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Anabolic androgenic steroids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314523/detection-of-anabolic-and-androgenic-steroids-and-or-their-esters-in-horse-hair-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#1
Karen Y Kwok, Timmy L S Choi, Wai Him Kwok, Jenny K Y Wong, Terence S M Wan
Anabolic and androgenic steroids (AASs) are a class of prohibited substances banned in horseracing at all times. The common approach for controlling the misuse of AASs in equine sports is by detecting the presence of AASs and/or their metabolites in urine and blood samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This approach, however, often falls short as the duration of effect for many AASs are longer than their detection time in both urine and blood...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296533/polypharmacy-infectious-diseases-sexual-behavior-and-psychophysical-health-among-anabolic-steroid-using-homosexual-and-heterosexual-gym-patrons-in-san-francisco-s-castro-district
#2
Eric J Ip, Michael A Yadao, Bijal M Shah, Shadi Doroudgar, Paul J Perry, Michael J Tenerowicz, Lindsay Newsom, Amber A Mann, Hermine Mkrtchyan, Harrison G Pope
BACKGROUND: Limited studies based in England and Australia reported misuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) among homosexual men to enhance body image. Anecdotally, AAS are also being misused by homosexual men in the United States. Since many AAS and certain performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) are administered via injection, this poses a potential vector for the spread of infectious disease in an already at-risk population. OBJECTIVES: This study compared and contrasted homosexual and heterosexual male gym clients regarding use of AAS and PEDs, use of alcohol and illicit drugs, seroprevalence of infectious disease, engagement in risky injection practices and sexual behaviors, and presence of psychiatric conditions...
March 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296258/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-long-term-metabolites-of-oxymesterone-and-mesterolone-in-human-urine-by-application-of-srm-gc-ci-ms-ms
#3
Michael Polet, Wim Van Gansbeke, Lore Geldof, Koen Deventer, Peter Van Eenoo
The search for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task in for example toxicology and doping control. The impact of these long term metabolites is highlighted by the high number of positive cases after reanalysis of samples that were stored for several years, e.g. samples of previous Olympic Games. A substantial number of previously alleged negative samples have now been declared positive due to the detection of various long term steroid metabolites of which the existence was unknown during the Olympic Games of 2008 and 2012...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280713/stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-abuse-of-anabolic-steroids
#4
Serena Cocca, Massimo Viviano
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typical hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. SJS is often observed after drug use as well as after bacterial or viral infections. Several drugs are at high risk of inducing SJS, but there are no cases in the English literature regarding anabolic steroid use triggering SJS. In our paper, we describe a case in which use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) was associated with SJS...
February 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258581/effects-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-on-the-reproductive-system-of-athletes-and-recreational-users-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Maria A Christou, Panagiota A Christou, Georgios Markozannes, Agathocles Tsatsoulis, George Mastorakos, Stelios Tigas
BACKGROUND: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are testosterone derivatives used by athletes and recreational users to improve athletic performance and/or enhance appearance. Anabolic androgenic steroids use may have serious and potentially irreversible adverse effects on different organs and systems, including the reproductive system. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically assess the impact of AAS use on the reproductive system of athletes and recreational users...
March 4, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245998/history-and-epidemiology-of-anabolic-androgens-in-athletes-and-non-athletes
#6
Gen Kanayama, Harrison G Pope
The use of androgens, frequently referred to as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), has grown into a worldwide substance abuse problem over the last several decades. Testosterone was isolated in the 1930s, and numerous synthetic androgens were quickly developed thereafter. Athletes soon discovered the dramatic anabolic effects of these hormones, and AAS spread rapidly through elite athletics and bodybuilding from the 1950s through the 1970s. However it was not until the 1980s that widespread AAS use emerged from the elite athletic world and into the general population...
March 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192127/long-term-treatment-with-nandrolone-decanoate-impairs-mesenteric-vascular-relaxation-in-both-sedentary-and-exercised-female-rats
#7
Izabela F Caliman, Cristian S Bernabe, Antônio F de Melo, Girlândia A Brasil, Andrews M do Nascimento, Ewelyne M de Lima, Suely G Figueiredo, Tadeu U de Andrade, Nazaré S Bissoli
Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) is an Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) that under abusive regimen can lead to multiple physiological adverse effects. Studies of AAS-mediated cardiovascular (CV) alterations were mostly taken from male subjects, even though women are also susceptible to the effects of AAS and gender-specific differences in susceptibility to vascular diseases exist. Here we investigate ND-induced vascular reactivity alterations in both sedentary and exercised female rats and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors...
