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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144435/dysregulated-collagen-homeostasis-by-matrix-stiffening-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-in-fibroblasts-from-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-patients-role-of-fak-akt
#1
Alícia Giménez, Paula Duch, Marta Puig, Marta Gabasa, Antoni Xaubet, Jordi Alcaraz
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an aggressive disease in which normal lung parenchyma is replaced by a stiff dysfunctional scar rich in activated fibroblasts and collagen-I. We examined how the mechanochemical pro-fibrotic microenvironment provided by matrix stiffening and TGF-β1 cooperates in the transcriptional control of collagen homeostasis in normal and fibrotic conditions. For this purpose we cultured fibroblasts from IPF patients or control donors on hydrogels with tunable elasticity, including 3D collagen-I gels and 2D polyacrylamide (PAA) gels...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143784/primary-cilium-dependent-signaling-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M Nauli
Primary cilia are hair-like organelles and play crucial roles in vertebrate development, organogenesis, health, and many genetic disorders. A primary cilium is a mechano-sensory organelle that responds to mechanical stimuli in the micro-environment. A cilium is also a chemosensor that senses chemical signals surrounding a cell. The overall function of a cilium is therefore to act as a communication hub to transfer extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Although intracellular calcium has been one of the most studied signaling messengers that transmit extracellular signals into the cells, calcium signaling by various ion channels remains a topic of interest in the field...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143549/negative-impact-of-hyperglycaemia-on-mouse-alveolar-development
#3
Mei-Yao He, Guang Wang, Sha-Sha Han, Ke Li, Ya Jin, Meng Liu, Zhen-Peng Si, Ju Wang, Guo-Sheng Liu, Xuesong Yang
Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has been known to affect the embryonic development of various systems, including cardiovascular and nervous systems. However, whether this disease could have a negative impact on embryonic respiratory system remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM)-induced defects in lung development in mice are mainly characterized by the changes in the morphological structure of the lung. Immunostaining and Western blotting showed that proliferation increased and apoptosis decreased in PGDM...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142159/systemic-cytokine-response-in-pigs-infected-orally-with-a-lawsonia-intracellularis-isolate-of-south-korean-origin
#4
Jung-Yong Yeh, A-Reum Ga
In the swine industry, Lawsonia intracellularis is one of the main enteric pathogens; it causes acute intestinal hemorrhage (proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy) in naïve adult pigs and a wasting disease (proliferative enteropathy) in growing pigs. Among many kinds of cytokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has previously been reported to play a significant role in limiting intracellular infection and increasing cellular proliferation associated with L. intracellularis. However, the levels of various circulating inflammatory cytokines, including IFN-γ, in animals infected with L...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141874/s100a4-amplifies-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-a-pleural-mesothelial-cell-line
#5
Qian Ning, Feiyan Li, Lei Wang, Hong Li, Yan Yao, Tinghua Hu, Zhongmin Sun
Pleural fibrosis can dramatically lower the quality of life. Numerous studies have reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanism is inadequately understood. Fibroblast-specific protein-1 (S100A4) is a target of TGF-β signaling. In our previous study, we have reported that S100A4 is highly expressed in pleural fibrosis. Thus, we suggest that S100A4 took part in the TGF-β-induced EMT in pleural fibrosis...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141862/the-activation-of-human-dermal-microvascular-cells-by-poly-i-c-lipopolysaccharide-imiquimod-and-odn2395-is-mediated-by-the-fli1-foxo3a-pathway
#6
Lukasz Stawski, Grace Marden, Maria Trojanowska
Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction has been associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases; however, the factors contributing to this dysfunction have not been fully explored. Because activation of TLRs has been implicated in autoimmune diseases, the goal of this study was to determine the effects of TLR ligands on EC function. Human dermal microvascular ECs (HDMECs) treated with TLR3 [Poly(I:C)], TLR4 (LPS), and TLR7 (imiquimod) agonists showed decreased proliferation and a reduced total number of branching tubules in three-dimensional human dermal organoid ex vivo culture...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141406/rutinosylated-ferulic-acid-attenuates-food-allergic-response-and-colitis-by-up-regulating-regulatory-t-cells-in-mouse-models
#7
Shigeru Katayama, Fumiaki Ohno, Takakazu Mitani, Hiroshi Akiyama, Soichiro Nakamura
The purpose of this study was to screen the phytochemicals capable of inducing immune tolerance via enhanced TGF-β1 secretion and investigate their effects in a mouse model of food allergy and colitis. In a screening test using THP-1-derived dendritic cells, a significant increase in TGF-β1 levels was observed upon treatment with ferulic acid (FA) and its glycosides, of which FA rutinoside (FAR) induced the highest level of TGF-β1 secretion. Oral administration of FAR suppressed serum levels of IgE and histamine in ovalbumin-sensitized mice and triggered the differentiation of regulatory T (Treg) cells...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140985/notch-signaling-and-progenitor-ductular-reaction-in-steatohepatitis
