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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816372/in-vitro-antitubercular-activity-of-3-deoxysappanchalcone-isolated-from-the-heartwood-of-caesalpinia-sappan-linn
#1
Hoonhee Seo, Sukyung Kim, Hafij Al Mahmud, Md Imtiazul Islam, Kung-Woo Nam, Byung-Eui Lee, Hanna Lee, Myoung-Lae Cho, Heung-Mook Shin, Ho-Yeon Song
Responsible for nearly 1.5 million deaths every year, the infectious disease tuberculosis remains one of the most serious challenges to global health. The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and, more recently, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis poses a significant threat in our effort to control this epidemic. New drugs are urgently needed to combat the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. To achieve this goal, we screened approximately 500 species of medicinal plant methanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions for potential inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth...
August 17, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811710/single-amino-acid-mutation-of-sr-bi-decreases-infectivity-of-hepatitis-c-virus-derived-from-cell-culture-in-a-cell-culture-model
#2
Rong Gao, Wei Gao, Gang Xu, Jie Xu, Hao Ren
AIM: To investigate the effect of a single amino acid mutation in human class B scavenger receptor I (SR-BI) on the infectivity of cell culture-derived hepatitis C virus (HCVcc) in SR-BI knock-down Huh7-siSR-BI cells. METHODS: Site-directed mutagenesis was used to construct the SR-BI S112F mutation, and the mutation was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. SR-BI knock-down Huh7-siSR-BI cells were transfected with SR-BI S112F, SR-BI wild type (WT) and control plasmids, and then infected with HCVpp (HCV pseudoparticles) and hepatitis C virus derived from cell culture (HCVcc)...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809089/inverted-quasi-spherical-droplets-on-polydopamine-tio2-substrates-for-enhancing-gene-delivery
#3
Seung-Hyun Kim, Mihyun Lee, Mira Cho, Il-Sun Kim, Kook In Park, Haeshin Lee, Jae-Hyung Jang
Devising efficient gene delivery systems is crucial to enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of gene-cell therapy approaches. Herein, inverted quasi-spherical (iQS) droplet systems, which enhance gene delivery efficiencies by reducing the path lengths of gene vectors, mediating motions of vectors at early stages, and raising the contact frequencies of vectors with cells, are developed by adopting the principle of 3D hanging-drop cell culture. Micrometer-sized polydopamine (pDA) holes are created on superhydrophobic titanium isopropoxide (TiO2 )-coated substrates by physical scraping; droplets are loaded on the pDA holes, and inversion of the substrate generates iQS droplets with large contact angles...
August 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803732/reck-and-gpr124-are-essential-receptor-cofactors-for-wnt7a-wnt7b-specific-signaling-in-mammalian-cns-angiogenesis-and-blood-brain-barrier-regulation
#4
Chris Cho, Philip M Smallwood, Jeremy Nathans
Reck, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, and Gpr124, an orphan GPCR, have been implicated in Wnt7a/Wnt7b signaling in the CNS vasculature. We show here that vascular endothelial cell (EC)-specific reduction in Reck impairs CNS angiogenesis and that EC-specific postnatal loss of Reck, combined with loss of Norrin, impairs blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintenance. The most N-terminal domain of Reck binds to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) domains of Gpr124, and weakening this interaction by targeted mutagenesis reduces Reck/Gpr124 stimulation of Wnt7a signaling in cell culture and impairs CNS angiogenesis...