April 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179209/administration-of-anabolic-steroid-during-adolescence-induces-long-term-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-increases-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-adult-wistar-rats
#8
Fernando de Azevedo Cruz Seara, Raiana Andrade Quintanilha Barbosa, Dahienne Ferreira de Oliveira, Diorney Luiz Souza Gran da Silva, Adriana Bastos Carvalho, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, José Hamilton Matheus Nascimento, Emerson Lopes Olivares
Chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in adult rats results in cardiac hypertrophy and increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Molecular analyses demonstrated that hyperactivation of type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptor mediates cardiac hypertrophy induced by AAS and also induces down-regulation of myocardial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP), resulting in loss of exercise-induced cardioprotection. Exposure to AAS during adolescence promoted long-term cardiovascular dysfunctions, such as dysautonomia...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163846/the-prevalence-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use-amongst-athletes-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#9
Mosleh Jabari, Hassan Al-Shehri, Abdullah Al-Faris, Mohammed Al-Sayed, Fahd Algaeed, Nasser Al-Sobaie, Fawaz Al-Saleh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use among athletes and examine the extent of their knowledge on the effects of AAS in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at gyms in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during 2015. In total 600 athletes from three gyms participated in the study. The study included Saudi and non-Saudi athletes chosen by the simple random sampling method. A self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection...
December 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159654/physiological-basis-behind-ergogenic-effects-of-anabolic-androgens
#10
Ada S Cheung, Mathis Grossmann
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused by the sporting community. Demonstrating performance enhancing effects of AAS in rigorous scientific studies is fraught with difficulty. In controlled studies, AAS have consistently been reported to increase muscle mass and strength. The clinical evidence that these anabolic effects are independent of, and additive to exercise are supported by preclinical studies suggesting that AAS and exercise affect muscle by overlapping, yet distinct mechanisms. AAS may also improve performance by their actions on other organ systems, such as the vasculature, and the erythropoietic and central nervous system, although this evidence is less strong...
January 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144902/ameliorative-effects-of-endurance-exercise-with-two-different-intensities-on-nandrolone-decanoate-induced-neurodegeneration-in-rats-involving-redox-and-apoptotic-systems
#11
Siyavash Joukar, Reza Vahidi, Alireza Farsinejad, Majid Asadi-Shekaari, Beydolah Shahouzehi
Despite the importance of this issue, less has been paid to the influence of exercise on the neural side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids and mechanisms. We investigated the effects of two levels of endurance exercise on neurodegeneration side effects of nandrolone. The study period was 8 weeks. Wistar rats were divided into nine groups including the control (CTL) group, mild exercise (mEx) group, and vehicle (Arach) group which received arachis oil intramuscularly, nandrolone (Nan) group which received nandrolone decanoate 5 mg/kg two times weekly, mEx+Arach group which treated with arachis oil along with mild exercise, mEx+Nan group which treated with nandrolone along with mild exercise, severe exercise (sEx) group, sEx+Arach, and sEx+Nan groups...
January 31, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137616/detection-of-sarms-in-doping-control-analysis
#12
Mario Thevis, Wilhelm Schänzer
The class of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) has been the subject of intense and dedicated clinical research over the past two decades. Potential therapeutic applications of SARMs are manifold and focus particularly on the treatment of conditions manifesting in muscle loss such as general sarcopenia, cancer-associated cachexia, muscular dystrophy, etc. Consequently, based on the substantial muscle- and bone-anabolic properties of SARMs, these agents constitute substances with significant potential for misuse in sport and have therefore been added to the Word Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA's) Prohibited List in 2008...
January 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130115/strategies-that-athletes-use-to-avoid-detection-of-androgenic-anabolic-steroid-doping-and-sanctions
#13
Hussain Alquraini, Richard J Auchus
Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are potent and widely used performance-enhancing substances (PES). Since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) began testing athletes for AAS in the 1970s, athletes and their teams have endeavored to beat the system to avoid doping violations and/or sanctions derived from positive test results. This review will discuss the strategies used to avoid detection based on the pharmacology, biochemistry, and genetics of AAS metabolism and testing principles. Another strategy used is to dope with testosterone under the guise that the athlete has a true medical condition that requires testosterone treatment, using the therapeutic use exemption (TUE) mechanism...
