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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353322/statistical-analysis-of-phase-formation-in-2d-colloidal-systems
#1
Hauke Carstensen, Vassilios Kapaklis, Max Wolff
Colloidal systems offer unique opportunities for the study of phase formation and structure since their characteristic length scales are accessible to visible light. As a model system the two-dimensional assembly of colloidal magnetic and non-magnetic particles dispersed in a ferrofluid (FF) matrix is studied by transmission optical microscopy. We present a method to statistically evaluate images with thousands of particles and map phases by extraction of local variables. Different lattice structures and long-range connected branching chains are observed, when tuning the effective magnetic interaction and varying particle ratios...
January 23, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353226/high-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratios-predict-intracranial-atherosclerosis-in-a-healthy-population
#2
Ki-Woong Nam, Hyung-Min Kwon, Han-Yeong Jeong, Jin-Ho Park, Sang Hyuck Kim, Su-Min Jeong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although atherosclerosis has been shown to be an inflammatory disease, intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) has not been well addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the presence of ICAS lesions in a generally healthy population. METHODS: A consecutive series of subjects, who voluntarily visited for health check-ups between January 2006 and December 2013, were selected...
January 5, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353032/clinical-assessment-and-brain-findings-in-a-cohort-of-mothers-fetuses-and-infants-infected-with-zika-virus
#3
Magdalena Sanz Cortes, Ana Maria Rivera, Mayel Yepez, Carolina V Guimaraes, Israel Diaz Yunes, Alexander Zarutskie, Ivan Davila, Anil Shetty, Arun Mahadev, Saray Maria Serrano, Nicolas Castillo, Wesley Lee, Gregory Valentine, Michael Belfort, Guido Parra, Carrie Mohila, Kjersti Aagaard, Miguel Parra
BACKGROUND: Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can be detected in both the presence and absence of microcephaly, and manifests as a number of signs and symptoms detected clinically and by neuroimaging. However, to date, qualitative and quantitative measures for the purpose of diagnosis and prognosis are limited. OBJECTIVES: Main objectives of this study conducted on fetuses and infants with confirmed congenital ZIKV infection and detected brain abnormalities are: 1) To assess the prevalence of microcephaly and the frequency of the anomalies including a detailed description based on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses and ultrasound, MRI and computed tomography imaging postnatally; 2) To provide quantitative measures of fetal and infant brain findings by MRI using volumetric analyses and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI); 3) To obtain additional information from placental and fetal histopathological assessments and postnatal clinical evaluations...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352978/use-of-multimodality-imaging-and-artificial-intelligence-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Xiaonan Liu, Kewei Chen, Teresa Wu, David Weidman, Fleming Lure, Jing Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. Currently, no treatment exists to slow down or stop the progression of AD. There is converging belief that disease-modifying treatments should focus on early stages of the disease, that is, the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and preclinical stages. Making a diagnosis of AD and offering a prognosis (likelihood of converting to AD) at these early stages are challenging tasks but possible with the help of multimodality imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission topography (PET), amyloid-PET, and recently introduced tau-PET, which provides different but complementary information...
January 10, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352971/magnetic-anchor-guided-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-for-gastric-lesions-with-video
#5
Ippei Matsuzaki, Masashi Hattori, Ken Hirose, Masaya Esaki, Masakatsu Yoshikawa, Takio Yokoi, Makoto Kobayashi, Ryoji Miyahara, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hidemi Goto
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The feasibility of magnetic anchor-guided endoscopic submucosal dissection (MAG-ESD) using a neodymium magnet for gastric lesions has not been clarified. The aim of study was to evaluate the feasibility of MAG-ESD using neodymium magnets while treating gastric lesions. METHODS: This prospective trial was conducted at the Yamashita Hospital. The MAG-ESD was performed for 50 gastric lesions using an insulated-tip knife. The magnetic anchor consisted of an internal neodymium magnet attached to a hemoclip with 3-0 silk...
