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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223591/mild-hypothermia-protects-hippocampal-neurons-from-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-injury-through-inhibiting-caspase-3-activation
#1
Tianen Zhou, Hui Lin, Longyuan Jiang, Tao Yu, Chaotao Zeng, Juanhua Liu, Zhengfei Yang
Mild hypothermia (MH) is thought to be one of the most effective therapeutic methods to treat hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) after cardiac arrest (CA). However, its precise mechanisms remain unclear. In this research, hippocampal neurons were cultured and treated with mild hypothermia and Ac-DEVD-CHO after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The activity of caspase-3 was detected, in order to find the precise concentration of Ac-DEVD-CHO with the same protective role in OGD injury as MH treatment. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining were conducted to analyze the effects of MH and Ac-DEVD-CHO on the expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, and PARP...
December 6, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215210/a-comparative-transcriptomics-workflow-for-analyzing-microarray-data-from-cho-cell-cultures
#2
Chun Chen, Huong Le, Brian Follstad, Chetan T Goudar
Microarray-based comparative transcriptomics analysis is a powerful tool to understand therapeutic protein producing mammalian cell lines at the gene expression level. However, an integrated analysis workflow specifically designed for end-to-end analysis of microarray data for CHO cells, the most prevalent host for commercial recombinant protein production, is lacking. To address this gap, we have developed an automated data analysis workflow in R that leverages public domain analysis modules to analyze microarray based gene expression data...
December 7, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212419/surface-modification-of-phbv-nanofiber-mats-for-rapid-cell-cultivation-and-harvesting
#3
Young-Gwang Ko, Young-Jin Kim, Won Ho Park, Donghwan Cho, Ho Yun Chung, Oh Hyeong Kwon
To maintain the original function of a specific tissue for therapeutic tissue engineering, an advanced cell culture surface for repeat cell proliferation is necessary. We designed a novel cell proliferation and rapid harvesting surface by combining nonwoven nanofiber mat and a thermo-responsive polymer. Nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) mats were fabricated by the electrospinning technique. A poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) thermo-responsive layer was grafted on the PHBV nanofiber mat by electron beam irradiation...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204573/protective-and-antifungal-properties-of-nanodisk-amphotericin-b-over-commercially-available-amphotericin-b
#4
Do-Yeon Cho, Kyle J Hoffman, Gobind S Gill, Dong-Jin Lim, Daniel Skinner, Calvin Mackey, Steven M Rowe, Bradford A Woodworth
Objective: Amphotericin B (AMB), a potent antifungal agent, has been employed as topical and systemic therapy for sinonasal fungal infections. A novel formulation of nanodisc (ND) containing super aggregated AMB (ND-AMB) for the treatment of fungal infections has been recently developed to provide greater protection from AMB toxicity than current, clinically approved lipid-based formulations. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the safety and potency of ND-AMB for sinonasal delivery using an in vitro model...
March 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200953/effects-of-osteogenic-conditioned-medium-from-human-periosteum-derived-cells-on-osteoclast-differentiation
#5
Hyun-Chang Park, Young-Bum Son, Sung-Lim Lee, Gyu-Jin Rho, Young-Hoon Kang, Bong-Wook Park, Sung-Hoon Byun, Sun-Chul Hwang, In-Ae Cho, Yeong-Cheol Cho, Iel-Yong Sung, Dong Kyun Woo, June-Ho Byun
Stem/progenitor cell-based regenerative medicine using the osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is regarded as a promising approach for the therapeutic treatment of various bone defects. The effects of the osteogenic differentiation of stem/progenitor cells on osteoclast differentiation may have important implications for use in therapy. However, there is little data regarding the expression of osteoclastogenic proteins during osteoblastic differentiation of human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs) and whether factors expressed during this process can modulate osteoclastogenesis...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193872/the-impact-of-adhesion-molecules-on-the-in-vitro-culture-and-differentiation-of-stem-cells
#6
REVIEW
Ahmed Abdal Dayem, Soo Bin Lee, Hye Yeon Choi, Ssang-Goo Cho
The term "cell adhesion" represents cell-cell interactions and the interaction between the cell and the extracellular matrix (ECM). These interactions are crucial for the development of the stem cells niche to determine stem cell shape. The ECM is considered as a natural niche for cell residence. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) enable cell-cell interactions and the interactions between the cell and ECM via various mechanisms, such as trans-interaction and the heterophilic interactions. These interactions promote a broad spectrum of cell signaling that directly or indirectly modulates stem cell proliferation, self-renewal property, adhesion, and multilineage differentiation...
