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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911312/increased-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-2-in-the-neocortex-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-is%C3%A2-correlated-with-disease-severity-and%C3%A2-soluble-a%C3%AE-42-load
#1
Joyce R Chong, Yuek Ling Chai, Jasinda H Lee, David Howlett, Johannes Attems, Clive G Ballard, Dag Aarsland, Paul T Francis, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
BACKGROUND: Of the three transforming growth factor (TGF)-β isoforms known, TGFβ1 deficits have been widely reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and studied as a potential therapeutic target. In contrast, the status of TGFβ2, which has been shown to mediate amyloid-β (Aβ)-mediated neuronal death, are unclear both in AD and in Lewy body dementias (LBD) with differential neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle burden. OBJECTIVE: To measure neocortical TGFβ2 levels and their correlations with neuropathological and clinical markers of disease severity in a well-characterized cohort of AD as well as two clinical subtypes of LBD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), known to manifest relatively high and low Aβ plaque burden, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911032/a-dermal-equivalent-engineered-with-tgf-%C3%AE-3-expressing-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-and-amniotic-membrane-cosmetic-healing-of-full-thickness-skin-wounds-in-rats
#2
Ali Samadikuchaksaraei, Ahmad Mehdipour, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar, Javad Verdi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Kamran As'adi, Fatemeh Amiri, Mozhgan Dehghan Harati, Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Nushin Karkuki Osguei
Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-β3) has been shown to decrease scar formation after scheduled topical applications to the cutaneous wounds. This study aimed to continuously deliver TGF-β3, during the early phase of wound healing, by engineering a dermal equivalent (DE) using TGF-β3 expressing bone marrow stromal cells (BM-SCs) and human dehydrated amniotic membrane (hDAM). To engineer a DE, rat BM-SCs were seeded on the hDAM and TGF-β3 was transiently transfected into the BM-SCs using a plasmid vector...
December 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910859/t-cell-programming-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Y D Seo, V G Pillarisetty
Despite recent advancements in multimodal therapy, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) continues to have a dismal prognosis. In the era of burgeoning immune therapies against previously difficult-to-treat malignancies, there has been growing interest in activating the immune system against PDA; however, unlike in other cancers such as melanoma and lymphoma, immunotherapy has not yielded many clinically significant results. To harness these mechanisms for therapeutic use, an in-depth understanding of T-cell programming in the immune microenvironment of PDA must be achieved...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910154/interferon-free-regimens-improve-portal-hypertension-and-histological-necroinflammation-in-hiv-hcv-patients-with-advanced-liver-disease
#4
P Schwabl, M Mandorfer, S Steiner, B Scheiner, D Chromy, M Herac, T Bucsics, H Hayden, K Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, A Ferlitsch, G Oberhuber, M Trauner, M Peck-Radosavljevic, T Reiberger
BACKGROUND: HIV/HCV co-infected patients show accelerated fibrosis progression and higher risk for complications of portal hypertension (PHT). AIM: To assess the effects of interferon-free therapy on portal pressure, liver histology and plasma biomarkers in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with PHT. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with paired hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements prior and after successful treatment (SVR) with interferon-free regimens were included...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910068/endometrial-carcinoma-specific-targeted-pathways
#5
Nuria Eritja, Andree Yeramian, Bo-Juen Chen, David Llobet-Navas, Eugenia Ortega, Eva Colas, Miguel Abal, Xavier Dolcet, Jaume Reventos, Xavier Matias-Guiu
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the western world with more than 280,000 cases per year worldwide. Prognosis for EC at early stages, when primary surgical resection is the most common initial treatment, is excellent. Five-year survival rate is around 70 %.Several molecular alterations have been described in the different types of EC. They occur in genes involved in important signaling pathways. In this chapter, we will review the most relevant altered pathways in EC, including PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, Tyrosine kinase, WNT/β-Catenin, cell cycle, and TGF-β signaling pathways...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909731/hypoxia-drives-the-transition-of-human-dermal-fibroblasts-to-a-myofibroblast-like-phenotype-via-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-pathway
#6
Bin Zhao, Hao Guan, Jia-Qi Liu, Zhao Zheng, Qin Zhou, Jian Zhang, Lin-Lin Su, Da-Hai Hu
Keloids, partially considered as benign tumors, are characterized by the overgrowth of fibrosis beyond the boundaries of the wound and are regulated mainly by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, which induces the transition of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Hypoxia is an important driving force in the development of lung and liver fibrosis by activating hypoxia inducible factor-1α and stimulating epithelial‑mesenchymal transition. However, it is unknown whether and hypoxia can influence human dermal scarring...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909729/self-renewal-molecular-mechanisms-of-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells
#7
Tianhui Pan, Jinghong Xu, Yongliang Zhu
Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog-Gli (HH-GLI), specific roles mediated by cell surface markers and micro-environmental factors are involved in the regulation of self-renewal...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909724/hsp27-regulates-tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-lung-fibroblast-differentiation-through-the-smad3-and-erk-pathways
#8
Gang Wang, Hao Jiao, Jun-Nian Zheng, Xia Sun
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lethal interstitial lung disease with unknown etiology. Recent studies have indicated that heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) contributes to the pathogenesis of IPF through the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the expression and role of HSP27 in fibroblasts during pulmonary fibrogenesis has not been investigated to date, at least to the best of our knowledge. In this study, we examined the expression of HSP27 in fibrotic lung tissue and fibroblasts from bleomycin (BLM)-challenged mice and human lung fibroblasts treated with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909722/expression-of-soluble-programmed-death-1-protein-in-peripheral-blood-regulatory-t-cells-and-its-effects-on-rheumatoid-arthritis-progression
#9
Chun-Feng Ren, Ya-Xin Zhao, Chun-Feng Hou, Luan Luan, Guo-Qing Duan, Shu-Jie Li, Jian-Hong Zhao
The present study aimed to investigate the role of the soluble programmed death‑1 (sPD-1) protein, which is released by peripheral blood regulatory T cells (Treg) during the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). From October 2012 to May 2014, 82 RA patients (RA group) and 90 healthy volunteers (healthy controls; HC) were recruited. Cluster of differentiation (CD)4, CD25 and forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3) and expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and Foxp3 were detected by flow cytometry...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909336/c-terminal-truncated-hbv-x-promotes-hepato-oncogenesis-through-inhibition-of-tumor-suppressive-%C3%AE-catenin-bambi-signaling
#10
Seok Lee, Mi-Jin Lee, Jun Zhang, Goung-Ran Yu, Dae-Ghon Kim
C-terminal-truncated hepatitis B virus (HBV) X (HBx) (ctHBX) is frequently detected in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through HBV integration into the host genome. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ctHBx-associated oncogenic signaling have not yet been clarified. To elucidate the biological role of ctHBx in hepato-oncogenesis, we functionally analyzed ctHBx-mediated regulation of the activin membrane-bound inhibitor bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) through transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) or β-catenin (CTNNB1) in HCC cells and in an animal model, and we compared its role to that of the full-length HBx protein...
December 2, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908935/posttranslational-regulation-of-smads
#11
REVIEW
Pinglong Xu, Xia Lin, Xin-Hua Feng
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family signaling dictates highly complex programs of gene expression responses, which are extensively regulated at multiple levels and vary depending on the physiological context. The formation, activation, and destruction of two major functional complexes in the TGF-β signaling pathway (i.e., the TGF-β receptor complexes and the Smad complexes that act as central mediators of TGF-β signaling) are direct targets for posttranslational regulation. Dysfunction of these complexes often leads or contributes to pathogenesis in cancer and fibrosis and in cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908834/gamma-secretase-inhibitor-impairs-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-induced-by-tgf-%C3%AE-in-ovarian-tumor-cell-lines
#12
M C Pazos, D Abramovich, A Bechis, P Accialini, F Parborell, M Tesone, G Irusta
Ovarian cancer is characterized by being highly metastatic, a feature that represents the main cause of failure of the treatment. This study investigated the effects of γ-secretase inhibition on the TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in ovarian cancer cell lines. SKOV3 cells incubated in the presence of TGF-β showed morphological and biochemical changes related to EMT, which were blocked by co-stimulation with TGF-β and the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. In SKOV3 and IGROV1 cells, the co-stimulation blocked the cadherin switch and the increase in the transcription factors Snail, Slug, Twist and Zeb1 induced by TGF-β...
November 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908598/cell-compaction-influences-the-regenerative-potential-of-passaged-bovine-articular-chondrocytes-in-an-ex%C3%A2-vivo-cartilage-defect-model
#13
Michael Schmutzer
The loss and degradation of articular cartilage tissue matrix play central roles in the process of osteoarthritis (OA). New models for evaluating cartilage repair/regeneration are thus of great value for transferring various culture systems into clinically relevant situations. The repair process can be better monitored in ex vivo systems than in in vitro cell cultures. I have therefore established an ex vivo defect model prepared from bovine femoral condyles for evaluating cartilage repair by the implantation of cells cultured in various ways, e...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908221/dasatinib-prevent-hepatic-fibrosis-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride-ccl4-via-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-mechanism
#14
Adel Mohammadalipour, Jamshid Karimi, Iraj Khodadadi, Ghasem Solgi, Mohammad Hashemnia, Nasrin Sheikh, Majid Bahabadi
OBJECTIVES: Dasatinib, a potent and broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of this agent against CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis and oxidative status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental fibrosis was induced in Wistar male rats by 12 weeks of CCl4 administration (i.p.). During the last 8 weeks of injection, rats were gavaged daily with Dasatinib (10 mg/kg)...
