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Z-S Zhang, J Wang, B-Q Zhu, L Ge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) UCA1 in the multiple myeloma (MM) development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In samples of MM, the expression of UCA1 and TGF-β was investigated using real-time PCR. UCA1 lentiviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA) was transfected in MM cell lines. CCK-8 and colony formation assay were used to detect cell lines proliferation. The cell apoptosis assay was conducted to detect cell apoptosis. Western blot was utilized to detect the protein level of TGF-β...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
M-D Yu, B-H Su, X-X Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To monitor morphological feature and related osteogenic and bone metabolic change during healing of tibia fracture in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tibia density and trabecular thickness were evaluated. Histopathology was examined by HE staining. Serous inflammatory factors IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α and metabolic biomarkers ALP, β-CTX, P1NP, were determined by ELISA. The expression of RUNX2, TGF-β1, VEGF-α, BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 in callus tissue were qualified by RT-PCR...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Linlin Wang, Fang Zhang, Jian-Ying Cui, Liang Chen, Yue-Ting Chen, Bo-Wen Liu
Carcinoma‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the major components of mesenchymal cells in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. They are involved in epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemotherapy resistance by directly contacting with cancer cells or secretory cytokines. In the present study, we examined the role of CAFs in the induction of EMT in ovarian cancer. Primary ovarian cancer cells, CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were isolated from fresh cancer tissue and cultured for immunohistochemistry studies...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Ioana Visan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature Immunology
Ji-Hye Ahn, Hyun-Sung Lee, Ju-Seog Lee, Yeon-Su Lee, Jong-Lyul Park, Seon-Young Kim, Jung-Ah Hwang, Nawapol Kunkeaw, Sung Yun Jung, Tae Jin Kim, Kwang-Soo Lee, Sung Ho Jeon, Inhan Lee, Betty H Johnson, Jung-Hye Choi, Yong Sun Lee
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling and microRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulatory components in cancer. Usually in advanced malignant stages, TGF-β signaling is elevated but global miRNA expression is suppressed. Such a gene expression signature is well illustrated in a fibrosis (or mesenchymal) subtype of ovarian cancer (OC) that is of poor prognosis. However, the interplay between the two pathways in the OC subtype has not yet been elucidated. nc886 is a recently identified non-coding RNA implicated in several malignancies...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Styliani Vakrou, Ryuya Fukunaga, D Brian Foster, Lars Sorensen, Yamin Liu, Yufan Guan, Kirubel Woldemichael, Roberto Pineda-Reyes, Ting Liu, Jill C Tardiff, Leslie A Leinwand, Carlo G Tocchetti, Theodore P Abraham, Brian O'Rourke, Miguel A Aon, M Roselle Abraham
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) stems from mutations in sarcomeric proteins that elicit distinct biophysical sequelae, which in turn may yield radically different intracellular signaling and molecular pathologic profiles. These signaling events remain largely unaddressed by clinical trials that have selected patients based on clinical HCM diagnosis, irrespective of genotype. In this study, we determined how two mouse models of HCM differ, with respect to cellular/mitochondrial function and molecular biosignatures, at an early stage of disease...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Cameron A Wade, Natasha Kyprianou
The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival and invasion via resistance to anoikis...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wing Lee Chan, Magdalena Steiner, Tomasz Witkos, Johannes Egerer, Björn Busse, Shuji Mizumoto, Jan M Pestka, Haikuo Zhang, Ingrid Hausser, Layal Abo Khayal, Claus-Eric Ott, Mateusz Kolanczyk, Bettina Willie, Thorsten Schinke, Chiara Paganini, Antonio Rossi, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Michael Amling, Petra Knaus, Danny Chan, Martin Lowe, Stefan Mundlos, Uwe Kornak
Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO) is characterized by skin laxity and early-onset osteoporosis. GORAB, the responsible disease gene, encodes a small Golgi protein of poorly characterized function. To circumvent neonatal lethality of the GorabNull full knockout, Gorab was conditionally inactivated in mesenchymal progenitor cells (Prx1-cre), pre-osteoblasts (Runx2-cre), and late osteoblasts/osteocytes (Dmp1-cre), respectively. While in all three lines a reduction in trabecular bone density was evident, only GorabPrx1 and GorabRunx2 mutants showed dramatically thinned, porous cortical bone and spontaneous fractures...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Fang-Yu Liu, Te-Cheng Hsu, Patrick Choong, Min-Hsuan Lin, Yung-Jen Chuang, Bor-Sen Chen, Che Lin
BACKGROUND: Regeneration is an important biological process for the restoration of organ mass, structure, and function after damage, and involves complex bio-physiological mechanisms including cell differentiation and immune responses. We constructed four regenerative protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks using dynamic models and AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion), based on time-course microarray data from the regeneration of four zebrafish organs: heart, cerebellum, fin, and retina...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Youhei Okada, Ting Wang, Kazuhiro Kasai, Kazuyuki Suzuki, Yasuhiro Takikawa
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is critical in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The effects of a treatment that targets TGF-β using the combination of interferon alpha (IFNα)-2b and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are unknown. Here, we show that the serum levels of TGF-β1 prior to the therapy correlate with increased maximum tumor diameter, which is significantly ( p  < 0.01) decreased after the combination therapy. 5-FU increased both the expression and secretion levels of TGF-β1 in hepatoma cells, but not in normal hepatocytes...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Xian-Qin Luo, Ao Li, Xue Yang, Xiao Xiao, Rong Hu, Tian-Wen Wang, Xiao-Yun Dou, Da-Jian Yang, Zhi Dong
Background: Cerebral hypoperfusion is a pivotal risk factor for vascular dementia (VD), for which effective therapy remains inadequate. Persistent inflammatory responses and excessive chemotaxis of microglia/macrophages in the brain may accelerate the progression of VD. Endocannabinoids are involved in neuronal protection against inflammation-induced neuronal injury. Cannabinoids acting at cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 R) can decrease inflammation. Based on the identification of paeoniflorin (PF) as a CB2 R agonist, we investigated the neuroprotective and microglia/macrophages M1 to M2 polarization promoting effects of PF in a permanent four-vessel occlusion rat model...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Richard Bwanika, Charles D Kato, Johnson Welishe, Daniel C Mwandah
Background: Malaria and helminths share the same geographical distribution in tropical Africa. Studies of the interaction of helminth and malaria co-infection in humans have been few and are mainly epidemiological, with little information on cellular immune responses. This study aimed to determine Cytokine profiles among patients co-infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and soil borne helminth attending Kampala International University Teaching Hospital (KIU). Methods: A case control study of 240 patients were recruited at KIU teaching hospital...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Lin Yang, Junmei Xu, Yaping Wang, Xin Wang
As a member of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multi-functional factors and play critical roles in heart, cartilage, neural development and postnatal bone formation. It has been demonstrated that among the family, BMP2/4 have been reported to be especially important for the developmental and maturation of central nervous system (CNS). It has different, even opposite functions, in certain given circumstances, which could be a potential risk for BMPs' clinical use...
February 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Lin Zheng, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Ling Tang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Yun-Yun Zeng, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Yang Liu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary selenium on resistance to skin haemorrhages and lesions and on immune function as well as the underlying mechanisms of those effects in the head kidney, spleen and skin of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 healthy grass carp with initial body weight (226.48 ± 0.68 g) were randomly divided into six groups and fed six separate diets with graded dietary levels of selenium (0.025, 0.216, 0.387, 0.579, 0.795 and 1.049 mg/kg diet) for 80 days...