August 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801067/dna-methylation-in-cho-cells
#5
Anna Wippermann, Thomas Noll
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells account for the production of the majority of biopharmaceutical molecules - however, the molecular basis for their versatile properties is not entirely understood yet and the underlying cellular processes need to be characterized in detail. One such process that is supposed to contribute significantly to CHO cell phenotype is methylation of DNA at cytosine residues. DNA methylation was shown to be involved in several central biological processes in humans and to contribute to diseases like cancer...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797129/differential-effects-of-amnion-and-chorion-membrane-extracts-on-osteoblast-like-cells-due-to-the-different-growth-factor-composition-of-the-extracts
#6
Yoon Young Go, Sung Eun Kim, Geum Joon Cho, Sung-Won Chae, Jae-Jun Song
Human amniotic membrane extracts contain numerous growth factors and bioactive substances. However, osteogenic effects of amnion and chorion membrane extracts (AME and CME, respectively) on osteoblasts are unclear. In this study, we explored the ability of AME and CME to promote the osteogenic differentiation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. MG-63 cells were cultured in osteogenic induction medium (OIM) with or without exogenous AME and CME. CME enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of MG-63 cells compared with AME, as indicated by increased mineralization; alkaline phosphatase activity; and mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes encoding integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP), RUNX2, OSTERIX, and osteocalcin (OCN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782713/in-vitro-activity-of-alpha-viniferin-isolated-from-the-roots-of-carex-humilis-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#7
Hoonhee Seo, Mijung Kim, Sukyung Kim, Hafij Al Mahmud, Md Imtiazul Islam, Kung-Woo Nam, Myoung-Lae Cho, Hyun-Sook Kwon, Ho-Yeon Song
This study explores the antitubercular activity of α-viniferin, a bioactive phytochemical compound obtained from Carex humilis. α-Viniferin was active against both drug-susceptible and -resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at MIC50s of 4.6 μM in culture broth medium and MIC50s of 2.3-4.6 μM inside macrophages and pneumocytes. In combination with streptomycin and ethambutol, α-viniferin exhibited an additive effect and partial synergy, respectively, against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. α-Viniferin also did not show cytotoxicity in any of the cell lines tested up to a concentration of 147 μM, which gives this compound a selectivity index of >32...
August 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782520/direct-interaction-of-menin-leads-to-ubiquitin-proteasomal-degradation-of-%C3%AE-catenin
#8
Byungho Kim, Tae-Yang Song, Kwan Young Jung, Seul Gi Kim, Eun-Jung Cho
Menin, encoded by the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene, is a tumor suppressor and transcription regulator. Menin interacts with various proteins as a scaffold protein and is proposed to play important roles in multiple physiological and pathological processes by controlling gene expression, proliferation, and apoptosis. The mechanisms underlying menin's suppression of tumorigenesis are largely elusive. In this study, we showed that menin was essential for the regulation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cultured cells...
August 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780483/alteration-of-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-by-swainsonine-affects-17%C3%AE-estradiol-secretion-in-ovary-cells
#9
Chenchen Wu, Dujian Yan, Dezhang Lu, Tiesuo Han, Baoyu Zhao
BACKGROUND: The ingestion of locoweed that contains the toxic indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine (SW) disrupts ovarian function, accompanied by delayed estrus, increased estrous cycle length, delayed conception, and abortion. GOALS: The direct effects of SW on ovary cell steroidogenesis remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were used to investigate the effects of SW on estradiol (E2) secretion and cell viability and the mechanisms involved in these processes...
July 26, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778071/suppression-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-upregulated-factor-pauf-increases-the-sensitivity-of-pancreatic-cancer-to-gemcitabine-and-5fu-and-inhibits-the-formation-of-pancreatic-cancer-stem-like-cells
#10
Jae Hee Cho, Sun A Kim, Soo Been Park, Hee Man Kim, Si Young Song
Pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel secretory protein, has been shown to contribute to cancer progression and metastasis. Because the clinical relationship between PAUF and pancreatic CSCs is largely unknown, we investigated the associations between the functional role of PAUF and pancreatic CSCs. Pancreatic cancer sphere cultured from the CFPAC-1 cells showed elevated expression of PAUF and pluripotent stemness genes (Oct4, Nanog, Stat3, and Sox2), and the mRNA of PAUF were increased in CD44+CD24+ESA+ pancreatic CSCs...