November 29, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193166/multiplex-identification-of-sepsis-causing-gram-negative-pathogens-from-the-plasma-of-infected-blood
#7
Boram Chung, Chulmin Park, Sung-Yeon Cho, Juyoun Shin, Sun Shin, Seon-Hee Yim, Dong-Gun Lee, Yeun-Jung Chung
Early and accurate detection of bacterial pathogens in the blood is the most crucial step for sepsis management. Gram-negative bacteria are the most common organisms causing severe sepsis and responsible for high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop a method for rapid multiplex identification of clinically important Gram-negative pathogens and also validated whether our system can identify Gram-negative pathogens with the cell-free plasm DNA from infected blood. We designed five MLPA probe sets targeting the genes specific to major Gram-negative pathogens (uidA and lacY for E...
November 28, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175673/astrocytic-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-transporters-mediate-guanidinoacetate-transport-in-rat-brain
#8
Masanori Tachikawa, Ayane Yashiki, Shin-Ichi Akanuma, Haruka Matsukawa, Soichiro Ide, Masabumi Minami, Ken-Ichi Hosoya
Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is a biosynthetic precursor of creatine, which plays a critical role in homeostasis of high-energy phosphates in the brain, but cerebral accumulation of GAA leads to neurological complications, such as epilepsy and seizures. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the contribution of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport systems to GAA transport in astrocytes by means of uptake studies in rat brain slices, primary astrocyte cultures and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human GABA transporters (GATs)...
November 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174801/dual-targeting-c-met-and-vegfr2-in-osteoblasts-suppresses-growth-and-osteolysis-of-prostate-cancer-bone-metastasis
#9
Changki Lee, Young Mi Whang, Preston Campbell, Patrick L Mulcrone, Florent Elefteriou, Sun Wook Cho, Serk In Park
Prostate cancer characteristically induces osteoblastic bone metastasis, for which no therapies are available. A dual kinase inhibitor of c-Met and VEGFR-2 (cabozantinib) was shown to reduce prostate cancer growth in bone, with evidence for suppressing osteoblastic activity. However, c-Met and VEGFR2 signaling in osteoblasts in the context of bone metastasis remain unclear. Here we show using cultured osteoblasts that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and VEGF-A increased receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) and M-CSF, two essential factors for osteoclastogenesis...
November 21, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168523/electroconductive-nanoscale-topography-for-enhanced-neuronal-differentiation-and-electrophysiological-maturation-of-human-neural-stem-cells
#10
Kisuk Yang, Seung Jung Yu, Jong Seung Lee, Hak-Rae Lee, Gyeong-Eon Chang, Jungmok Seo, Taeyoon Lee, Eunji Cheong, Sung Gap Im, Seung-Woo Cho
Biophysical cues, such as topography, and electrical cues can provide external stimulation for the promotion of stem cell neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate an electroconductive surface nanotopography for enhancing neuronal differentiation and the functional maturation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). The electroconductive nanopatterned substrates were prepared by depositing a thin layer of titanium (Ti) with nanograting topographies (150 to 300 nm groove/ridge, the thickness of the groove - 150 μm) onto polymer surfaces...
