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Ramy K A Sayed, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, María E Diaz-Casado, Iryna Rusanova, Ibtissem Rahim, Germaine Escames, Luis C López, Doaa M Mokhtar, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
To gain insight into the mechanism of sarcopenia and the protective effect of melatonin, the gastrocnemius muscles of young (3-4 months), early-aged (12 months), and old-aged (24 months) wild type C57BL/6J female mice, were examined by magnetic resonance and microscopy. Locomotor activity, lactate production and nuclear apoptosis were also assessed. The results support the early onset of sarcopenia at 12 months of age, with reduction of muscle fibers' number, muscle weight/body weight ratio, lactate, and locomotor activity...
March 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Robert Tso, Levinus A Dieleman, Heekuk Park, Karen I Kroeker, Juan Jovel, Patrick M Gillevet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Rupasri Mandal, Richard N Fedorak, Karen L Madsen
Background: Crohn's disease (CD) patients who undergo ileocolonic resection frequently have disease recurrence. The aim of this preliminary study was to identify urinary metabolomic profiles associated with disease recurrence in order to identify underlying mechanisms of recurrence and possible disease biomarkers. Methods: Biopsies from the neoterminal ileum were collected from CD patients (n = 38) after ileocolonic resection in order to assess mucosa-associated microbiota using 16S rRNA multitag pyrosequencing...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Elena Boto, Niall Holmes, James Leggett, Gillian Roberts, Vishal Shah, Sofie S Meyer, Leonardo Duque Muñoz, Karen J Mullinger, Tim M Tierney, Sven Bestmann, Gareth R Barnes, Richard Bowtell, Matthew J Brookes
Imaging human brain function with techniques such as magnetoencephalography typically requires a subject to perform tasks while their head remains still within a restrictive scanner. This artificial environment makes the technique inaccessible to many people, and limits the experimental questions that can be addressed. For example, it has been difficult to apply neuroimaging to investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive development in babies and children, or to study processes in adults that require unconstrained head movement (such as spatial navigation)...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Lidija Radovanović, Jelena Rogan, Dejan Poleti, V Marko Rodić, Zvonko Jagličić
Two new isostructural M(II) (M = Ni, Co) complexes with 2,2'-dipyridylamine (dipya) and dianion of terephthalic acid (H2tpht), [M(dipya)2(H2O)2](tpht) ∙ 2H2O, have been synthesized by ligand exchange reaction and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, TG/DSC analysis and magnetic measurements. The crystal structures of [M(dipya)2(H2O)2](tpht) ∙ 2H2O consist of discrete complex units in which M(II) adopts deformed octahedral geometries. Two dipya ligands and two water molecules are coordinated to M(II) atom, tpht acts as a counter ion, while additional two water molecules remained uncoordinated...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Marcelo A Queiroz, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel, Giovanni Guido Cerri
The new technology of PET/MRI is a prototype of hybrid imaging, allowing for the combination of molecular data from PET scanning and morphofunctional information derived from MRI scanning. Recent advances regarding the technical aspects of this device, especially after the development of MRI-compatible silicon photomultipliers of PET, permitted an increase in the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI translated into dose reduction and higher imaging quality. Among several clinical applications, PET/MRI gains ground initially in oncology, where MRI per se plays an essential role in the assessment of primary tumors (which is limited in the case of PET/CT), including prostate, rectal and gynecological tumors...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Rafael Alves Cordeiro, Leonardo Santos Hoff, Marcos Vinícius Fernandes Garcia, Hilton Muniz Leão Filho, Eduardo Ferreira Borba
Peliosis hepatis is a rare benign disorder characterized by the presence of multiple cavities filled with blood with no preferential localization in the liver parenchyma. It may be related to several etiologic conditions, especially infections and toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs. To our knowledge, there are only three articles reporting the association between peliosis hepatis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this report, we describe a case of this rare condition, highlighting the importance of magnetic resonance imaging...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Francesca Bagnato, Simon Hametner, Emma Boyd, Verena Endmayr, Yaping Shi, Vasiliki Ikonomidou, Guanhua Chen, Siddharama Pawate, Hans Lassmann, Seth Smith, E Brian Welch
T2*-weighted multi-echo gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging and its reciprocal R2* are used in brain imaging due to their sensitivity to iron content. In patients with multiple sclerosis who display pathological alterations in iron and myelin contents, the use of R2* may offer a unique way to untangle mechanisms of disease. Coronal slices from 8 brains of deceased multiple sclerosis patients were imaged using a whole-body 7.0 Tesla MRI scanner. The scanning protocol included three-dimensional (3D) T2*-w multi-echo gradient-echo and 2D T2-w turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences...
