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Abc transporters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526713/co-evolution-of-domain-interactions-in-the-chloroplast-tgd1-2-3-lipid-transfer-complex-specific-to-brassicaceae-and-poaceae-plants
#1
Yang Yang, Agnieszka Zienkiewicz, Anastasiya Lavell, Christoph Benning
The import of lipids into the chloroplast is essential for photosynthetic membrane biogenesis. This process requires an ABC transporter in the inner envelope membrane with three subunits, TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL (TGD) 1, 2, and 3 named after the oligogalactolipids that accumulate in the respective Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Unlike Arabidopsis, in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, chloroplast lipid biosynthesis is largely dependent on imported precursors, resulting in a characteristic difference in chloroplast lipid acyl composition between plants...
May 19, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521186/timely-diagnosis-of-sitosterolemia-by-next-generation-sequencing-in-two-children-with-severe-hypercholesterolemia
#2
Paola Sabrina Buonuomo, Lorenzo Iughetti, Livia Pisciotta, Claudio Rabacchi, Francesco Papadia, Patrizia Bruzzi, Albina Tummolo, Andrea Bartuli, Claudio Cortese, Stefano Bertolini, Sebastiano Calandra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe hypercholesterolemia associated or not with xanthomas in a child may suggest the diagnosis of homozygous autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) or sitosterolemia, depending on the transmission of hypercholesterolemia in the patient's family. Sitosterolemia is a recessive disorder characterized by high plasma levels of cholesterol and plant sterols due to mutations in the ABCG5 or the ABCG8 gene, leading to a loss of function of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) heterodimer transporter G5-G8...
May 4, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518118/harnessing-the-dna-dye-triggered-side-population-phenotype-to-detect-and-purify-cancer-stem-cells-from-biological-samples
#3
Maximilian Boesch, Elisabeth Hoflehner, Dominik Wolf, Guenther Gastl, Sieghart Sopper
Cancer is a stem cell-driven disease and eradication of these cells has become a major therapeutic goal. Deciphering vulnerabilities of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) and identifying suitable molecular targets relies on methods that allow their specific discrimination in heterogeneous samples such as cell lines and ex vivo tumor tissue. Flow cytometry/FACS is a powerful technology to multi-parametrically dissect biological samples at the single cell level and is to date the method of choice to recover live cells for downstream analyses...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505405/structural-basis-for-xenosiderophore-utilization-by-the-human-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Nathaniel P Endicott, Eries Lee, Timothy Adam Wencewicz
Staphylococcus aureus produces a cocktail of metallophores (staphylopine, staphyloferrin A, and staphyloferrin B) to scavenge transition metals during infection of a host. In addition, S. aureus displays the extracellular surface lipoproteins FhuD1 and FhuD2 along with the ABC transporter complex FhuCBG to facilitate the use of hydroxamate xenosiderophores such as desferrioxamine B (DFOB) for iron acquisition. DFOB is used as a chelation therapy to treat human iron overload diseases and has been linked to an increased risk of S...
May 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504659/structure-of-the-macab-tolc-abc-type-tripartite-multidrug-efflux-pump
#5
Anthony W P Fitzpatrick, Salomé Llabrés, Arthur Neuberger, James N Blaza, Xiao-Chen Bai, Ui Okada, Satoshi Murakami, Hendrik W van Veen, Ulrich Zachariae, Sjors H W Scheres, Ben F Luisi, Dijun Du
The MacA-MacB-TolC assembly of Escherichia coli is a transmembrane machine that spans the cell envelope and actively extrudes substrates, including macrolide antibiotics and polypeptide virulence factors. These transport processes are energized by the ATPase MacB, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. We present an electron cryo-microscopy structure of the ABC-type tripartite assembly at near-atomic resolution. A hexamer of the periplasmic protein MacA bridges between a TolC trimer in the outer membrane and a MacB dimer in the inner membrane, generating a quaternary structure with a central channel for substrate translocation...