January 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127424/the-cost-of-seeking-an-edge-recurrent-renal-infarction-in-setting-of-recreational-use-of-anabolic-steroids
#14
Shaun Colburn, W Kurtis Childers, Alex Chacon, Alexa Swailes, Fauzan M Ahmed, Rajinder Sahi
INTRODUCTION: Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and testosterone therapy have been well established risk factors for the creation of a pro-thrombotic state, and to precipitate formation of thromboemboli in individuals already predisposed to thrombosis. CASE REPORT: Here, we present the case of an amateur bodybuilder, with a negative thrombophilia workup, who experienced primary renal infarction while using the AAS trenbolone acetate and testosterone, as well as a subsequent renal infarction while anticoagulated with apixaban...
February 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105335/detection-of-stanozolol-in-the-urine-of-athletes-at-a-pg-level-the-possibility-of-passive-exposure
#15
Christina Tsitsimpikou, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis
Stanozolol is a synthetic heterocyclic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties, which has been abused by several high-profile professional athletes. Stanozolol is also used in veterinary medicine to increase appetite, cause weight gain and treat certain types of anemia. The detection of stanozolol metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes depends on the analytical method applied. The most commonly applied methods in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited doping control laboratories are gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054434/in-vitro-phase-i-metabolism-of-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-in-horse-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#16
Karen Y Kwok, George H M Chan, Wai Him Kwok, Jenny K Y Wong, Terence S M Wan
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are chemicals that possess the anti-oestrogenic activities that are banned "in" and "out" of competition by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in human sports, and by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA) in horseracing. SERMs can be used as performance enhancing drugs to boost the level of androgens or to compensate for the adverse effects as a result of extensive use of androgenic anabolic steroids (AASs). SERMs have indeed been abused in human sports; hence, a similar threat can be envisaged in horseracing...
January 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048973/effect-of-physical-exercise-and-anabolic-steroid-treatment-on-spinal-motoneurons-and-surrounding-glia-of-wild-type-and-als-mice
#17
Roman M Kassa, Roberta Bonafede, Federico Boschi, Marina Bentivoglio, Raffaella Mariotti
Motoneuron degeneration is the hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause and predisposing factors for sporadic ALS are still unknown. Exposure to a specific environmental risk factors in subjects with a susceptibility genotype may increase the risk of the disease. The role of physical activity and the use of anabolic steroids are still debated in epidemiological studies on patients and murine models of ALS. To assess at the cellular level the role (beneficial or detrimental) of physical exercise and the use of anabolic steroid, we here investigated, in SOD1(G93A) (mSOD1) mice and wild-type littermates, changes in the ventral horn after regular exercise, treatment with the anabolic androgenic steroid 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone), and their combination, compared with matched control sedentary mice...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012338/an-unusual-case-of-left-hepatectomy-for-focal-nodular-hyperplasia-fnh-linked-to-the-use-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-aass
#18
Angela Romano, Michele Grassia, Giuseppe Esposito, Marianna Petrillo, Modestino Pezzella, Francesco Maria Romano, Francesco Esposito, Francesco Torelli, Natale Di Martino
INTRODUCTION: Focal Nodular Hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign tumor of the liver. Clinically FNH is asymptomatic and discovered incidentally . The pathogenesis is unclear; FNH is usually asymptomatic. When the tumor is large, it may be painful. Surgery is recommended only in the case of complications such as compression of adjacent organs, lesion progression with tumor size >5cm and presence of symptoms. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 30 years old man, was evaluated during a routine visit, for diffuse abdominal pain and weight loss; Abdominal ultrasound showed no evidence of biliary obstruction but the US shows a hypoechoic, well defined focal lesion in the left liver...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988413/white-matter-abnormalities-in-long-term-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users-a-pilot-study
#19
Johanna Seitz, Amanda E Lyall, Gen Kanayama, Nikos Makris, James I Hudson, Marek Kubicki, Harrison G Pope, Marc J Kaufman
Recent studies of long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users reported amygdala structural and functional connectivity abnormalities. We assessed white matter microstructure in the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), a major associative bundle of the amygdala network. Diffusion weighted images acquired from 9 male long-term AAS users and 8 matched controls aged 36-51 years old were processed using a standardized pipeline (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics). Group differences were examined using linear regression with adjustment for age and current testosterone level...
February 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955960/the-risk-environment-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users-in-the-uk-examining-motivations-practices-and-accounts-of-use
#20
Gisella Hanley Santos, Ross Coomber
BACKGROUND: The numbers using illicit anabolic-androgenic steroids are a cause of concern for those seeking to reduce health harms. Using the 'risk environment' as a conceptual framework to better comprehend how steroid users' practices and perspectives impact on health risks, this paper examines steroid user motivations, patterns of use, and the ways in which these practices are accounted for. METHODS: As part of a wider mixed-method study into performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) use and supply in one mid-sized city in South West England, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 22 steroid users...
December 7, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
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