November 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158847/photoactive-poly-3-hexylthiophene-nanoweb-for-optoelectrical-stimulation-to-enhance-neurogenesis-of-human-stem-cells
#11
Kisuk Yang, Jin Young Oh, Jong Seung Lee, Yoonhee Jin, Gyeong-Eon Chang, Soo Sang Chae, Eunji Cheong, Hong Koo Baik, Seung-Woo Cho
Optoelectrical manipulation has recently gained attention for cellular engineering; however, few material platforms can be used to efficiently regulate stem cell behaviors via optoelectrical stimulation. In this study, we developed nanoweb substrates composed of photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to enhance the neurogenesis of human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) through photo-induced electrical stimulation. METHODS: The photoactive nanoweb substrates were fabricated by self-assembled one-dimensional (1D) P3HT nanostructures (nanofibrils and nanorods)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157123/trichostatin-a-induces-nag-1-expression-and-apoptosis-in-human-endometriotic-stromal-cells
#12
Seok Kyo Seo, Jae Hoon Lee, Seung Joo Chon, Bo Hyon Yun, Sihyun Cho, Young Sik Choi, Byung Seok Lee
To investigate the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 (NAG-1) expression and apoptosis in human endometriotic stromal cells (HESCs), ectopic endometrial tissues were obtained from 15 patients with endometriotic cysts who underwent cystectomy. Human endometriotic stromal cells were isolated and cultured with different concentrations of TSA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively, and apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156616/a-novel-mutation-in-the-fibrinogen-b%C3%AE-chain-c-490g-a-end-of-exon-3-causes-a-splicing-abnormality-and-ultimately-leads-to-congenital-hypofibrinogenemia
#13
Chiaki Taira, Kazuyuki Matsuda, Shinpei Arai, Mitsutoshi Sugano, Takeshi Uehara, Nobuo Okumura
We found a novel heterozygous mutation in the fibrinogen Bβ chain (c.490G>A) of a 3-year-old girl with congenital hypofibrinogenemia. To clarify the complex genetic mechanism, we made a mini-gene including a FGB c.490G>A mutation region, transfected it into a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line, and analyzed reverse transcription (RT) products. The assembly process and secretion were examined using recombinant mutant fibrinogen. Direct sequencing demonstrated that the mutant RT product was 99 bp longer than the wild-type product, and an extra 99 bases were derived from intron 3...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150937/cgmp-production-and-analysis-of-bg505-sosip-664-an-extensively-glycosylated-trimeric-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-vaccine-candidate
#14
Antu K Dey, Albert Cupo, Gabriel Ozorowski, Vaneet K Sharma, Anna-Janina Behrens, Eden P Go, Thomas J Ketas, Anila Yasmeen, Per J Klasse, Eddy Sayeed, Heather Desaire, Max Crispin, Ian A Wilson, Rogier W Sanders, Thomas Hassell, Andrew Ward, John P Moore
We describe the properties of BG505 SOSIP.664 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers produced under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) conditions. These proteins are the first of a new generation of native-like trimers that are the basis for many structure-guided immunogen development programs aimed at devising how to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-1 by vaccination. The successful translation of this prototype demonstrates the feasibility of producing similar immunogens on an appropriate scale and of an acceptable quality for Phase I experimental medicine clinical trials...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150912/sustaining-an-efficient-and-effective-cho-cell-line-development-platform-by-incorporation-of-24-deep-well-plate-screening-and-multivariate-analysis
#15
Alessandro Mora, Sheng Sam Zhang, Gerald Carson, Bernard Nabiswa, Patrick Hossler, Seongkyu Yoon
Efficient and effective cell line screening is paramount towards a successful biomanufacturing program. Here we describe the implementation of 24-deep well plate screening of CHO lines as part of the cell line development platform at AbbVie. Incorporation of this approach accelerated the identification of the best candidate lines for process development. In an effort to quantify and predict process performance comparability, we compared cell culture performance in 24-deep well plates (24-DWP) and in shake flasks, for a panel of Chinese Hamster Ovary cell lines expressing a monoclonal antibody...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150432/the-ikk-related-kinase-tbk1-activates-mtorc1-directly-in-response-to-growth-factors-and-innate-immune-agonists
#16
Cagri Bodur, Dubek Kazyken, Kezhen Huang, Bilgen Ekim Ustunel, Kate A Siroky, Aaron Seth Tooley, Ian E Gonzalez, Daniel H Foley, Hugo A Acosta-Jaquez, Tammy M Barnes, Gabrielle K Steinl, Kae-Won Cho, Carey N Lumeng, Steven M Riddle, Martin G Myers, Diane C Fingar
The innate immune kinase TBK1 initiates inflammatory responses to combat infectious pathogens by driving production of type I interferons. TBK1 also controls metabolic processes and promotes oncogene-induced cell proliferation and survival. Here, we demonstrate that TBK1 activates mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) directly. In cultured cells, TBK1 associates with and activates mTORC1 through site-specific mTOR phosphorylation (on S2159) in response to certain growth factor receptors (i.e., EGF-receptor but not insulin receptor) and pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) (i...