May 15, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504001/n-acetylcysteine-potentiates-diclofenac-toxicity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-stronger-potentiation-in-abc-transporter-mutant-strains
#6
Houssein Al-Attrache, Hala Chamieh, Monzer Hamzé, Isabelle Morel, Samir Taha, Ziad Abdel-Razzak
Diclofenac (DCF) adverse reactions involve diverse mechanisms in different models. We recently demonstrated that DCF-induced toxicity in HepaRG decreases as they express DCF-metabolizing enzymes. DCF metabolism promotes toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing heterologous cytochromes-P450. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is used to treat diverse medical conditions due to its multiple properties (antioxidant, metal chelator, thiol-disulfide disruption). The latter property accounts for its mucolytic effects and broadens its potential molecular targets to signal transduction proteins, ABC transporters and others...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503184/an-abc-transporter-is-involved-in-the-silicon-induced-formation-of-casparian-bands-in-the-exodermis-of-rice
#7
Martin Hinrichs, Alexander T Fleck, Eline Biedermann, Ngoc S Ngo, Lukas Schreiber, Manfred K Schenk
Silicon (Si) promotes the formation of Casparian bands (CB) in rice and reduces radial oxygen loss (ROL). Further transcriptomic approaches revealed several candidate genes involved in the Si-induced formation of CB such as ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, Class III peroxidases, ligases and transferases. Investigation of these genes by means of overexpression (OE) and knockout (KO) mutants revealed the contribution of the ABC transporter (OsABCG25) to CB formation in the exodermis, which was also reflected in the expression of other OsABCG25 in the Si-promoted formation of CB genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway, such as phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502879/genetic-deletion-of-p-glycoprotein-alters-stress-responsivity-and-increases-depression-like-behavior-social-withdrawal-and-microglial-activation-in-the-hippocampus-of-female-mice
#8
Natalia I Brzozowska, Kristie L Smith, Cilla Zhou, Peter M Waters, Ligia Menezes Cavalcante, Sarah V Abelev, Michael Kuligowski, David J Clarke, Stephanie M Todd, Jonathon C Arnold
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC transporter expressed at the blood brain barrier and regulates the brain uptake of various xenobiotics and endogenous mediators including glucocorticoid hormones which are critically important to the stress response. Moreover, P-gp is expressed on microglia, the brain's immune cells, which are activated by stressors and have an emerging role in psychiatric disorders. We therefore hypothesised that germline P-gp deletion in mice might alter the behavioral and microglial response to stressors...
May 10, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499955/transcriptomic-analysis-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-upon-honokiol-treatment
#9
Xiaolong Zhu, Shenshen Zou, Youbin Li, Yongheng Liang
Honokiol (HNK), one of the main medicinal components in Magnolia officinalis, possesses antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. However, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the antimicrobial activity. To explore the molecular mechanism of its antifungal activity, we determined the effects of HNK on the mRNA expression profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a DNA microarray approach. HNK markedly induced the expression of genes related to iron uptake and homeostasis...
May 10, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496260/overexpression-of-a-cytochrome-p450-and-a-udp-glycosyltransferase-is-associated-with-imidacloprid-resistance-in-the-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#10
Emine Kaplanoglu, Patrick Chapman, Ian M Scott, Cam Donly
Current control of insect pests relies on chemical insecticides, however, insecticide resistance development by pests is a growing concern in pest management. The main mechanisms for insecticide resistance typically involve elevated activity of detoxifying enzymes and xenobiotic transporters that break-down and excrete insecticide molecules. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an insect pest notorious for its capacity to develop insecticide resistance rapidly...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494332/polymorphism-in-abc-transporter-genes-of-dirofilaria-immitis
#11
Thangadurai Mani, Catherine Bourguinat, Roger K Prichard
Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, causes dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and occasionally in humans. Prevention of the disease has been mainly by monthly use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) endectocides during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been confirmed in D. immitis and therefore, there is a need to find new classes of anthelmintics. One of the mechanisms associated with ML resistance in nematodes has been the possible role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in reducing drug concentrations at receptor sites...
April 29, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486145/effects-of-florfenicol-on-the-antioxidant-status-detoxification-system-and-biomolecule-damage-in-the-swimming-crab-portunus-trituberculatus
#12
Xianyun Ren, Zhuqing Wang, Baoquan Gao, Ping Liu, Jian Li
Florfenicol (FLR) is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in aquaculture because of its wide spectrum of activity and few side-effects. We characterized the toxicokinetics of FLR in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) after intravenous (IV) dosing (20, 40 and 80mg/kg). The results showed that FLR significantly suppressed the antioxidant system of the hepatopancreas. FLR induced transcriptional expression of phase I and phase II detoxification genes (CYP3 and GST, respectively) in a dose- and clearance time-dependent manner and altered the expression of their corresponding enzymes (erythromycin N-demethylase and glutathione S-transferase, respectively)...
May 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484037/chromosome-level-genome-assembly-and-transcriptome-of-the-green-alga-chromochloris-zofingiensis-illuminates-astaxanthin-production
#13
Melissa S Roth, Shawn J Cokus, Sean D Gallaher, Andreas Walter, David Lopez, Erika Erickson, Benjamin Endelman, Daniel Westcott, Carolyn A Larabell, Sabeeha S Merchant, Matteo Pellegrini, Krishna K Niyogi
Microalgae have potential to help meet energy and food demands without exacerbating environmental problems. There is interest in the unicellular green alga Chromochloris zofingiensis, because it produces lipids for biofuels and a highly valuable carotenoid nutraceutical, astaxanthin. To advance understanding of its biology and facilitate commercial development, we present a C. zofingiensis chromosome-level nuclear genome, organelle genomes, and transcriptome from diverse growth conditions. The assembly, derived from a combination of short- and long-read sequencing in conjunction with optical mapping, revealed a compact genome of ∼58 Mbp distributed over 19 chromosomes containing 15,274 predicted protein-coding genes...