#8
Carola M Morell, Romina Fiorotto, Marica Meroni, Aileen Raizner, Barbara Torsello, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Gaia Spagnuolo, Eleanna Kaffe, Salvatore Sutti, Emanuele Albano, Mario Strazzabosco
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Persistent hepatic progenitor cells (HPC) activation resulting in ductular reaction (DR) is responsible for pathologic liver repair in cholangiopathies. Also, HPC/DR expansion correlates with fibrosis in several chronic liver diseases, including steatohepatitis. Increasing evidence indicates Notch signaling as a key regulator of HPC/DR response in biliary and more in general liver injuries. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of Notch during HPC/DR activation in a mouse model of steatohepatitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140787/tgf-%C3%AE-requires-the-activation-of-canonical-and-non-canonical-signalling-pathways-to-induce-skeletal-muscle-atrophy
#9
Johanna Ábrigo, Fabian Campos, Felipe Simon, Claudia Riedel, Daniel Cabrera, Cristian Vilos, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
The transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-β) induces skeletal muscle atrophy characterized by a decrease in fiber's diameter and levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC), also as an increase of MuRF-1 expression. In addition, TGF-β induces muscle atrophy by a mechanism dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS). TGF-β signals by activating both canonical Smad-dependent, and non-canonical signalling pathways such as ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPKs. However, the participation of canonical and non-canonical signalling pathways in the TGF-β atrophic effect on skeletal muscle is unknown...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140729/gene-expression-and-gene-associations-during-the-development-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-the-dahl-salt-sensitive-model-of-hypertension
#10
Jeffrey Yim, Hyokeun Cho, Simon W Rabkin
Gene expression and associations were examined in a model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a condition with minimal effective treatment. Genes with at least two studies showing significant changes in Dahl rat with heart failure were examined by meta-analysis. Significantly increased in expression were iNOS, p47phox, ADM, ANP, OPN, ACE, MCP-1, GP91PHOX, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, CTGF, ET-1, p22phox, ETB, BNP, ETA, MMP13, Col1a1, MMP2, TIMP1, Col3a1, Il-1β, β-MHC, ECE1, MMP14, AGT, and MMP9...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140585/timap-the-versatile-protein-phosphatase-1-regulator-in-endothelial-cells
#11
REVIEW
Anita Boratkó, Csilla Csortos
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibited membrane associated protein, TIMAP, is the member of the myosin phosphatase targeting protein (MYPT) family of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunits. The N-terminal part of TIMAP has a typical MYPT family structure with a sequence element called MyPhone (myosin phosphatase N-terminal element), a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal, a PP1 catalytic subunit binding motif, and five ankyrin repeats. The C-terminal half of TIMAP is intrinsically disordered, but ends with a functional CAAX box for lipid modification which allows localization of TIMAP at the plasma membrane...
November 15, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140406/smad3-stat3-crosstalk-in-pathophysiological-contexts
#12
Yuka Itoh, Masao Saitoh, Keiji Miyazawa
Smad3 and STAT3 are intracellular molecules that transmit signals from plasma membrane receptors to the nucleus. Smad3 operates downstream of growth/differentiation factors that utilize activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-4, 5, or 7, such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), activin, and myostatin. STAT3 principally functions downstream of cytokines that exert their effects via gp130 and Janus family kinases, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and oncostatin M. Accumulating evidence indicates that Smad3 and STAT3 engage in crosstalk in a highly context-dependent fashion, cooperating in some conditions while acting antagonistically each other in others...
November 13, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140251/vg1-nodal-heterodimers-are-the-endogenous-inducers-of-mesendoderm
#13
Tessa Grace Montague, Alexander F Schier
Nodal is considered the key inducer of mesendoderm in vertebrate embryos and embryonic stem cells. Other TGF-beta-related signals, such as Vg1/Dvr1/Gdf3, have also been implicated in this process but their roles have been unclear or controversial. Here we report that zebrafish embryos without maternally provided vg1 fail to form endoderm and head and trunk mesoderm, and closely resemble nodal loss-of-function mutants. Although Nodal is processed and secreted without Vg1, it requires Vg1 for its endogenous activity...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140182/tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-cxcl12-modulate-proliferation-and-chemotherapy-sensitivity-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-co-cultured-with-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#14
Roland Christian Schelker, Sabine Iberl, Gunnar Müller, Christina Hart, Wolfgang Herr, Jochen Grassinger
OBJECTIVES: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play a central role within the bone marrow (BM) niche, supporting hematopoiesis via soluble factors like cytokines and chemokines. In our study, we sought to investigate the effect of blocking transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) receptor CXCR4 on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in an MSC co-culture system. METHODS: Human MSCs were obtained by BM aspirates and their phenotype and functional properties were confirmed in vitro...
