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Radiation bowel disease

Eva Carlsson, Jeanette Fingren, Anne-Marie Hallén, Charlotta Petersén, Elisabet Lindholm
Despite advancements in the creation and care of stomas, ostomy and peristomal skin complications are common immediately following surgery as well as in the months and years thereafter. A prospective study to determine the prevalence of ostomy and peristomal skin complications and the influence of ostomy configuration on such complications was conducted 1 year after ostomy surgery among all patients at a university hospital in Sweden. All participants received regular (10 to 14 days post discharge, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year post surgery) ostomy follow-up care by a wound ostomy continence (WOC) nurse...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Jordan Axelrad, Anuja Kriplani, Umut Ozbek, Noam Harpaz, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Steven Itzkowitz, Randall F Holcombe, Celina Ang
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotherapy toxicity may exacerbate IBD symptoms and vice versa, but data are limited. We evaluated chemotherapy tolerance and oncologic outcomes in patients with CRC with and without IBD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients with CRC with and without IBD treated between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. Where possible, patients were matched by age, sex, stage, and diagnosis year...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Stephanie Bora, Margherita T Cantorna
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In experimental IBD the targets of vitamin D that result in protection from IBD include gut epithelial cells, innate immune cells, T cells, and the microbiota. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces production of vitamin D in the skin and suppresses T cell responses in the host. There is limited data demonstrating an effect of UVR on experimental IBD but the mechanisms of UVR suppression in IBD have not been defined. There are several shared effects of vitamin D and UVR on T cells including inhibition of proliferation and suppression of IFN-γ and IL-17 producing T cells...
September 8, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Christine H Feng, Yasmin Hasan, Malgorzata Kopec, Hania A Al-Hallaq
We performed a dosimetric comparison of sequential IMRT (sIMRT) and simul-taneously integrated boost (SIB) IMRT to boost PET-avid lymph nodes while concurrently treating pelvic targets to determine the potential of SIB IMRT to reduce overall treatment duration in locally advanced cervical cancer. Ten patients receiving definitive radiation therapy were identified retrospectively. RTOG consensus guidelines were followed to delineate the clinical target volume and organs at risk (OAR), which were then expanded per IMRT consortium guidelines to yield the planning target volume (PTV)...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Joy Ardill, Brian T Johnston, David R McCance, Martin Eatock
A fifty two year old lady presented with a history of occasional, severe abdominal cramps, post-prandial diarrhoea and weight loss. After routine GI investigations she was diagnosed with IBS. Over six months she developed occasional facial flushing prompting assessment of neuroendocrine tumour markers. Urinary 5HIAA, 5HT, chromogranin A (CGA) and Neurokinin A (NKA) were significantly elevated. Scans showed extensive hepatic metastases but no location of a primary tumour.Somatostatin analogue therapy (SST) was commenced but despite increasing doses, symptoms increased and biomarkers rose dramatically...
September 16, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, Natalia Aladyshkina, Mauricio Retuerto, Christopher L Hager, Sanja Ilic, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Fabio Cominelli
We report and investigated a case of inadvertent contamination of 125 mice (housed in two germ-free positive-pressurized isolators) with emerging human and coral pathogen Aspergillus sydowii. The infected mice correspond to genetic line SAMP1/YitFc, which have 100% immune predisposition to develop Crohn's disease-like spontaneous pathologies, namely, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Pathogen update based on a scoping review of the literature and our clinical observations and experimentation are discussed. The unwanted infection of germ-free mice (immunologically prone to suffer chronic inflammation) with human pathogen A...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Vasileios Rafailidis, Annamaria Deganello, Tom Watson, Paul S Sidhu, Maria E Sellars
Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) represents a complementary technique to grey-scale and colour Doppler ultrasonography (US) which allows for real-time visualization and characterization of tissue perfusion. Its inherent advantages in the child makes US an ideal imaging modality; repeatability and good tolerance along with the avoidance of computed tomography (CT), a source of ionizing radiation, renders US imaging desirable. Although currently paediatric CEUS is principally used in an "off-label" manner, US contrast agents have received regulatory approval for assessment of paediatric focal liver lesions in the United States of America...
September 9, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Asuka Nagura, Masanao Nakamura, Osamu Watanabe, Takeshi Yamamura, Kohei Funasaka, Eizaburo Ohno, Ryoji Miyahara, Hiroki Kawashima, Shuji Koyama, Tomoki Hinami, Hidemi Goto, Yoshiki Hirooka
UNLABELLED: Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of small bowel diseases. Although fluoroscopy is used to confirm the position of endoscope at DBE, the endoscopist does not have the knowledge with regard to the radiation exposure dose. In this study, we evaluated the absorbed dose during DBE in patients with suspected or established small bowel diseases. This was a retrospective study in which the estimated fluoroscopic radiation absorbed doses loaded on the small bowel and skin were determined according to the data of the referential X-ray experiment with a human body phantom...
August 2016: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Jolyn S Taylor, Claire A Marten, Mark F Munsell, Charlotte C Sun, Kimberly A Potts, Jennifer K Burzawa, Alpa M Nick, Larissa A Meyer, Keith Myers, Diane C Bodurka, Thomas A Aloia, Charles F Levenback, David R Lairson, Kathleen M Schmeler
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) lead to increased patient morbidity and healthcare costs. Our objective was to decrease the SSI rate following gynecologic surgery. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery for gynecologic malignancy or benign disease received the following: patient education; preoperative antibacterial soap; appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis; change of gloves and use of clean instruments at surgical closure; surgical dressing for 48 h; and a post-discharge phone call...