July 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771736/characterization-of-primary-rat-nasal-epithelial-cultures-in-cftr-knockout-rats-as-a-model-for-cf-sinus-disease
#11
Kiranya E Tipirneni, Do-Yeon Cho, Daniel F Skinner, Shaoyan Zhang, Calvin Mackey, Dong-Jin Lim, Bradford A Woodworth
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the current experiments were to develop and characterize primary rat nasal epithelial cultures and evaluate their usefulness as a model of cystic fibrosis (CF) sinonasal transepithelial transport and CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function. STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory in vitro and animal studies. METHODS: CFTR(+/+) and CFTR(-/-) rat nasal septal epithelia (RNSE) were cultured on semipermeable supports at an air-liquid interface to confluence and full differentiation...
August 3, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770955/the-regulatory-role-of-dopamine-receptor-d1-on-pp2a-via-sumo-1-modification
#12
C-Q Yu, L-Q Yin, Z-T Tu, D-W Liu, W-P Luo
OBJECTIVE: Renal dopamine receptor D1 played a critical role in the regulation of body blood pressure. Under hypertension, over-phosphorylation of D1 receptor impaired its function. G protein kinase 4 (GRK4) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) exerted the effect to phosphorylate and de-phosphorylate D1 receptor. A current study revealed that the inhibition of GRK4 cannot normalize the phosphorylation level of D1 receptor. Meanwhile, the PP2A was activated under hypertension, indicating abnormal de-phosphorylation function of D1 receptor, the reason for which remains unknown...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769797/over-expression-of-a-codon-optimized-yeast-cytosolic-pyruvate-carboxylase-pyc2-in-cho-cells-for-an-augmented-lactate-metabolism
#13
Sanjeev K Gupta, Ankit Sharma, Hiralal Kushwaha, Pratyoosh Shukla
Monoclonal antibodies are the most demanding biotherapeutic drugs now a days used for the cure of various critical illnesses. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are one of the main hosts used for the large scale production of these antibodies. However, the cell line and production processes are the key factors to determine the cost and affordability of these antibodies. The metabolic waste lactic acid and ammonium are accumulated during a cell culture process and adversely affects productivity as well as product quality...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763459/metabolic-engineering-of-cho-cells-for-the-development-of-a-robust-protein-production-platform
#14
Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Santosh K Srivastava, Ankit Sharma, Vaibhav H H Nalage, Darshita Salvi, Hiralal Kushwaha, Nikhil B Chitnis, Pratyoosh Shukla
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most preferred mammalian host used for the bio-pharmaceutical production. A major challenge in metabolic engineering is to balance the flux of the tuned heterogonous metabolic pathway and achieve efficient metabolic response in a mammalian cellular system. Pyruvate carboxylase is an important network element for the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial metabolic pathway and efficiently contributes in enhancing the energy metabolism. The lactate accumulation in cell culture can be reduced by re-wiring of the pyruvate flux in engineered cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762959/mechanical-properties-and-cell-culture-characteristics-of-polycaprolactone-kagome-structure-scaffold-fabricated-by-precision-extruding-deposition-system
#15
Se-Hwan Lee, Yong Sang Cho, Myoung Wha Hong, Bu Kyu Lee, Yong-Doo Park, Sang-Hyug Park, Young-Yul Kim, Young-Sam Cho
To date, to enhance the mechanical properties of three-dimensional scaffolds used for bone regeneration in tissue engineering, many researchers have tried in the viewpoint of structure and chemistry. Meanwhile, in the structural engineering field, the kagome structure has been known as an excellent relative strength. In this study, to enhance the mechanical properties of a synthetic polymer scaffold used for tissue engineering, we applied the three-dimensional kagome structure to a porous scaffold for bone regeneration...