May 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481715/efflux-proteins-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-review-and-bioinformatics-analysis
#14
Massoud Saidijam, Fatemeh Karimi Dermani, Sareh Sohrabi, Simon G Patching
1. Efflux proteins at the blood-brain barrier provide a mechanism for export of waste products of normal metabolism from the brain and help to maintain brain homeostasis. They also prevent entry into the brain of a wide range of potentially harmful compounds such as drugs and xenobiotics. 2. Conversely, efflux proteins also hinder delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain and central nervous system used to treat brain tumours and neurological disorders. For bypassing efflux proteins, a comprehensive understanding of their structures, functions and molecular mechanisms is necessary, along with new strategies and technologies for delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier...
May 8, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474563/opioids-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-a-dynamic-interaction-with-consequences-on-drug-disposition-in-brain
#15
Catarina Chaves, Fernando Remião, Salvatore Cisterninoa, Xavier Declèves
Opioids are widely used in pain management whose effects are due to binding to classical opioid receptors and/or Toll-like receptors (TLR) present at the central nervous system (CNS). At the blood-brain barrier (BBB), several influx and/or efflux transporters are expressed, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP, ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP, ABCC) transporters, and solute carrier transporters (SLC), and are responsible for the transport of many xenobiotics from the brain into the bloodstream or vice versa...
May 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471656/4-anilino-2-pyridylquinazolines-and-pyrimidines-as-highly-potent-and-non-toxic-inhibitors-of-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-abcg2
#16
Michael K Krapf, Jennifer Gallus, Michael Wiese
Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins remains a major problem in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer and might be overcome by inhibition of the transporter. Due to the lack of understanding the complex mechanisms involved in the transport process, in particular for breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), there is a persistent need for studies of inhibitors of ABCG2. In this study we investigated a systematic series of 4-substituted-2-pyridylquinazolines in terms of their inhibitory potency as well as selectivity toward ABCG2...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470523/assays-for-analyzing-the-role-of-transport-proteins-in-the-uptake-and-the-vectorial-transport-of-substances-affecting-cell-viability
#17
Emir Taghikhani, Martin F Fromm, Jörg König
Endogenous compounds, drugs, or other xenobiotics may affect cell viability. A prerequisite for intracellular cell damage is the uptake of such substances across the plasma membrane into cells. Furthermore, the subsequent transporter-mediated export out of cells may influence cell viability. Therefore, transport proteins mediating the uptake (uptake transporter) or export (export pumps) of substances in and out of cells are important determinants of cell viability. Uptake transporters mostly belong to the superfamily of solute carriers (SLC transporters), whereas export pumps are members of the ABC-transporter superfamily (ATP-binding cassette)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469478/spatiotemporal-changes-in-p-glycoprotein-levels-in-brain-and-peripheral-tissues-following-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#18
Kelly M DeMars, Changjun Yang, Kimberly E Hawkins, Austin O McCrea, David M Siwarski, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is known to transport a diverse array of xenobiotics, including therapeutic drugs. A member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, P-gp is a protein encoded by the gene Mdr1 in humans and Abcb1 in rodents (represented by 2 isoforms Abcb1a and Abcb1b). Lining the luminal and abluminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells, P-gp is a promiscuous efflux pump extruding a variety of exogenous toxins and drugs. In this study, we measured dynamic changes in Abcb1a and Abcb1b transcripts and P-gp protein in the brain, liver, and kidney after experimental stroke...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468577/abc-gene-expression-profiles-have-clinical-importance-and-possibly-form-a-new-hallmark-of-cancer
#19
Pavel Dvorak, Martin Pesta, Pavel Soucek
Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette proteins constitute a large family of active transporters through extracellular and intracellular membranes. Increased drug efflux based on adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette protein activity is related to the development of cancer cell chemoresistance. Several articles have focused on adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette gene expression profiles (signatures), based on the expression of all 49 human adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette genes, in individual tumor types and reported connections to established clinicopathological features...
May 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463513/characterization-of-the-polymyxin-d-synthetase-biosynthetic-cluster-and-product-profile-of-paenibacillus-polymyxa-atcc-10401
#20
Charles A Galea, Meiling Han, Yan Zhu, Kade Roberts, Jiping Wang, Philip E Thompson, Jian L, Tony Velkov
The increasing prevalence of polymyxin-resistant bacteria has stimulated the search for improved polymyxin lipopeptides. Here we describe the sequence and product profile for polymyxin D nonribosomal peptide synthetase from Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401. The polymyxin D synthase gene cluster comprised five genes that encoded ABC transporters (pmxC and pmxD) and enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of polymyxin D (pmxA, pmxB, and pmxE). Unlike polymyxins B and E, polymyxin D contains d-Ser at position 3 as opposed to l-α,γ-diaminobutyric acid and has an l-Thr at position 7 rather than l-Leu...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
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