August 29, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Gabriele Masselli, Ilaria Mastroiacovo, Emidio De Marco, Giulia Francione, Emanuele Casciani, Elisabetta Polettini, Gianfranco Gualdi
Crohn's disease affects more than 500000 individuals in the United States, and about 25% of cases are diagnosed during the pediatric period. Imaging of the bowel has undergone dramatic changes in the past two decades. The endoscopy with biopsy is generally considered the diagnostic reference standard, this combination can evaluates only the mucosa, not inflammation or fibrosis in the mucosa. Actually, the only modalities that can visualize submucosal tissues throughout the small bowel are the computed tomography (CT) enterography (CTE) with the magnetic resonance enterography (MRE)...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Rebecca G Rogers, Peter C Jeppson
Pelvic fistulae are an abnormal communication among the genitourinary tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the vagina or perineum. Genital tract fistulae have been described in the medical literature for the past several thousand years. Advancements in both the diagnosis and treatment of vaginal fistulae have been obtained over the past century as surgical interventions have become safer and surgical techniques have improved. The most common cause of fistulae worldwide is obstructed labor. In developed countries, fistulae most commonly occur after benign gynecologic surgery, but obstructed labor, malignancy, radiation exposure, and inflammatory bowel disease can also cause fistulae...
September 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Chenjing Zhu, Xuelei Ma, Luqi Xue, Jing Xu, Qingfang Li, Yun Wang, Jing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Imaging modalities are essential for the diagnosis and assessment of CD. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) is a well-tolerated, noninvasive and radiation-free modality and has shown potential in CD assessment. We aimed at evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of SICUS in the detection and assessment of small-bowel lesions and complications in CD. METHODS: We searched PubMed database for relevant studies published before April 24, 2016...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Karin K Shih, Carla Hajj, Marisa Kollmeier, Melissa K Frey, Yukio Sonoda, Nadeem R Abu-Rustum, Kaled M Alektiar
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to determine the potential impact of IMRT on the rate of bowel obstruction (BO), in patients with gynecologic malignancies undergoing postoperative pelvic RT. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with endometrial or cervical cancer who received postoperative pelvic RT at our institution from 2000 to 2012. Patients who received definitive or palliative RT, or those with BO due to disease progression, were excluded...
October 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
A M Abdel Ghaffar, Rasha R Radwan, H E Ali
The copolymerization of starch with acrylic acid AAc using direct gamma radiation technique was performed. The effect of AAc concentrations on the gel (%) and swelling behavior were investigated. It is found that as AAc concentrations increase both gel(%) and swelling behavior increase. The Poly(starch/acrylic acid) (1:10wt%) hydrogel were selected due to its high swelling properties. From the in-vitro release study of the rutin-loaded hydrogel it is observed that it is strong pH-dependent release behavior, thus offering a maximum release as pH increased...
November 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mingming Sun, Wei Wu, Zhanju Liu, Yingzi Cong
Gut microbiota has been well recognized in regulation of intestinal homeostasis and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. Further, the components of the microbiota which are critically responsible for such effects are also largely unknown. Accumulating evidence suggests that, in addition to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, nutrition and bacterial metabolites might greatly impact the immune response in the gut and beyond. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are metabolized by gut bacteria from otherwise indigestible fiber-rich diets, have been shown to ameliorate diseases in animal models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and allergic asthma...
July 23, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Matthew Kappus, Sarah Diamond, Ryan T Hurt, Robert Martindale
Intestinal failure (IF) is a state in which the nutritional demands of the body are not met by the gastrointestinal absorptive surface. It is a long-recognized complication associated with short bowel syndrome, which results in malabsorption after significant resection of the intestine for many reasons or functional dysmotility. Etiologies have included Crohn's disease, vascular complications, and the effects of radiation enteritis, as well as the effects of intestinal obstruction, dysmotility, or congenital defects...
September 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Osman Ahmed, David Mario Rodrigues, Geoffrey C Nguyen
Introduction. Crohn's disease is most commonly found in the terminal ileum and colonic region. Magnetic resonance has become a useful modality for assessing small bowel activity. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of MR in detecting small bowel activity as well as extramural complications in Crohn's patients. Methods. Two independent reviewers sorted through articles until October 2, 2014. We included both studies providing raw data for pooling and studies without raw data...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Roopa Ram, David Sarver, Tarun Pandey, Carey L Guidry, Kedar R Jambhekar
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that often requires frequent imaging of patients in order to detect active disease and other complications related to disease activity. While endoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis, it may be contraindicated in some patients and has a limited role in detecting deep submucosal/mesenteric diseases and intra abdominal complications. In recent years, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has evolved as a noninvasive, radiation free imaging modality in the evaluation of patients with CD...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
E J Nevins, P Moori, C S J Ward, K Murphy, C E Elmes, J V Taylor
INTRODUCTION: Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) are typically associated and are likely to represent a spectrum of the same disease. The causes of both entities range from benign to life-threatening conditions. Ischaemic causes are known to be fatal without emergency surgical intervention. PRESENTATION OF CASE: In this case a 93year old male experienced acute abdominal pain radiating to his back, with nausea and vomiting and a 2-week history of altered bowel habit...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
E F Sheybani, N Sheikh, G B Chavhan, M-L C Greer
AIM: To determine the occurrence of extra-intestinal findings on magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) in a large cohort of children with known or suspected inflammatory bowel disease, characterise those findings, determine the technique and frequency of follow-up imaging, and associated costs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging reports from 757 MRE examinations in 671 children with known or suspected IBD from 2011 through 2012 were analysed retrospectively. Reported extra-intestinal findings were categorised by two radiologists in consensus as normal, normal variants or commonly seen findings without clinical significance, or abnormal...
September 2016: Clinical Radiology
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