August 1, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761499/anticancer-efficacy-of-cordyceps-militaris-ethanol-extract-in-a-xenografted-leukemia-model
#16
Jae Gwang Park, Young-Jin Son, Tae Ho Lee, Nam Joon Baek, Deok Hyo Yoon, Tae Woong Kim, Adithan Aravinthan, Sungyoul Hong, Jong-Hoon Kim, Gi-Ho Sung, Jae Youl Cho
Cordyceps militaris is used widely as a traditional medicine in East Asia. Although a few studies have attempted to elucidate the anticancer activities of C. militaris, the precise mechanism of C. militaris therapeutic effects is not fully understood. We examined the anticancer activities of C. militaris ethanolic extract (Cm-EE) and its cellular and molecular mechanisms. For this purpose, a xenograft mouse model bearing murine T cell lymphoma (RMA) cell-derived cancers was established to investigate in vivo anticancer mechanisms...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760823/ascorbate-peroxidase-proximity-labeling-coupled-with-biochemical-fractionation-identifies-promoters-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondrial-contacts
#17
Il-Taeg Cho, Guillaume Adelmant, Youngshin Lim, Jarrod A Marto, Ginam Cho, Jeffrey A Golden
To maintain cellular homeostasis, subcellular organelles communicate with each other and form physical and functional networks through membrane contact sites (MCS) coupled by protein tethers. In particular, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contacts (EMC) regulate diverse cellular activities such as metabolite exchange (Ca2+ and lipids), intracellular signaling, apoptosis and autophagy. The significance of EMCs have been highlighted by reports indicating that EMC dysregulation is linked to neurodegenerative diseases...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760196/effects-of-pep-1-fk506bp-on-cyst-formation-in-polycystic-kidney-disease
#18
Hyo Sang Jo, Won Sik Eum, Eun Young Park, Je Young Ko, Do Yeon Kim, Dae Won Kim, Min Jea Shin, Ora Son, Su Bin Cho, Jung Hwan Park, Chi Hern Lee, Eun Ji Yeo, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Yeon Joo Choi, Jong Kyu Youn, Sung-Woo Cho, Jinseu Park, Jong Hoon Park, Soo Young Choi
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common inherited disorders, whereby progressive cyst formation in the kidney leads to renal failure. FK506 binding protein 12 (FK506BP) is an immunophilin protein which performs multiple functions including regulation of cell signaling and survival. In this study, we determined the roles of PEP-1-FK506BP on cell proliferation and cyst formation in PKD cells. Purified PEP-1-FK506BP transduced into PKD cells and markedly inhibited cell proliferation. Also, PEP-1-FK506BP drastically inhibited the expression levels of p-Akt, p-p70S6K, p-mTOR, and p-ERK in PKD cells...
July 28, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756460/ursolic-acid-activates-the-tgr5-receptor-to-enhance-glp-1-secretion-in-type-1-like-diabetic-rats
#19
Shih-Hsiang Lo, Yingxiao Li, Kai Chun Cheng, Chiang-Shan Niu, Juei-Tang Cheng, Ho-Shan Niu
Endogenous Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5), G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1), regulates glucose metabolism. In animals, TGR5 activation by a chemical agonist may increase incretin secretion and reduce the blood sugar level. Recently, betulinic acid has been suggested to activate TGR5. Ursolic acid is a well-known pentacyclic triterpenoid that is similar to betulinic acid. It is of special interest to determine the potential effect of ursolic acid on TGR5. Therefore, we transfected cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells with the TGR5 gene...
July 30, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754360/glycosylation-flux-analysis-reveals-dynamic-changes-of-intracellular-glycosylation-flux-distribution-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-fed-batch-cultures
#20
Sandro Hutter, Thomas K Villiger, David Brühlmann, Matthieu Stettler, Hervé Broly, Miroslav Soos, Rudiyanto Gunawan
N-linked glycosylation of proteins has both functional and structural significance. Importantly, the glycan structure of a therapeutic protein influences its efficacy, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity. In this work, we developed glycosylation flux analysis (GFA) for predicting intracellular production and consumption rates (fluxes) of glycoforms, and applied this analysis to CHO fed-batch immunoglobulin G (IgG) production using two different media compositions, with and without additional manganese feeding...
July 25, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
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