January 15, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352927/self-assembly-and-rheological-behaviors-of-intermacromolecular-complexes-consisting-of-oppositely-charged-fluorinated-guar-gums
#6
Chen Wang, Liewei Qiu, Tao Wang
We synthesized fluorinated cationic/anionic guar gums (FCGG and FAGG) and characterized these species using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The degree of fluorine substitution of FCGG (0.26%) and FAGG (0.21%) was calculated by elemental analysis. In addition, we explored the self-assembly and rheological behaviors of FCGG-FAGG complexes by viscometry, scanning electron microscopy, light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and rheometry. The maximum viscosity and molecular weights were observed with a FAGG:FCGG mass ratio of 7...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352920/biomass-based-magnetic-fluorescent-nanoparticles-one-step-scalable-synthesis-application-as-drug-carriers-and-mechanism-study
#7
Lei Li, Feijun Wang, Ziqiang Shao
A biomass-based magnetic fluorescent nanoparticle (MFNPs) was successively in situ synthesized via a one-step high-gravity approach, which constructed by a magnetic core of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the fluorescent marker of carbon dots (CDs), and shells of chitosan (CS). The obtained MFNPs had a 10 nm average diameter and narrow particle size distribution, low cytotoxicity, superior fluorescent emission and superparamagnetic properties. The encapsulating and release 5-fluorouracil experiments confirmed that the introduction of CS/CDs effectively improved the drug loading capacity...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352915/silver-i-dithiocarbamate-on-modified-magnetic-cellulose-synthesis-density-functional-theory-study-and-application
#8
Samaneh Sabaqian, Firouzeh Nemati, Hossein Taherpour Nahzomi, Majid M Heravi
A magnetically retrievable catalytic system involving Ag(I) dithiocarbamate supported on functionalized cellulose was prepared. The structure of this hybrid nano-composite was characterized by various techniques. In addition, to describe the metal-ligand interactions present in the nano-composite, covalent and electrostatic interactions, density functional theory model and quantum theory of atoms in molecule method were employed. The resultant nano-composite exhibits remarkable catalytic efficacy in the synthesis of 2-amino-6-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-4-phenylnicotinonitriles from the reaction of 3-acetylcoumarin, aromatic aldehydes, and malononitrile...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352778/continuum-percolation-of-polydisperse-rods-in-quadrupole-fields-theory-and-simulations
#9
Shari P Finner, Mihail I Kotsev, Mark A Miller, Paul van der Schoot
We investigate percolation in mixtures of nanorods in the presence of external fields that align or disalign the particles with the field axis. Such conditions are found in the formulation and processing of nanocomposites, where the field may be electric, magnetic, or due to elongational flow. Our focus is on the effect of length polydispersity, which-in the absence of a field-is known to produce a percolation threshold that scales with the inverse weight average of the particle length. Using a model of non-interacting spherocylinders in conjunction with connectedness percolation theory, we show that a quadrupolar field always increases the percolation threshold and that the universal scaling with the inverse weight average no longer holds if the field couples to the particle length...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352774/the-bloch-equation-with-terms-induced-by-an-electric-field
#10
Piotr Garbacz
The Bloch equation of the nuclear magnetization of spin-1/2 nuclei in molecules, which have permanent electric dipole moments μe that are placed simultaneously in a magnetic field B and an electric field E, is derived. It is shown that if the principal components of the nuclear magnetic shielding tensor σ and the dipole moment μe are known, then the measurement of the transverse component to the magnetic field B of the nuclear magnetization, which is induced by the application of the electric field oscillating at the half of the spin precession frequency, allows determining the orientation of the dipole moment μe with respect to the principal axis system of the symmetric part of the tensor σ...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352668/the-effect-of-single-and-repeated-prefrontal-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-cortical-reactivity-and-working-memory
#11
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Paul B Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: With an increasing interest in the use of theta burst stimulation (TBS) as a cognitive enhancer and a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders, there is a need to identify optimal parameters of TBS in the prefrontal cortex. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study examined the effect of two blocks of prefrontal intermittent TBS (iTBS) on cortical reactivity and working memory performance, compared to one block of iTBS and sham stimulation. We hypothesized that greater cortical effects would be obtained with two blocks of iTBS...
January 8, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352610/neural-representation-of-octave-illusion-in-the-human-cortex-revealed-with-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Keita Tanaka, Hiroki Kurasaki, Shinya Kuriki
The auditory "octave illusion" arises when dichotic tones, presented one octave apart, alternate rapidly between the ears. This study aimed to explore the link between the perception of illusory pitches and brain activity during presentation of dichotic tones. We conducted a behavioral study of how participants perceived binaural dichotic tones of octave illusions and classified them, based on the reported percepts, in an illusion (ILL) group, without an illusion (non-ILL) group, and others. We recorded brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed the activation due to dichotic illusion tones...
January 8, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352524/effects-of-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-on-brain-response-to-high-calorie-food-cues-in-young-adults
#13
Shan Luo, Sydney G O'Connor, Britni R Belcher, Kathleen A Page
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity (PA) promotes weight maintenance, potentially because of its beneficial effects on feeding behavior regulation via diminished food cue reactivity within brain reward regions. This study examined how levels of PA and sedentary behavior (SB) relate to brain responses to food cues. METHODS: Participants (22 lean, 18 with obesity) completed three to five PA recalls over 2 months. Average minutes per day of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and SB were calculated...