2018: PloS One
Robert Gibbs, Gregory Moreton, Turgut Meydan, Paul Williams
The investigation of planar coils of differing topologies, when combined with a magnetostrictive amorphous ribbon to form a stress-sensitive self-inductor, is an active research area for applications as stress or pressure sensors. Four topologies of planar coil (Circular, Mesh, Meander, and Square) have been constructed using copper track on 30 mm wide PCB substrate. The coils are energized to draw 0.4 A and the resulting magnetic field distribution is observed with a newly developed three-dimensional magnetic field scanner...
March 21, 2018: Sensors
Nafiz Öncü Can, Özgür Devrim Can, Derya Osmaniye, Ümide Demir Özkay
Novel thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized through the reaction of acetylated 2-aminothiadiazole and piperazine derivatives. The chemical structures of the compounds were clarified by Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (¹H-NMR),13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (13 C-NMR) and Electronspray Ionisation Mass Spectroscopy (ESI-MS) spectroscopic methods. Antidepressant-like activities were evaluated by the tail-suspension (TST) and modified forced swimming (MFST) methods...
March 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Frederique E C M Peeters, Manouk J W van Mourik, Steven J R Meex, Jan Bucerius, Simon M Schalla, Suzanne C Gerretsen, Casper Mihl, Marc R Dweck, Leon J Schurgers, Joachim E Wildberger, Harry J G M Crijns, Bas L J H Kietselaer
BASIK2 is a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7;MK7) on imaging measurements of calcification in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). BAV is associated with early development of CAVS. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely defined, and the only treatment available is valve replacement upon progression to severe symptomatic stenosis. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) inactivity is suggested to be involved in progression...
March 21, 2018: Nutrients
Sabina Ziemian, Norbert Löwa, Olaf Kosch, Daniel Bajj, Frank Wiekhorst, Gunnar Schütz
The optimization of iron oxide nanoparticles as tracers for magnetic particle imaging (MPI) alongside the development of data acquisition equipment and image reconstruction techniques is crucial for the required improvements in image resolution and sensitivity of MPI scanners. We present a large-scale water-based synthesis of multicore superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with dextran (MC-SPIONs). We also demonstrate the preparation of single core superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in organic media, subsequently coated with a poly(ethylene glycol) gallic acid polymer and phase transferred to water (SC-SPIONs)...
March 21, 2018: Nanomaterials
Dong An, Chengchen Guo, Yanan Chen
Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and water sources is a key part of environmental chemistry research, since most PAHs are well known to be associated with negative health impacts on humans. This study explores an approach for analyzing PAH mixtures with advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques including high-resolution one-dimensional (1D) NMR spectroscopy and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY NMR). With this method, different kinds of PAHs can be detected and differentiated from a mixture with high resolution...
