carola Junemann, Alessandro Ducati, Diego Garbossa
Neurophysiological monitoring is of undoubted value for the intraoperative safety of neurosurgical procedures. Widely developed and used for cranial surgery, it is equally as effective, though perhaps less commonly employed, for spinal pathology. The most frequently used techniques for intraoperative monitoring during spinal surgery include somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and electromyography, which can either be spontaneous free-running (sEMG) or triggered (tEMG). The knowledge of the benefits and limitations of each modality is essential in optimising the value of intraoperative monitoring during spinal procedures...
January 8, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306453/a-caffeine-containing-weight-loss-supplement-augments-hemodynamic-responses-after-exercise
#13
S R Buchanan, M Karabulut
BACKGROUND: Since the effects of supplements can be potentially harmful and/or ineffective to obtain desired positive benefits, there is a need to investigate supplementation to understand the responses of physiological systems, to educate consumers, and to provide feedback for businesses creating these supplements. The purpose of the current study was to test hemodynamic responses of a weight loss supplement and determine its effects on hemodynamic variables. METHODS: 31 participants underwent a randomized, double-blind, crossover study design and received a placebo or supplement on two separate days...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305840/a-rapid-method-for-identification-and-quantification-of-prostaglandins-in-cerebral-tissues-by-hplc-esi-ms-ms-for-the-lipidomic-in-vivo-studies
#14
Luciana Assis Gobo, Leandro Machado de Carvalho, Fernanda Temp, Carine Viana, Carlos Fernando Mello
An analytical method utilizing liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization has been developed for the identification of prostaglandins (PGs) in cerebral tissues. The five compounds identified (thromboxane B2, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin D2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and prostaglandin F2 alpha) are cellular mediators of inflammation and are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes by acting on membrane receptors on the surfaces of target cells...
January 3, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288770/the-3-end-region-of-the-human-pdgfr-%C3%AE-core-promoter-nuclease-hypersensitive-element-forms-a-mixture-of-two-unique-end-insertion-g-quadruplexes
#15
Buket Onel, Megan Carver, Prashansa Agrawal, Laurence H Hurley, Danzhou Yang
BACKGROUND: While the most stable G-quadruplex formed in the human PDGFR-β promoter nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) is the 5'-mid G-quadruplex, the 3'-end sequence that contains a 3'-GGA run forms a less stable G-quadruplex. Recently, the 3'-end G-quadruplex was found to be a transcriptional repressor and can be selectively targeted by a small molecule for PDGFR-β downregulation. METHOD: We use 1D and 2D high-field NMR, in combination with Dimethylsulfate Footprinting, Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy, and Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay...
December 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280342/targeted-on-line-spe-lc-ms-ms-assay-for-the-quantitation-of-twelve-apolipoproteins-from-human-blood
#16
Julia Dittrich, Melanie Adam, Hilke Maas, Max Hecht, Madlen Reinicke, Renee Ruhaak, Christa Cobbaert, Christoph Engel, Kerstin Wirkner, Markus Löffler, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek
Laborious sample pretreatment of biological samples represents the most limiting factor for the translation of targeted proteomics assays from research to clinical routine. An optimized method for the simultaneous quantitation of twelve major apolipoproteins combining on-line solid-phase extraction and fast LC-MS/MS analysis in 6.5 min total run time was developed, reducing the manual sample pretreatment time of 3 μL serum or plasma by 60%. Within-run and between-day imprecisions below 10% and 15% (n = 10) and high recovery rates (94%-131%) were obtained applying the high-throughput setup...
December 26, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279082/spatial-multi-criteria-decision-analysis-for-modelling-suitable-habitats-of-ornithodoros-soft-ticks-in-the-western-palearctic-region
#17
L Vial, E Ducheyne, S Filatov, A Gerilovych, D S McVey, I Sindryakova, S Morgunov, A A Pérez de León, D Kolbasov, E M De Clercq
Ticks are economically and medically important ectoparasites due to the injuries inflicted through their bite, and their ability to transmit pathogens to humans, livestock, and wildlife. Whereas hard ticks have been intensively studied, little is known about soft ticks, even though they can also transmit pathogens, including African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) affecting domestic and wild suids or Borrelia bacteria causing tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in humans. We thus developed a regional model to identify suitable spatial areas for a community of nine Ornithodoros tick species (O...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259560/the-energetics-during-the-world-s-most-challenging-mountain-ultra-marathon-a-case-study-at-the-tor-des-geants%C3%A2
#18
Aldo Savoldelli, Alessandro Fornasiero, Pietro Trabucchi, Eloisa Limonta, Antonio La Torre, Francis Degache, Barbara Pellegrini, Grégoire P Millet, Gianluca Vernillo, Federico Schena
Purpose: To provide insights into the energy requirements as well as the physiological adaptations of an experienced 50-year-old ultra-marathon male athlete during the world's most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (MUM). Methods: The international race supporting the study was the Tor des Geants®, characterized by 330 km with +24,000 m D+ to be covered within 150 h. Before the MUM, we assessed the peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) by means of an incremental graded running test. During the MUM we monitored six ascents (once per race day) with a portable gas analyzer, a GPS and a finger pulse oximeter...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249083/effects-of-strength-training-on-the-physiological-determinants-of-middle-and-long-distance-running-performance-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
BACKGROUND: Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive critical commentary on the current literature that has examined the effects of ST modalities on the physiological determinants and performance of middle- and long-distance runners, and offer recommendations for best practice...
December 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242309/physiological-differences-between-a-noncontinuous-and-a-continuous-endurance-training-protocol-in-recreational-runners-and-metabolic-demand-prediction
#20
Muhammad J Ali, Balasekaran Govindasamay, Hoon Kay Hiang, Gerald Seet Gim Lee
This study investigated the physiological difference in recreational runners between a noncontinuous and a continuous endurance training protocol. It also aimed to determine physiological surrogate that could monitor metabolic demand of prolonged running in real-time. For data collection, a total of 18 active male recreational runners were recruited. Physiological (HR, RR, RER, ṼO2, BLa), and overall perceptual (RPEO) responses were recorded against three designed test sessions. Session 1 included ṼO2submax test to determine critical speed (CS) at anaerobic threshold (AT)...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
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