November 15, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140156/conditioned-medium-from-human-gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protects-motor-neuron-like-nsc-34-cells-against-scratch-injury-induced-cell-death
#15
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Francesca Diomede, Placido Bramanti, Oriana Trubiani, Emanuela Mazzon
Neuronal cell death is a normal process during central nervous system (CNS) development and is also involved in the death of motor neurons in diverse spinal motor neuron degenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of secretory factors released from human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) in mechanically injured murine motor-neuron-like NSC-34 cells. The cells were exposed to scratch injury and the markers for apoptosis and oxidative stress were examined. Immunocytochemistry results showed that proapoptotic markers cleaved caspase-3 and Bax were elevated while anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was suppressed in scratch-injured NSC-34 cells...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140132/mediation-of-the-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-induced-pulmonary-fibrogenic-response-by-osteopontin-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#16
Timur O Khaliullin, Elena R Kisin, Ashley R Murray, Naveena Yanamala, Michael R Shurin, Dmitriy W Gutkin, Liliya M Fatkhutdinova, Valerian E Kagan, Anna A Shvedova
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: A number of in vivo studies have shown that pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may lead to an acute local inflammatory response, pulmonary fibrosis, and granulomatous lesions. Among the factors that play direct roles in initiation and progression of fibrotic processes are epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myofibroblasts recruitment/differentiation, both mediated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Yet, other contributors to TGF-β1 associated signaling, such as osteopontin (OPN) has not been fully investigated...
October 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139535/contribution-of-cranial-neural-crest-cells-to-mouse-skull-development
#17
Taofen Wu, Guiqian Chen, Fei Tian, Hong-Xiang Liu
The mammalian skull vault is a highly regulated structure that evolutionally protects brain growth during vertebrate development. It consists of several membrane bones with different tissue origins (e.g. neural crest-derived frontal bone and mesoderm-derived parietal bone). Although membrane bones are formed through intramembranous ossification, the neural crest-derived frontal bone has superior capabilities for osteoblast activities and bone regeneration via TGF, BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling pathways. Neural crest (NC) cells are multipotent, and once induced, will follow specific paths to migrate to different locations of the body where they give rise to a diverse array of cell types and tissues...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138866/hmga2-facilitates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-by-regulating-the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad2-signaling-pathway
#18
Bo Kou, Wei Liu, Xiaoshuang Tang, Qingshan Kou
High-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), a member of the high mobility group family, has been reported to correlate with cancer progression. However, there is no report concerning the correlation between HMGA2 and metastasis in renal cell carcinoma. In the present study, we found that HMGA2 was highly expressed in five renal cell carcinoma cell lines compared with that in the normal renal tubular epithelial HK2 cell line. Additionally, HMGA2 facilitated cell migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells, as evidenced by wound healing and Transwell assays...
November 10, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138863/therapeutic-effect-of-ulinastatin-on-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-downregulation-of-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1-tnf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-and-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#19
Dejun Li, Hongsheng Ji, Bao Zhao, Chunyang Xu, Wenjun Xia, Lihui Han, Dongqing Yu, Yuanrong Ju, Changjun Jin
Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, lethal lung disease characterized by alveolar cell necrosis and dysplasia of interstitial fibrotic tissue, resulting in loss of lung function and eventual respiratory failure. Previously, glucocorticoid drugs were used to treat this lung disorder. However, positive responses were recorded in less than half of treated patients and the cytotoxicity caused by high dosage treatment is still a concern. The present study investigated whether ulinastatin, a typical urinary trypsin inhibitor that mitigates numerous inflammatory responses, could be a treatment option for lung fibrosis...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138858/downregulation-of-mir%C3%A2-19a%C3%A2-3p-promotes-invasion-migration-and-bone-metastasis-via-activating-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#20
Qingde Wa, Li Li, Hongcheng Lin, Xinsheng Peng, Dong Ren, Yan Huang, Peiheng He, Shuai Huang
Constitutive activation of TGF‑β signaling pathway is a well-documented mechanism responsible for the bone metastasis of prostate cancer (PCa). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be crucial for the activation of TGF‑β signaling via targeting downstream components of TGF‑β signaling pathway. Here, we report that miR‑19a‑3p is downregulated in bone metastatic PCa tissues and cells. Upregulation of miR‑19a‑3p suppresses invasion, migration in vitro and inhibits bone metastasis in vivo in PCa cells...
November 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
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