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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930589/procoagulant-activity-during-viral-infections
#1
Saravanan Subramaniam, Inge Scharrer
The abundance of evidence suggest that inflammation of immune and non-immune cells may lead to an imbalance of the pro- and anti-coagulant state during viral infections. During systemic infections, the endothelium plays a critical role in regulating hemostasis, and severe imbalances of endothelial function and activation can contribute to organ failure. Viral infections may elevate plasma levels of procoagulant markers such as TAT and D-dimer TF-positive MPs as well as von Willebrand factor (vWF). Although multiple clinical studies are showing the association of viral infection and increased prothrombotic risk, the pathological mechanisms have not been fully identified for most viral infections...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917273/mechanisms-and-risk-factors-of-thrombosis-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Anna Falanga, Laura Russo, Viola Milesi, Alfonso Vignoli
The close relationship between cancer and thrombosis is known since more than a century. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) may be the first manifestation of an occult malignancy in an otherwise healthy individual. Cancer patients commonly present with abnormalities of laboratory coagulation tests, indicating an ongoing subclinical hypercoagulable condition. The results of laboratory tests demonstrate that a process of fibrin formation and removal parallels the development of malignancy, which is of particular interest since fibrin and other clotting products are important for both thrombogenesis and tumor progression...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911832/association-of-silent-infarcts-in-sickle-cell-anemia-with-decreased-annexin-a5-resistance
#3
Kerry A Morrone, Lydia H Pecker, Jacob Rand, Jennifer Davila, Suzette Oyeku, Jane A Little, Xue Xiaonan, Deepa Manwani
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is characterized by abnormally shaped, adhesive RBCs that interact with white blood cells and the endothelium, leading to chronic hemolysis, vasculopathy and a prothrombotic state. About 10% of subjects with a thrombotic event in the general population will have an associated antiphospholipid (aPL) antibody. One proposed mechanism for the thrombophilic nature of aPL antibodies is the disruption of the potent anticoagulant annexin A5 or Annexin A5 resistance (A5R)...
September 4, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904463/relationship-between-factor-v-leiden-gene-variant-and-risk-of-ischemic-stroke-a-case-control-study
#4
Amit Kumar, Shubham Misra, Ram Sagar, Pradeep Kumar, Arun K Yadav, Pumanshi Talwar, Ritesh Raj, Kameshwar Prasad
BACKGROUND: Factor V Leiden is the most common genetic variation among the blood coagulation pathway which leads to prothrombotic state, therefore, is considered an important gene for understating the stroke mechanism. AIM: The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism at G1691A position of Factor V gene and risk of ischemic stroke (IS) in North Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, 250 patients with IS and 250 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled in the period of October 2012 to September 2014 from in- and out-patient department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903941/increased-hazard-of-myocardial-infarction-with-insulin-provision-therapy-in-actively-smoking-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-the-bari-2d-bypass-angioplasty-revascularization-investigation-2-diabetes-trial
#5
Asrar A Khan, Matthew J Chung, Eric Novak, David L Brown
BACKGROUND: In the BARI 2D (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes) trial, randomization of diabetic patients with stable ischemic heart disease to insulin provision (IP) therapy, as opposed to insulin sensitization (IS) therapy, resulted in biochemical evidence of impaired fibrinolysis but no increase in adverse clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that the prothrombotic effect of IP therapy in combination with the hypercoagulable state induced by active smoking would result in an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888622/the-utility-of-thromboelastography-and-thrombin-generation-in-assessing-the-prothrombotic-state-of-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#6
Marije Wijnberge, Kiran Parmar, Rachel Kesse-Adu, Jo Howard, Alexander T Cohen, Beverley J Hunt
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have suggested a chronic hypercoagulable state in SCD, and that thrombosis also plays a role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell vaso-occlusive pain crises (VOC). Studies looking at thrombin generation have produced conflicting results. In this study we aimed to assess and compare whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) and plasma Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT) in SCD versus healthy controls and in four different SCD subgroups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, TEG and 1pM TF activated CAT assays were performed in citrated blood samples from 77 adult (18-66years old) SCD patients (HbSS and HbSB) and 22 healthy (HbAA) ethnically-matched controls...