December 1, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907211/characterization-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-canine-adipose-tissue-and-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#15
Keith A Russell, Natalie H C Chow, David Dukoff, Thomas W G Gibson, Jonathan LaMarre, Dean H Betts, Thomas G Koch
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) hold promise for both cell replacement and immune modulation strategies owing to their progenitor and non-progenitor functions, respectively. Characterization of MSC from different sources is an important and necessary step before clinical use of these cells is widely adopted. Little is known about the biology and function of canine MSC compared to their mouse or human counterparts. This knowledge-gap impedes development of canine evidence-based MSC technologies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907131/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-comparison-of-early-and-late-passage-human-dermal-papilla-cell-secretome-in-relation-to-inducing-hair-follicle-regeneration
#16
Huan Zhang, Ning-Xia Zhu, Keng Huang, Bo-Zhi Cai, Yang Zeng, Yan-Ming Xu, Yang Liu, Yan-Ping Yuan, Chang-Min Lin
Alopecia is an exceedingly prevalent problem that lacks effective therapy. Recently, research has focused on early-passage dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which have hair inducing activity both in vivo and in vitro. Our previous study indicated that factors secreted from early-passage DPCs contribute to hair follicle (HF) regeneration. To identify which factors are responsible for HF regeneration and why late-passage DPCs lose this potential, we collected 48-h-culture medium (CM) from both of passage 3 and 9 DPCs, and subcutaneously injected the DPC-CM into NU/NU mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907012/the-signature-of-microrna-dysregulation-in-muscle-paralyzed-by-spinal-cord-injury-includes-downregulation-of-micrornas-that-target-myostatin-signaling
#17
Rita De Gasperi, Zachary A Graham, Lauren M Harlow, William A Bauman, Weiping Qin, Christopher P Cardozo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in muscle atrophy, reduced force generation and an oxidative-to-glycolytic fiber type shift. The mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain incompletely understood. To gain new insights regarding mechanisms involved in deterioration of muscle after SCI, global expression profiles of miRs in paralyzed gastrocnemius muscle were compared between sham-operated (Sham) and spinal cord-transected (SCI) rats. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis of the altered miRs identified signaling via insulin, IGF-1, integrins and TGF-β as being significantly enriched for target genes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906752/recent-developments-in-emerging-therapeutic-targets-of-osteoarthritis
#18
Margaret Man-Ger Sun, Frank Beier, Michael A Pest
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the tremendous individual suffering and socioeconomic burden caused by osteoarthritis, there are currently no effective disease-modifying treatment options. This is in part because of our incomplete understanding of osteoarthritis disease mechanism. This review summarizes recent developments in therapeutic targets identified from surgical animal models of osteoarthritis that provide novel insight into osteoarthritis pathology and possess potential for progression into preclinical studies...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906584/effects-of-the-transforming-growth-factor-beta-signaling-pathway-on-the-differentiation-of-chicken-embryonic-stem-cells-into-male-germ-cells
#19
Yani Zhang, Yingjie Wang, Qisheng Zuo, Dong Li, Wenhui Zhang, Chao Lian, Beibei Tang, Tianrong Xiao, Man Wang, Kehua Wang, Bichun Li
The objectives of the present study were to screen for key gene and signaling pathways involved in the production of male germ cells in poultry and to investigate the effects of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway on the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into male germ cells. The ESCs, primordial germ cells, and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) were sorted using flow cytometry for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. Male chicken ESCs were induced using 40 ng/mL of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906446/study-on-adhesion-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-osteoblasts-promoted-by-new-absorbable-bioactive-glass-injection-in-vitro
#20
A Axrap, J Wang, Y Liu, M Wang, A Yusuf
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts grown on absorbable bioactive glass-calcium phosphate cement injection (BG-CPC) materials in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BG-CPC composite biomaterial samples were prepared in vitro, for culture with MC3T3-E1 rat osteoblasts. Cells were divided into CPC, BG and BG-CPC treated groups. After cultivation for 3d, cells were stained with rhodamine-phalloidin and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and observed by fluorescence microscopy for osteoblast morphology on the surface of biomaterials...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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