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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422792/progress-in-hiv-1-antibody-research-using-humanized-mice
#1
Henning Gruell, Florian Klein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent discoveries of highly potent broadly HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies provide new opportunities to successfully prevent, treat, and potentially cure HIV-1 infection. To test their activity in vivo, humanized mice have been shown to be a powerful model and were used to investigate antibody-mediated prevention and therapy approaches. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in humanized mice that have informed on the potential use of broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting HIV-1 in humans...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403828/lower-genetic-variability-of-hiv-1-and-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-in-pregnant-women-from-the-state-of-par%C3%A3-brazil
#2
Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado, Iran Barros Costa, Maria Nazaré Folha, Anderson Levy Bessa da Luz, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak, Marluisa Oliveira Guimarães Ishak
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to describe the genetic diversity of HIV-1, as well as the resistance profile of the viruses identified in HIV-1 infected pregnant women under antiretroviral therapy in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 45 HIV-1 infected pregnant to determine the virus subtypes according to the HIV-1 protease (PR) gene and part of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) gene by sequencing the nucleotides of these regions...
April 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402970/the-genotyping-resistance-profile-of-the-pol-gene-detected-in-blood-of-newly-diagnosed-hiv-positive-men-is-durably-archived-in-the-gut-whatever-the-time-of-initiation-of-cart
#3
Anne Emmanuelle Depincé, Elodie Dussert, Delphine Vergnon-Miszczycha, Abdelaye Keita, Sylvie Pillet, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Anne Frésard, Amandine Gagneux-Brunon, Frédéric R Lucht, Xavier Roblin, Bruno Pozzetto, Stéphane Paul, Thomas Bourlet
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mutational patterns on the pol gene of the main HIV-1 strain archived in cell genome of 10 chronically infected men according to their clinical and therapeutic history. The genotyping resistance profiles were compared between the first blood plasma available at the time of HIV diagnosis and rectal biopsies and PBMC sampled 1-5 years after the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: HIV-1 RNA and cell-associated HIV-1 DNA were quantified by Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 and Generic HIV® DNA cell (Biocentric) assays...
April 13, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388647/impact-of-probiotic-saccharomyces-boulardii-on-the-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-treated-patients-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Judit Villar-García, Robert Güerri-Fernández, Andrés Moya, Alicia González, Juan J Hernández, Elisabet Lerma, Ana Guelar, Luisa Sorli, Juan P Horcajada, Alejandro Artacho, Giuseppe D Auria, Hernando Knobel
Dysbalance in gut microbiota has been linked to increased microbial translocation, leading to chronic inflammation in HIV-patients, even under effective HAART. Moreover, microbial translocation is associated with insufficient reconstitution of CD4+T cells, and contributes to the pathogenesis of immunologic non-response. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recently showed that, compared to placebo, 12 weeks treatment with probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii significantly reduced plasma levels of bacterial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein or LBP) and systemic inflammation (IL-6) in 44 HIV virologically suppressed patients, half of whom (n = 22) had immunologic non-response to antiretroviral therapy (<270 CD4+Tcells/μL despite long-term suppressed viral load)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388302/genome-wide-association-and-replication-study-of-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-antiretrovirals-alone-or-with-concomitant-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#5
Zelalem Petros, Ming Ta Michael Lee, Atsushi Takahashi, Yanfei Zhang, Getnet Yimer, Abiy Habtewold, Ina Schuppe-Koistinen, Taisei Mushiroda, Eyasu Makonnen, Michiaki Kubo, Eleni Aklillu
Drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) is a common adverse event that is associated with both antiretroviral (ARV) and anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATD). Moreover, the genetic variations predisposing ARV- and ARV-ATD-induced liver toxicity in African populations are not well investigated, despite the two diseases being the major global health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and replication study to identify the genetic variants linked to the risk of developing DIH due to ARV drugs alone, and ARV-ATD co-treatment in Ethiopian HIV-positive patients...