September 6, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822718/role-of-the-coagulation-system-in-genitourinary-cancers-review
#7
REVIEW
Axel John, Christian Gorzelanny, Alexander T Bauer, Stefan W Schneider, Christian Bolenz
Tumor progression is associated with aberrant hemostasis, and patients with malignant diseases have an elevated risk of developing thrombosis. A crosstalk among the vascular endothelium, components of the coagulation cascade, and cancer cells transforms the intravascular milieu to a prothrombotic, proinflammatory, and cell-adhesive state. We review the existing evidence on activation of the coagulation system and its implication in genitourinary malignancies and discuss the potential therapeutic benefit of antithrombotic agents...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809090/the-association-between-p-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1-gene-variable-number-of-tandem-repeats-polymorphism-and-risk-of-thrombosis-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#8
Fulya Cosan, Basar Oku, Ozgun M Gedar Totuk, Neslihan Abaci, Duran Ustek, Reyhan Diz Kucukkaya, Ahmet Gul
OBJECTIVES: Behçet's disease (BD) has been recognized as an unclassified type of vasculitis with an accompanying tendency to thrombosis. No disease-specific pathology has been demonstrated so far to explain the prothrombotic state, and this predisposition is considered to be associated with endothelial activation/dysfunction. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism has an impact on the protein length, and heterozygosity affect of the PSGL-1 to P-selectin interaction, which has been found to be associated with an increased risk of thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807377/crem-transgene-mice-an-animal-model-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-thrombogenesis
#9
A Bukowska, M Felgendreher, B Scholz, C Wolke, J S Schulte, E Fehrmann, E Wardelmann, M D Seidl, U Lendeckel, K Himmler, A Gardemann, A Goette, F U Müller
BACKGROUND: The molecular pathomechanisms underlying atrial thrombogenesis are multifactorial and still require detailed investigations. Transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-directed expression of the transcriptional repressor CREM-IbΔC-X (CREM-TG) represent an experimental model of atrial fibrillation (AF) that shows a gradual, age-dependent progression from atrial ectopy to persistent AF. Importantly, this model develops biatrial thrombi. The molecular characteristics related to the thrombogenesis in CREM-TG mice have not been studied, yet...
August 1, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804838/platelet-function-tests-preanalytical-variables-clinical-utility-advantages-and-disadvantages
#10
Anne-Mette Hvas, Erik Lerkevang Grove
Platelet function tests are mainly used in the diagnostic work-up of platelet disorders. During the last decade, the additional use of platelet function tests to evaluate the effect of antiplatelet therapy has also emerged in an attempt to identify patients with an increased risk of arterial thrombosis. Furthermore, platelet function tests are increasingly used to measure residual effect of antiplatelet therapy prior to surgery with the aim of reducing the risk of bleeding. To a limited extend, platelet function tests are also used to evaluate hyperaggregability as a potential marker of a prothrombotic state outside the setting of antiplatelet therapy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804824/laboratory-testing-for-activated-protein-c-resistance-apcr
#11
Soma Mohammed, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Activated protein C resistance (APCR) describes a hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). This results in an increased risk of venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Protein C is a natural anticoagulant that is synthesized in the liver and is activated to APC via proteolysis. APC then degrades Factors Va and VIIIa. APCR describes the reduced inability of APC to cleave Factors Va and VIIIa, which therefore promotes increased thrombin generation and potentially leads to a prothrombotic state...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804823/an-overview-of-thrombophilia-and-associated-laboratory-testing
#12
Martina Montagnana, Giuseppe Lippi, Elisa Danese
Venous thromboembolism, usually entailing deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or both, is a complex and multifactorial disorder, in which a number of putative conditions interplay and finally contribute to propel the individual risk over a certain degree, so ultimately culminating in the development of venous occlusive disorders. Thrombophilia is commonly defined as a propensity to develop venous thromboembolism on the basis of an underlying hypercoagulable state attributable to inherited or acquired disorders of blood coagulation or fibrinolysis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775078/tlr2-plays-a-key-role-in-platelet-hyperreactivity-and-accelerated-thrombosis-associated-with-hyperlipidemia
#13
Sudipta Biswas, Alejandro Zimman, Detao Gao, Tatiana Byzova, Eugene Podrez
Rationale: Platelet hyperreactivity, which is common in many pathological conditions, is associated with increased atherothrombotic risk. The mechanisms leading to platelet hyperreactivity are complex and not yet fully understood. Objective: Platelet hyperreactivity and accelerated thrombosis, specifically in dyslipidemia, have been mechanistically linked to accumulation in the circulation of a specific group of oxidized phospholipids (oxPCCD36) that are ligands for the platelet pattern-recognition receptor CD36...
