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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231626/default-mode-network-deactivation-to-smoking-cue-relative-to-food-cue-predicts-treatment-outcome-in-nicotine-use-disorder
#1
Claire E Wilcox, Eric D Claus, Vince D Calhoun, Srinivas Rachakonda, Rae A Littlewood, Jessica Mickey, Pamela B Arenella, Natalie Goodreau, Kent E Hutchison
Identifying predictors of treatment outcome for nicotine use disorders (NUDs) may help improve efficacy of established treatments, like varenicline. Brain reactivity to drug stimuli predicts relapse risk in nicotine and other substance use disorders in some studies. Activity in the default mode network (DMN) is affected by drug cues and other palatable cues, but its clinical significance is unclear. In this study, 143 individuals with NUD (male n = 91, ages 18-55 years) received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during a visual cue task during which they were presented with a series of smoking-related or food-related video clips prior to randomization to treatment with varenicline (n = 80) or placebo...
February 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231596/-impact-of-a-senso-motoric-intervention-in-copd-patients-participating-in-an-outpatient-pulmonary-rehabilitation-program-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
M Spielmanns, K Müller, N Schott, A Winkler, H Polanski, C Nell, T Boeselt, A R Koczulla, J H Storre, W Windisch, F S Magnet, K Baum
Objective: Exercise training provides a cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in COPD-patients. However, the components of the training are not yet fully investigated. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a sensory-motoric training (SMT) in comparison to a conventional strength training (KT) according to the physical performance. Patients and Methods: 43 COPD patients were randomized and participated either in the intervention group (SMT = 30 minutes SMT per day) or in the control group (KT = 30 minutes KT per day)...
February 23, 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231553/a-reusable-aptasensor-of-thrombin-based-on-dna-machine-employing-resonance-light-scattering-technique
#3
Yining Hou, Jifeng Liu, Min Hong, Xia Li, Yanhua Ma, Qiaoli Yue, Chen-Zhong Li
The design of molecular nanodevices attracted great interest in these years. Herein, a reusable, sensitive and specific aptasensor was constructed based on an extension-contraction movement of DNA interconversion for the application of human thrombin detection. The present biosensor was based on resonance light scattering (RLS) using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as the RLS probe. MNPs coated with streptavidin can combine with biotin labeled thrombin aptamers. The combined nanoparticles composite is monodispersed in aqueous medium...
February 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231395/functional-connectivity-in-amygdalar-sensory-pre-motor-networks-at-rest-new-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#4
Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti
The word "e-motion" derives from the Latin word "ex-moveo" which literally means "moving away from something / somebody". Emotions are thus fundamental to prime action and goal-directed behavior with obvious implications for individual's survival. However, the brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between emotional and motor cortical systems remain poorly understood. A recent diffusion tensor imaging study in humans has reported the existence of direct anatomical connections between the amygdala and sensory/(pre)motor cortices, corroborating an initial observation in animal research...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231370/significance-of-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-olfactory-disorder
#5
Teemu Harju, Markus Rautiainen, Ilkka Kivekäs
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to examine olfactory disorders among the patients in the Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic of Tampere University Hospital, Finland, from 2001 to 2011, and to evaluate the necessity of imaging in the examination of patients with olfactory disorders. Charts of 143 consecutive patients with a primary olfactory disorder were examined, and 69 patients who had undergone the necessary testing were included in the study. The most common causes of olfactory disorder were upper respiratory infection (23%), chronic rhinosinusitis (19%), head trauma (17%), and allergic or nonallergic rhinitis (6%)...
February 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231298/a-revised-model-for-jeffrey-nanofluid-subject-to-convective-condition-and-heat-generation-absorption
#6
Tasawar Hayat, Arsalan Aziz, Taseer Muhammad, Ahmed Alsaedi
Here magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Jeffrey nanofluid by a nonlinear stretching surface is addressed. Heat generation/absorption and convective surface condition effects are considered. Novel features of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are present. A non-uniform applied magnetic field is employed. Boundary layer and small magnetic Reynolds number assumptions are employed in the formulation. A newly developed condition with zero nanoparticles mass flux is imposed. The resulting nonlinear systems are solved...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231250/corticospinal-excitability-measurements-using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-are-valid-with-intramuscular-electromyography
#7
Rebekah L S Summers, Mo Chen, Teresa J Kimberley
OBJECTIVES: Muscular targets that are deep or inaccessible to surface electromyography (sEMG) require intrinsic recording using fine-wire electromyography (fEMG). It is unknown if fEMG validly record cortically evoked muscle responses compared to sEMG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the validity and agreement of fEMG compared to sEMG to quantify typical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures pre and post repetitive TMS (rTMS). The hypotheses were that fEMG would demonstrate excellent validity and agreement compared with sEMG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231145/recent-advances-in-techniques-for-starch-esters-and-the-applications-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Jing Hong, Xin-An Zeng, Charles S Brennan, Margaret Brennan, Zhong Han
Esterification is one of the most important methods to alter the structure of starch granules and improve its applications. Conventionally, starch esters are prepared by conventional or dual modification techniques, which have the disadvantages of being expensive, have regent overdoses, and are time-consuming. In addition, the degree of substitution (DS) is often considered as the primary factor in view of its contribution to estimate substituted groups of starch esters. In order to improve the detection accuracy and production efficiency, different detection techniques, including titration, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis/infrared spectroscopy (TGA/IR) and headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC), have been developed for DS...