April 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369593/drug-resistance-mutations-in-hiv-2-patients-failing-raltegravir-and-influence-on-dolutegravir-response
#6
Silvia Requena, Ana Treviño, Teresa Cabezas, Rosa Garcia-Delgado, María José Amengual, Ana Belén Lozano, María Peñaranda, Juan Manuel Fernández, Vicente Soriano, Carmen de Mendoza
Background: A broader extent of amino acid substitutions in the integrase of HIV-2 compared with HIV-1 might enable greater cross-resistance between raltegravir and dolutegravir in HIV-2 infection. Few studies have examined the virological response to dolutegravir in HIV-2 patients that failed raltegravir. Methods: All patients recorded in the HIV-2 Spanish cohort were examined. The integrase coding region was sequenced in viraemic patients. Changes associated with resistance to raltegravir and dolutegravir in HIV-1 were recorded...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360415/hiv-tat-induces-a-prolonged-myc-relocalization-next-to-igh-in-circulating-b-cells
#7
D Germini, T Tsfasman, M Klibi, R El-Amine, A Pichugin, O Iarovaia, C Bilhou-Nabera, F Subra, Y B Saada, A Sukhanova, D Boutboul, M Raphaël, J Wiels, S Razin, S Bury-Moné, E Oksenhendler, M Lipinski, Y Vassetzky
With combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the risk for HIV-infected individuals to develop a non-Hodgkin lymphoma is diminished. However, the incidence of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) remains strikingly elevated. Most BL present a t(8;14) chromosomal translocation which must take place at a time of spatial proximity between the translocation partners. The two partner genes, MYC and IGH, were found colocalized only very rarely in the nuclei of normal peripheral blood B-cells examined using 3D-FISH while circulating B-cells from HIV-infected individuals whose exhibited consistently elevated levels of MYC-IGH colocalization...
March 31, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358734/intracellular-hiv-1-rna-and-cd4-t-cell-activation-in-patients-starting-antiretrovirals
#8
Ramy El-Diwany, Florian P Breitwieser, Mary Soliman, Alyza M Skaist, Geetha Srikrishna, Joel N Blankson, Stuart C Ray, Sarah J Wheelan, David L Thomas, Ashwin Balagopal
OBJECTIVE: To assess if the reduction in HIV-1 RNA in CD4+ T cells is correlated with the persistence of immune activation following early antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: Clinical trial (NCT01285050). METHODS: Next-generation sequencing was used to study total RNA from activated CD4+ T cells (CD38 and HLA-DR expressing) collected from 19 treatment-naïve HIV-1/HCV infected patients before and early after ART initiation (≥12 weeks after plasma HIV RNA < 50 c/ml)...
March 29, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350860/uniquely-altered-transcripts-are-associated-with-immune-preservation-in-hiv-infection
#9
Michelle Zanoni, Ítalo Karmann Aventurato, James Hunter, Maria Cecilia Araripe Sucupira, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
The mechanisms underlying host HIV control hold much promise in the search for a functional HIV cure. We investigated the host genomic signatures in elite controllers or rapid progressors following recent infection and the correlates of immune reconstitution during combination antiretroviral therapy. We characterized the HIV-specific longitudinal host transcriptional response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elite controllers, rapid progressors, immune responders and non-responders using a RT-qPCR array in a cohort of recently HIV-infected Brazilian individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348767/first-case-of-mixed-infection-with-cryptococcus-deuterogattii-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-vni-in-an-ivorian-hiv-positive-patient
#10
Fulgence K Kassi, Virginie Bellet, Adama Doumbia, Donika Krasteva, Pascal Drakulovski, Gisèle A Kouakou, François Gatchitch, Eric Delaporte, Jacques Reynes, Michèle Mallié, Hervé I E Menan, Sébastien Bertout
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) may be caused by several species of Cryptococcus. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a fatal case of CM in a HIV-positive patient from Ivory Coast infected by Cryptococcus neoformans VNI and Cryptococcusdeuterogattii. Isolates were recovered from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) prior to systemic antifungal treatment. Six isolates were studied (the entire culture plus five isolated colonies from it). Serotyping was performed via LAC 1 and CAP 64 gene amplification...