August 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769114/diagnosing-antiphospholipid-syndrome-extra-criteria-manifestations-and-technical-advances
#14
REVIEW
Savino Sciascia, Mary-Carmen Amigo, Dario Roccatello, Munther Khamashta
First described in the early 1980s, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a unique form of acquired autoimmune thrombophilia in which patients present with clinical features of recurrent thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity and persistently test positive for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). At least one clinical (vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity) and one lab-based (positive test result for lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and/or anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies) criterion have to be met for a patient to be classified as having APS...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753957/the-uremic-toxin-indoxyl-sulfate-accelerates-thrombotic-response-after-vascular-injury-in-animal-models
#15
Malgorzata Karbowska, Tomasz W Kaminski, Natalia Marcinczyk, Tomasz Misztal, Tomasz Rusak, Lukasz Smyk, Dariusz Pawlak
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are at high risk for thrombotic events. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is one of the most potent uremic toxins that accumulates during CKD. Even though IS is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, its impact on thrombotic events still remains not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the direct effect of IS on thrombotic process. We examined the impact of acute exposure to IS on thrombus development induced by electric current in Wistar rats, intravital thrombus formation after laser-induced injury in the mice endothelium, coagulation profile, clot formation dynamics, platelet aggregations, and erythrocyte osmotic resistance...
July 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739198/efficacy-and-safety-of-apixaban-versus-warfarin-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-a-history-of-cancer-insights-from-the-aristotle-trial
#16
Chiara Melloni, Allison Dunning, Christopher B Granger, Laine Thomas, Michel G Khouri, David A Garcia, Elaine M Hylek, Michael Hanna, Lars Wallentin, Bernard J Gersh, Pamela S Douglas, John H Alexander, Renato D Lopes
BACKGROUND: Cancer is associated with a prothrombotic state and increases the risk of thrombotic events in patients with atrial fibrillation. We described the clinical characteristics and outcomes and assessed the safety and efficacy of apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and cancer in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial. METHODS: The association between cancer and clinical outcomes was assessed using Cox regression models...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734155/activation-of-mtor-is-involved-in-anti-%C3%AE-2gpi-%C3%AE-2gpi-induced-expression-of-tissue-factor-and-il-8-in-monocytes
#17
Longfei Xia, Hong Zhou, Ting Wang, Yachao Xie, Ting Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Jinchuan Yan
Previous study has demonstrated that activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in endothelial cells (ECs) results in the formation of chronic vascular lesions associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). In addition, it has been shown that stimulation of monocytes and ECs by antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) leads to a prothrombotic and proinflammatory state and up-regulated expression of tissue factor (TF) and inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of mTOR in pathogenic mechanisms of APS remains largely unexplored...
June 1, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715073/platelet-distribution-width-and-plateletcrit-novel-biomarkers-of-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-in-young-patients
#18
Mehmet Serkan Çetin, Elif Hande Özcan Çetin, Ahmet Akdi, Dursun Aras, Serkan Topaloğlu, Ahmet Temizhan, Sinan Aydoğdu
BACKGROUND: Platelets play a central role in myocardial infarction, and platelet activity can be evaluated with platelet indices including, platelet distribution width (PDW) and plateletcrit (PCT). These indices have been demonstrated as markers of prothrombotic state in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate, the usefulness of these biomarkers in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in young patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study consisted 565 subjects which classified into three groups: group 1 (168 young patients with STEMI), group 2 (173 non-young patients with STEMI), and group 3 (224 age-matched controls with angiographically normal coronary arteries)...
July 17, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649568/a-prothrombotic-score-based-on-genetic-polymorphisms-of-the-hemostatic-system-differs-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke-myocardial-infarction-or-peripheral-arterial-occlusive-disease
#19
Juliane Herm, Berthold Hoppe, Bob Siegerink, Christian H Nolte, Jürgen Koscielny, Karl Georg Haeusler
BACKGROUND: While twin studies indicate a genetic component in arterial thrombosis such as ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), the clinical relevance of hemostatic polymorphisms in arterial thrombosis is a matter of debate. METHODS: We analyzed the prevalence of 13 hemostatic polymorphisms [PAI-1, PLAT, F5 (including factor V Leiden and HR2 haplotype), F2, F7, F13A, FGB, TFPI, THBD, MTHFR, ACE, and ITGA2] in patients referred to a tertiary referral center...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632537/platelet-counts-and-postoperative-stroke-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-surgery
#20
Jörn A Karhausen, Alan M Smeltz, Igor Akushevich, Mary Cooter, Mihai V Podgoreanu, Mark Stafford-Smith, Susan M Martinelli, Manuel L Fontes, Miklos D Kertai
BACKGROUND: Declining platelet counts may reveal platelet activation and aggregation in a postoperative prothrombotic state. Therefore, we hypothesized that nadir platelet counts after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery are associated with stroke. METHODS: We evaluated 6130 adult CABG surgery patients. Postoperative platelet counts were evaluated as continuous and categorical (mild versus moderate to severe) predictors of stroke. Extended Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with a time-varying covariate for daily minimum postoperative platelet count assessed the association of day-to-day variations in postoperative platelet count with time to stroke...
October 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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