March 21, 2018: Materials
Aaron B Christian, Aaron T Schye, Kelvin O White, John Neumeier
The magnetic, thermal, and optical properties of single-crystalline CoTa$_2$O$_6$ and FeTa$_2$O$_6$ are reported. Optical dichroism was observed in CoTa$_2$O$_6$. Magnetic susceptibility $\chi$($T$) measurements reveal long-range antiferromagnetic order with N\'eel temperatures $T_N$ = 6.12(5)~K and 8.11(5)~K, respectively, and anisotropy in $\chi$. The thermal expansion coefficients exhibit significant anisotropy and the influence of the magnetic ions and long-range order. A structural phase transition to orthorhombic occurs below $T_N$ for FeTa$_2$O$_6$...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Youkyung Bae, Gwenlyn Pfeil
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility/effectiveness of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to document velopharyngeal (VP) structural changes induced by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in velar length and thickness, levator veli palatini (LVP) length and thickness, velar volume, and intravelar muscular proportion along the course of CPAP therapy participation (Pre-CPAP, Post-CPAP, and withdrawal). RESULTS: Velar and LVP lengths remained nearly the same, with the median changes (Δ) less than 0...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Roger Alexander Bennett, Haitham Etman, Hannah Hicks, Leah Richards, Chen Wu, Martin R Castell, Sarnjeet S Dhesi, Francesco Maccherozzi
The growth and reactive dewetting of ultra-thin films of iron oxides supported on Re(0001) surfaces have been imaged in-situ in real time. Initial growth forms a non-magnetic stable FeO (wüstite like) layer in a commensurate network upon which high aspect ratio nanowires of several microns length but less than 40nm width can be fabricated. The nanowires are closely aligned with the substrate crystallography and imaging by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism shows that each contain a single magnetic domain. The driving force for dewetting appears to be the minimization of strain energy of the Fe3O4 crystallites and follows the Tersoff and Tromp model in which strain is minimized at constant height by extending in one epitaxially matched direction...
March 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Alison Tebo, Tyler B J Pinter, Ricardo García-Serres, Amy L Speelman, Cédric Tard, Olivier Sénèque, Geneviève Blondin, Jean-Marc Latour, James E Penner-Hahn, Nicolai Lehnert, Vincent L Pecoraro
Protein design is a powerful tool to interrogate the basic requirements for the function of a metal site in a way that allows for the selective incorporation of elements important for function. Rubredoxins are small electron transfer proteins with a reduction potential centered near 0 mV (vs. NHE). All previous attempts at the design of a rubredoxin site have focused on incorporating the canonical CXXC motifs in addition to reproducing the peptide fold or using flexible loop regions to define the morphology of the site...
March 21, 2018: Biochemistry
Eduardo Guisasola, Laura Asín, Lillianne Beola, Jesús M De La Fuente, Alejandro Baeza, María Vallet Regí
This work presents an innovation in the tumor treatment in vivo mediated by magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNs). This device was built with iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles embedded in a mesoporous silica matrix and coated with an engineered thermoresponsive polymer. The magnetic nanoparticles act as internal heating sources under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) that increase the temperature of the surroundings, provoking the polymer transition and consequently the release of a drug trapped inside the silica pores...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Huifeng Yu, Yanming An, Marcos Daniel Battistel, John F Cipollo, Darón I Freedberg
Conjugate vaccines are highly heterogeneous in terms of glycosylation sites and linked oligosaccharide length. Therefore, the characterization of conjugate vaccines' glycosylation state is challenging. However, improved product characterization can lead to enhancements in product control and product quality. Here, we present a synergistic combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the analysis of glycoconjugates. We use the power of this strategy to characterize model polysaccharide conjugates to demonstrate a detailed level of glycoproteomic analysis...
March 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Matilde Inglese, Maria Petracca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical MRI is of paramount importance for multiple sclerosis diagnosis but lacks the specificity to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying disease onset and progression. The application of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) sequences allows the characterization of diverse and complex pathological mechanisms, granting insights into multiple sclerosis natural history and response to treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: This review provides an update on the most recent international guidelines for optimal standard imaging of multiple sclerosis and discusses advantages and limitations of advanced imaging approaches for investigating inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Johannes Eimer, Jan Vesterbacka, Irina Savitcheva, Rayomand Press, Homayoun Roshanisefat, Piotr Nowak
RATIONALE: Cognitive dysfunction is a common presenting symptom in patients with HIV/AIDS. It is usually directly associated with HIV infection or due to opportunistic infection. Rapidly progressive dementia, however, is rarely observed in acute HIV infection or during immune reconstitution. Recently, a case of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) has been reported in a patient with chronic HIV infection. The incidence of CJD is not known to be increased among immunocompromised patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: We here report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a recent diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia presenting with secondary behavioral changes and disorientation...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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