August 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345004/homology-directed-recombination-for-enhanced-engineering-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells
#11
Malika Hale, Baeckseung Lee, Yuchi Honaker, Wai-Hang Leung, Alexandra E Grier, Holly M Jacobs, Karen Sommer, Jaya Sahni, Shaun W Jackson, Andrew M Scharenberg, Alexander Astrakhan, David J Rawlings
Gene editing by homology-directed recombination (HDR) can be used to couple delivery of a therapeutic gene cassette with targeted genomic modifications to generate engineered human T cells with clinically useful profiles. Here, we explore the functionality of therapeutic cassettes delivered by these means and test the flexibility of this approach to clinically relevant alleles. Because CCR5-negative T cells are resistant to HIV-1 infection, CCR5-negative anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells could be used to treat patients with HIV-associated B cell malignancies...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334399/association-of-hiv-status-with-local-immune-response-to-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-implications-for-immunotherapy
#12
Elizabeth L Yanik, Genevieve J Kaunitz, Tricia R Cottrell, Farah Succaria, Tracee L McMiller, Maria L Ascierto, Jessica Esandrio, Haiying Xu, Aleksandra Ogurtsova, Toby Cornish, Evan J Lipson, Suzanne L Topalian, Eric A Engels, Janis M Taube
Importance: The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway play an important immunosuppressive role in cancer and chronic viral infection, and have been effectively targeted in cancer therapy. Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is associated with both human papillomavirus and HIV infection. To date, patients with HIV have been excluded from most trials of immune checkpoint blocking agents, such as anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1, because it was assumed that their antitumor immunity was compromised compared with immunocompetent patients...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329286/short-course-tlr9-agonist-treatment-impacts-innate-immunity-and-plasma-viremia-in-individuals-with-hiv-infection
#13
Line Vibholm, Mariane H Schleimann, Jesper F Højen, Thomas Benfield, Rasmus Offersen, Katrine Rasmussen, Rikke Olesen, Anders Dige, Jørgen Agnholt, Judith Grau, Maria Buzon, Burghardt Wittig, Mathias Lichterfeld, Andreas Munk Petersen, Xutao Deng, Mohammed Abdel-Mohsen, Satish K Pillai, Sofie Rutsaert, Wim Trypsteen, Ward De Spiegelaere, Linos Vandekerchove, Lars Østergaard, Thomas A Rasmussen, Paul W Denton, Martin Tolstrup, Ole S Søgaard
Background: Treatment with latency reversing agents (LRA) enhances HIV-1 transcription in vivo but only leads to modest reductions in the size of the reservoir, possibly due to insufficient immune-mediated elimination of infected cells. We hypothesized that a single drug molecule - a novel toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, MGN1703 - could function as an enhancer of innate immunity and an LRA in vivo. Methods: We conducted a single-arm, open-label study, where 15 virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy received 60 mg MGN1703 s...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325295/aptamers-for-cd-antigens-from-cell-profiling-to-activity-modulation
#14
REVIEW
Amin Nozari, Maxim V Berezovski
Nucleic acid-based aptamers are considered to be a promising alternative to antibodies because of their strong and specific binding to diverse targets, fast and inexpensive chemical synthesis, and easy labeling with a fluorescent dye or therapeutic agent. Cluster of differentiation (CD) proteins are among the most popular antigens for aptamers on the cell surface. These anti-CD aptamers could be used in cell biology and biomedicine, from simple cell phenotyping by flow cytometry or fluorescent microscopy to diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS to cancer and immune therapies...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316253/predominance-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-a-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients-experiencing-high-hepatitis-b-virus-drug-resistance-in-nairobi-kenya
#15
Sepha Nyatichi Mabeya, Caroline Ngugi, Raphael Wekesa Lihana, Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi, Anthony Kebira Nyamache
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance-associated mutations among drug-experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the partial HBV-pol-reverse trancriptase gene was successfully sequenced from 13 samples. Analysis of the sequences showed that all (11) the sequences belonged to genotype A. Nucleos(t)ide drug resistance mutations were found in 6 patients...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302528/association-between-enteric-protozoan-parasites-and-gastrointestinal-illness-among-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infected-individuals-in-the-chowke-district-southern-mozambique
#16
María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Marta Hernández-de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Horacio Gil, Lucía Morales, Raimundo Seguí, Edy Nacarapa, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, David Carmena
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September-December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique...