January 19, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352498/autofocusing-based-phase-correction
#14
Alexander Loktyushin, Philipp Ehses, Bernhard Schölkopf, Klaus Scheffler
PURPOSE: Phase artifacts due to B0 inhomogeneity can severely degrade the quality of MR images. The artifacts are particularly prominent in long-TE scans and usually appear as ghosting and blur. We propose a retrospective phase correction method based on autofocusing. The proposed method uses raw data acquired with standard imaging sequences, and does not rely on navigators or external measures of field inhomogeneity. METHODS: We formulate and solve the optimization problem, where we seek the latent phase offsets that are associated with an optimal value of the image quality measure that is evaluated in the spatial domain...
January 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352389/detailed-t1-weighted-profiles-from-the-human-cortex-measured-in-vivo-at-3-tesla-mri
#15
Bart Ferguson, Natalia Petridou, Alessio Fracasso, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Rachel M Brouwer, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, René S Kahn, René C W Mandl
Studies into cortical thickness in psychiatric diseases based on T1-weighted MRI frequently report on aberrations in the cerebral cortex. Due to limitations in image resolution for studies conducted at conventional MRI field strengths (e.g. 3 Tesla (T)) this information cannot be used to establish which of the cortical layers may be implicated. Here we propose a new analysis method that computes one high-resolution average cortical profile per brain region extracting myeloarchitectural information from T1-weighted MRI scans that are routinely acquired at a conventional field strength...
January 19, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352379/magnetic-resonance-with-diffusion-weighted-imaging-improves-assessment-of-focal-liver-lesions-in-patients-with-potentially-resectable-pancreatic-cancer-on-ct
#16
Sun Kyung Jeon, Jeong Min Lee, Ijin Joo, Dong Ho Lee, Su Joa Ahn, Hyunsik Woo, Myoung Seok Lee, Jin-Young Jang, Joon Koo Han
PURPOSE: To investigate added value of MRI to preoperative staging MDCT for evaluation of focal liver lesions (FLLs) in potentially resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In patients with potentially resectable PDACs after staging MDCT (n=167), characteristics of FLLs were scored as benign, indeterminate or metastases on an MDCT set and combined MDCT and MRI set by two readers, independently. Size of hepatic lesions was measured and detection rate of hepatic metastasis unsuspected by MDCT and diagnostic yield of MRI for FLLs were assessed...
January 19, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352366/a-new-class-of-cest-experiment-based-on-selecting-different-magnetization-components-at-the-start-and-end-of-the-cest-relaxation-element-an-application-to-1h-cest
#17
Tairan Yuwen, Lewis E Kay
Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments are becoming increasingly popular for investigating biomolecular exchange dynamics with rates on the order of approximately 50-500 s-1 and a rich toolkit of different methods has emerged over the past few years. Typically, experiments are based on the evolution of longitudinal magnetization, or in some cases two-spin order, during a fixed CEST relaxation delay, with the same class of magnetization prepared at the start and selected at end of the CEST period...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352255/offline-stimulation-of-human-parietal-cortex-differently-affects-resting-eeg-microstates
#18
Pierpaolo Croce, Filippo Zappasodi, Paolo Capotosto
The interference effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on several electroencephalographic (EEG) measures in both temporal and frequency domains have been reported. We tested the hypothesis whether the offline external inhibitory interference, although focal, could result in a global reorganization of the functional brain state, as assessed by EEG microstates. In 16 healthy subjects, we inhibited five parietal areas and used a pseudo stimulation (Sham) at rest. The EEG microstates were extracted before and after each stimulation...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352244/a-very-large-perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy-in-pt-co-mgo-trilayers-fabricated-by-controlling-the-mgo-sputtering-power-and-its-thickness
#19
Hyung Keun Gweon, Seok Jin Yun, Sang Ho Lim
The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) properties of Pt/Co/MgO trilayers are investigated as a function of the MgO sputtering power (PMgO) and its thickness (tMgO), both of which are important parameters affecting the degree of oxygen interpenetration into Co during sputtering. A strong PMA is achieved at small values of PMgO and tMgO, where the oxygen interpenetration into Co is expected to be small. The range of oxygen interpenetration is relatively extended in such a way that it affects both the Pt/Co and Co/MgO interfaces...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352228/dual-band-metamaterial-antenna-for-lte-bluetooth-wimax-system
#20
Md Mehedi Hasan, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal Faruque, Mohammad Tariqul Islam
A compact metamaterial inspired antenna operate at LTE, Bluetooth and WiMAX frequency band is introduced in this paper. For the lower band, the design utilizes an outer square metallic strip forcing the patch to radiate as an equivalent magnetic-current loop. For the upper band, another magnetic current loop is created by adding metamaterial structure near the feed line on the patch. The metamaterial inspired antenna dimension of 42 × 32 mm2 compatible to wireless devices. Finite integration technique based CST Microwave Studio simulator has been used to design and numerical investigation as well as lumped circuit model of the metamaterial antenna is explained with proper mathematical derivation...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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