March 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Brenda Ramos Robles, Ricardo A Valdez, Uriel Juárez Hernández, Brenda Marquina Castillo, Dulce Mata Espinosa, Jorge Barrios Payan, Rogelio Hernández Pando, Marta C Romano
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that mainly affects the lungs. Along the course of pulmonary TB there are remarkable changes in the production of cytokines that cause endocrine changes. So far, it is not known the physiological and histological changes in the male reproductive system during pulmonary TB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pulmonary TB produces histological alterations of the BALB/c mice reproductive organs, as well as abnormalities in spermatogenesis, serum testosterone concentrations and expression of testicular cytokines...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Alireza Vakilian, Seyed Moein Razavi-Nasab, Ali Ravari, Tayebeh Mirzaei, Amir Moghadam-Ahmadi, Nazanin Jalali, Reza Bahramabadi, Mohammadtaghi Rezayati, Amin Yazdanpanah-Ravari, Farhad Bahmaniar, Mohammad Reza Bagheri, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) suffer from psychotic symptoms including pain. The current antipsychotic drugs confer limited effectiveness, and hence new strategies are being designed to decrease pain in order to increase antipsychological effectiveness. Vitamin B12 is a safe supplementary drug to decrease pain. Additionally, cytokines participate in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases such as AD. Thus, the main aim of this clinical trial study was to determine the effects of treatment with risperidone and quetiapine, as antipsychotic drugs, with and without vitamin B12 on the psychotic symptoms of AD patients and the expression of IL-6, IL-8, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and endothelin (ET)-1)...
March 20, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Andreas Weber, Mareike Barth, Jessica Isabel Selig, Silja Raschke, Konstantinos Dakaras, Alexander Hof, Julia Hesse, Jürgen Schrader, Artur Lichtenberg, Payam Akhyari
Calcific aortic valve disease is an active disease process with lipoprotein deposition, chronic inflammation, and progressive leaflet degeneration. Expression of ectonucleotidases, a group of membrane-bound enzymes that regulate the metabolism of ATP and its metabolites, may coregulate the degeneration process of valvular interstitial cells (VICs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the enzymes of the purinergic system in the degeneration process of VICs. Ovine VICs were cultivated in vitro under different prodegenerative conditions and treated with inhibitors of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (CD39)/ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), and 5'-nucleotidase (CD73), as well as with adenosine and adenosine receptor agonists...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Nuray Erin, Nur Ogan, Azmi Yerlikaya
PURPOSE: Metastatic breast cancer is resistant to many conventional treatments and novel therapeutic targets are needed. We previously isolated subsets of 4T1 murine breast cancer cells which metastasized to liver (4TLM), brain (4TBM), and heart (4THM). Among these cells, 4TLM is the most aggressive one, demonstrating mesenchymal phenotype. Here we compared secreted proteins from 4TLM, 4TBM, and 4THM cells and compared with that of hardly metastatic 67NR cells to detect differentially secreted factors involved in organ-specific metastasis...
March 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Choung-Soo Kim, Hyunsu Choi, Ki Cheol Park, Sung Won Kim, Dong-Il Sun
Objective This study investigated the ability of implanted human nasal inferior turbinate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hTMSCs) to repair injured vocal folds. To this end, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze the early phase of wound healing and histopathological analysis to explore the late phase of wound healing in xenograft animal models. Study Design Prospective animal study. Setting Research laboratory. Subjects and Methods The right-side lamina propria of the vocal fold was injured in 20 rabbits and 30 rats...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Arash Mehdizadeh, Bruce S Gardiner, Michael Lavagnino, David W Smith
The composition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in tendon depends on the secretion profile of resident cells known as tenocytes. For tissues with a mechanical role like tendon, mechanical strain is known to play an important role in determining the secretion profile of resident cells. Previously we explored the idea of estimating average concentrations of ECM molecules as a function of tendon strain magnitude and number of loading cycles. Specifically, we developed a model of the mechanical fatigue damage of tendon collagen fibers and introduced elementary cell responses (ECRs) by which local cellular-level responses to the strain environment, combined with the fatigue damage model, were scaled up to predict tissue-level responses...
March 20, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
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