March 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302043/cul5-and-apobec3g-polymorphisms-are-partially-implicated-in-hiv-1-infection-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-brazilian-population
#17
Ronaldo Celerino da Silva, Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Ronald Rodrigues Moura, Luiz Cláudio Arraes, Lucas André Cavalcanti Brandão, Rafael Lima Guimarães, Sérgio Crovella
BACKGROUND: Host restriction factors are cellular proteins able to diminish or block viral replication in a cell-specific way. Objetive and Method: We evaluated the distribution of selected SNPs in APOBEC3G (rs3736685, rs2294367) and CUL5 (rs7117111, rs7103534, rs11212495) genes, among 264 HIV-1 infected (HIV-1+) and 259 unexposed uninfected individuals from Northeast Brazil, looking for a possible association with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, viral load, CD4+ T cell count and success of antiretroviral therapy...
March 15, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298145/genotypic-characterization-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-derived-from-antiretroviral-drug-treated-individuals-residing-in-earthquake-affected-areas-in-nepal
#18
Bharat Singh Negi, Tomohiro Kotaki, Sunil Kumar Joshi, Anup Bastola, Minato Nakazawa, Masanori Kameoka
Molecular epidemiological data on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are limited in Nepal and have not been available in areas affected by the April 2015 earthquake. Therefore, we conducted a genotypic study on HIV-1 genes derived from individuals on antiretroviral therapy residing in 14 districts in Nepal highly affected by the earthquake. HIV-1 genomic fragments were amplified from 40 blood samples of HIV treatment-failure individuals, and a sequencing analysis was performed on these genes. In the 40 samples, 29 protease, 32 reverse transcriptase, 25 gag, and 21 env genes were sequenced...
April 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297712/cd32a-is-a-marker-of-a-cd4-t-cell-hiv-reservoir-harbouring-replication-competent-proviruses
#19
Benjamin Descours, Gaël Petitjean, José-Luis López-Zaragoza, Timothée Bruel, Raoul Raffel, Christina Psomas, Jacques Reynes, Christine Lacabaratz, Yves Levy, Olivier Schwartz, Jean Daniel Lelievre, Monsef Benkirane
The persistence of the HIV reservoir in infected individuals is a major obstacle to the development of a cure for HIV. Here, using an in vitro model of HIV-infected quiescent CD4 T cells, we reveal a gene expression signature of 103 upregulated genes that are specific for latently infected cells, including genes for 16 transmembrane proteins. In vitro screening for surface expression in HIV-infected quiescent CD4 T cells shows that the low-affinity receptor for the immunoglobulin G Fc fragment, CD32a, is the most highly induced, with no detectable expression in bystander cells...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293270/effect-of-moringa-oleifera-lam-leaf-powder-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-nevirapine-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-one-sequence-cross-over-study
#20
Tsitsi G Monera-Penduka, Charles C Maponga, Alan R Wolfe, Lubbe Wiesner, Gene D Morse, Charles F B Nhachi
BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera Lam., an herb commonly consumed by HIV-infected people on antiretroviral therapy, inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4, 1A2 and 2D6 activity in vitro; and may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretroviral drugs metabolized via the same pathways. However, in vitro drug interaction activity may not translate to a clinically significant effect. Therefore, the effect of moringa leaf powder on the PK of nevirapine in HIV-infected people was investigated. METHODS: Adult patients at steady-state dosing with nevirapine were admitted for 12-h intensive PK sampling following a 21-day herbal medicine washout...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
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