November 17, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149549/workflow-for-target-oriented-parametrization-of-an-enhanced-mechanistic-cell-culture-model
#17
Sophia Ulonska, Paul Kroll, Jens Fricke, Christoph Clemens, Raphael Voges, Markus Michael Müller, Christoph Herwig
The goal of this study was to develop a macroscopic mechanistic model describing growth and production within fed-batch cultivations of CHO cells. The model should be used for process characterization as well as for process monitoring including real-time parameter adaptations. The model proved to be able to describe a data-set of 40 processes differing in clones, scales and process conditions with a normalized root mean square error of approximately 10%. However, due to limited parameter identifiability and limited knowledge about physiologically meaningful parameter values, a broad range of parameters could describe the data with similar quality...
November 17, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145694/engineered-and-natural-promoters-and-chromatin-modifying-elements-for-recombinant-protein-expression-in-cho-cells
#18
REVIEW
Nadiya Romanova, Thomas Noll
Promoters play a pivotal role in integrating and processing the signals related to transcription initiation. Strong natural viral promoters, such as hCMV or SV40E, have been routinely employed to achieve a high rate of gene expression in ubiquitously used Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, viral promoters are susceptible to epigenetic silencing and lack precise regulation levers. This has paved the way to more sensible control elements: endogenous, inducible and synthetic promoters. In this review we summarise and discuss the use of natural viral, mammalian and endogenous promoters, as well as recent advances in synthetic promoters and inducible systems for protein expression in CHO cells...
November 16, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141715/clinical-isolation-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-in-south-korea
#19
Seung Hun Lee, Se Yoon Park, Mi Jin Jang, Ki Ju Choi, Hae Kyung Lee, Young-Uk Cho, Yeong Seon Lee, Sung-Han Kim, Seon Do Hwang
We report the first isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in South Korea. A 61-year-old woman presented with a 6-day history of fever, headache, and myalgia. Initial investigation showed neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We diagnosed human granulocytic anaplasmosis by microscopic examination and serologic testing. The patient recovered fully without antibiotic therapy. The isolate was obtained from the patient's blood by cell culture and mouse inoculation. Its identity was confirmed by an immunofluorescence assay, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, msp2 (p44), and ankA genes, and staining and electron microscopy of morulae of A...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137358/tm4sf5-promotes-metastatic-behavior-of-cells-in-3d-extracellular-matrix-gels-by-reducing-dependency-on-environmental-cues
#20
Dae-Geun Song, Gyu-Ho Lee, Seo Hee Nam, Jin-Gyu Cheong, Doyoung Jeong, Seo-Jin Lee, Cheol-Ho Pan, Jae Woo Jung, Hye-Jin Kim, Jihye Ryu, Ji Eon Kim, Somi Kim, Chang Yun Cho, Min-Kyung Kang, Kyung-Min Lee, Jung Weon Lee
Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and enhances migration in two-dimensional environments. Here, we investigated how TM4SF5 is involved in diverse pro-metastatic phenotypes in in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix gels. TM4SF5-positive cells aggressively formed invasive foci in 3D Matrigel, depending on TM4SF5-mediated signaling activity, cytoskeletal organization, and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 2-mediated extracellular remodeling, whereas TM4SF5-null cells did not...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
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