July 9, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231139/evaluation-of-the-bitterness-masking-effect-of-powdered-roasted-soybeans
#9
Yoshimasa Makita, Tomoko Ishida, Noriko Kobayashi, Mai Fujio, Kyoko Fujimoto, Rina Moritomo, Jun-Ichi Fujita, Shin-Ichi Fujiwara
The masking of bitterness is considered important because many pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste. The bitterness-masking effect of powdered roasted soybeans (PRS) was investigated using a bitter taste sensor. PRS was revealed to significantly suppress the bitterness of quinine hydrochloride and denatonium benzoate. Furthermore, the bitterness-masking mechanism of PRS extracts was evaluated using dynamic light scattering. These results showed that the extracted suspension consisted of particles that were several hundreds of nanometers in size...
June 18, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231068/recent-advances-on-iron-oxide-magnetic-nanoparticles-as-sorbents-of-organic-pollutants-in-water-and-wastewater-treatment
#10
Angela M Gutierrez, Thomas D Dziubla, J Zach Hilt
The constant growth in population worldwide over the past decades continues to put forward the need to provide access to safe, clean water to meet human needs. There is a need for cost-effective technologies for water and wastewater treatment that can meet the global demands and the rigorous water quality standards and at the same maximizing pollutant efficiency removal. Current remediation technologies have failed in keeping up with these factors without becoming cost-prohibitive. Most recently, nanotechnology has been sought as the best alternative to increase access to water supplies by remediating those already contaminated and offering ways to access unconventional sources...
February 23, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231064/three-dimensional-ultrasound-for-prenatal-assessment-of-conjoined-twins-additional-advantages
#11
Tuangsit Wataganara, Pornpimol Ruangvutilert, Prasert Sunsaneevithayakul, Kusol Russameecharoen, Katika Nawapun, Nisarat Phithakwatchara
Conjoined twins are a rare, but serious, complication of monozygotic twins. Early prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins is increasingly made with transvaginal ultrasound and color Doppler studies. Most prenatally diagnosed conjoined twins are terminated due to the high perinatal mortality, but advancement in pediatric surgery has allowed for successful postnatal separation in a small number of cases, and some parents may consider this option over termination of pregnancy. It is important to get a detailed prenatal ultrasound for the site and extent of fusion for an accurate categorization...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231012/quantum-percolation-and-magnetic-nano-droplet-states-in-electronically-phase-separated-manganite-nanowires
#12
Kaixuan Zhang, Lin Li, Hui Li, Qiyuan Feng, Nan Zhang, Long Cheng, Xiaodong Fan, Yubin Hou, Qingyou Lu, Zhenyu Zhang, Changgan Zeng
One-dimensional (1D) confinement has been revealed to effectively tune the properties of materials in homogeneous states. The 1D physics can be further enriched by electronic inhomogeneity, which unfortunately remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the ultra-high sensitivity to magnetic fluctuations and the tunability of phase stability in the electronic transport properties of self-assembled electronically phase-separated manganite nanowires with extreme aspect ratio. The onset of magnetic nano-droplet state, a precursor to the ferromagnetic metallic state, is unambiguously revealed, which is attributed to the small lateral size of the nanowires that is comparable to the droplet size...
February 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230984/2d-conductive-iron-quinoid-magnets-ordering-up-to-tc-105-k-via-heterogenous-redox-chemistry
#13
Jordan A DeGayner, Ie-Rang Jeon, Lei Sun, Mircea Dinca, T David Harris
We report the magnetism and conductivity for a redox isomeric pair of iron-quinoid metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The oxidized isomer, (Me2NH2)2[Fe2L3]·2H2O·6DMF (LH2 = 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxo-1,4-benzoquinone) was previously shown to magnetically order below 80 K in its solvated form, with the ordering temperature decreasing to 26 K upon desolvation. Here, we demonstrate this compound to exhibit electrical conductivity values up to σ = 1.4(7) × 10(-2) S/cm (Ea = 0.26(1) cm(-1)) and 1.0(3) × 10(-3) S/cm (Ea = 0...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230974/femtogram-resolution-of-iron-content-on-a-per-cell-basis-ex-vivo-storage-of-human-red-blood-cells-leads-to-loss-of-hemoglobin
#14
Jeffrey J Chalmers, Xiaoxia Jin, Andre Francis Palmer, Peter Amaya, Mark H Yazer, Lee R Moore, Kyoung-Joo Park, X Jeff Pan, Maciej Zborowski
The magnetic characteristics of hemoglobin (Hb) changes with the binding of dioxygen (O2) to the heme prosthetic groups of the globin chains: from paramagnetic ferrous Hb to diamagnetic ferrous oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) with reversibly bound O2, or paramagnetic ferric methemoglobin (metHb). When multiplied over the number of Hb molecules in a red blood cell (RBC), the effect is detectable through motion analysis of RBCs in a high magnetic field and gradient. This motion is referred to as magnetophoretic mobility which can be conveniently expressed as a fraction of the cell sedimentation coefficient...
February 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230816/new-route-synthesis-of-thiadiazoles-bisthiadiazoles-thiadiazolotriazines-and-pyrazolothiadiazoles-based-on-hydrazonoyl-halides-and-dihydrazinylthiadiazole
#15
Abdelwahed R Sayed, Shar Saad Al-Shihry
Synthesis and characterization of new thiadiazoles, bisthiadiazoles from the reaction of mono- and di-hydrazonoyl halides with various hydrazinecarbodithioate derivatives were studied. Treatment of hydrazonoyl halides with 2,5-dihydrazinyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole afforded new bistriazines containing thiadiazole; we also examined the reaction of 2,5-dihydrazinyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole with active methylene compounds to afford new pyrazoles containing thiadiazole compounds. The new synthesized compounds were identified by elemental analysis and various spectral data (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance)...
February 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230741/high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-improves-functional-recovery-by-enhancing-neurogenesis-and-activating-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-ischemic-rats
#16
Jing Luo, Haiqing Zheng, Liying Zhang, Qingjie Zhang, Lili Li, Zhong Pei, Xiquan Hu
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has rapidly become an attractive therapeutic approach for stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate whether high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery mediated by enhanced neurogenesis and activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway and to compare the effect of conventional 20 Hz rTMS and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) on ischemic rats...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230716/experimental-texture-analysis-in-glioblastoma-a-methodological-study
#17
Nicolin Hainc, Christoph Stippich, Bram Stieltjes, Severina Leu, Andrea Bink
OBJECTIVES: Analysis of a single slice of a tumor to extract biomarkers for texture analysis may result in loss of information. We investigated correlation of fractional volumes to entire tumor volumes and introduced expanded regions of interest (ROIs) outside the visual tumor borders in glioblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective slice-by-slice volumetric texture analysis on 46 brain magnetic resonance imaging subjects with histologically confirmed glioblastoma was performed...
February 22, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230608/specialized-imaging-and-procedures-in-pediatric-pancreatology-a-north-american-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-clinical-report
#18
Tom K Lin, David M Troendle, Daniel B Wallihan, Bradley Barth, Victor L Fox, Douglas S Fishman, Veronique D Morinville
OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of children are being diagnosed with pancreatitis and other pancreatic abnormalities. Dissemination of the information regarding existing imaging techniques and endoscopic modalities to diagnose and manage pancreatic disorders in children is sorely needed. METHODS: We conducted a review of the medical literature on the use of the following imaging and procedural modalities in pediatric pancreatology: transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230567/magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-solitary-hypothalamitis
#19
Hua Zhang, Jing Wang, Yue Wu, Ying Tang, Ran Tao, Hongying Ye, Zhenwei Yao
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to characterize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of solitary hypothalamitis and evaluate their clinical value in diagnosis. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging scans, including T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, of 8 biopsy-proven hypothalamitis lesions were retrospectively analyzed along with MRI features including size, shape, signal intensity, enhancement pattern, correlation with adjacent tissues, and changes in infundibular stalk and sella turcica...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230540/revealing-magnetic-ordering-and-spin-phonon-coupling-in-y1-xtbxmno3-0-1-%C3%AF-x-%C3%AF-0-3-compounds
#20
Keka R Chakraborty, Barnita Paul, Rakesh Shukla, Psr Krishna, Amit Kumar, Mayuresh Mukadam, Balaji Mandal, Anushree Roy, Avesh Tyagi, S Yusuf
The structural and magnetic properties of the Y1-xTbxMnO3(0.1x0.3)compoundswere investigated.Neutron diffraction patterns for all three samples,recorded at room temperature (RT),were fitted to the nuclear structure confirming the paramagnetic nature of the compounds. At 2.8 K,for the x = 0.1 sample magnetic moments of the Tb3+ionic as well as Mn3+ionic were ordered.At 5 K for the x = 0.2 sample only the Mn3+ionic magnetic moments were ordered. Therewere six sites for Mn atoms. Three on the z = 0 plane and three on the z = 0...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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