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Radiation bowel disease

R S Goertz, C Lueke, D Wildner, F Vitali, M F Neurath, D Strobel
AIM: To evaluate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) shear-wave velocities of the bowel wall in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: ARFI shear-wave elastography was analysed within the wall of the stomach, terminal ileum, and sigmoid, and correlated with ultrasound signs of activity in CD patients both retrospectively and in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: A total of 77 retrospective and 21 prospective CD patients were included...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Mark Douglas Tyson, Tatsuki Koyama, Dan Lee, Karen E Hoffman, Matthew J Resnick, Xiao-Cheng Wu, Matthew R Cooperberg, Michael Goodman, Sheldon Greenfield, Ann S Hamilton, Mia Hashibe, Lisa E Paddock, Antoinette Stroup, Vivien Chen, Ralph Conwill, Dan McCollum, David F Penson, Daniel A Barocas
BACKGROUND: Whether prostate cancer severity modifies patient-reported functional outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localized cancer is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in predicted function over time between RP and EBRT varied by risk group. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (CEASAR) study is a prospective, population-based, observational study that enrolled men with localized prostate cancer in 2011-2012...
February 28, 2018: European Urology
S Habernig, P Malle, K A Hausegger
BACKGROUND/CLINICAL ISSUE: Inflammatory bowel diseases are frequently seen in the clinical routine of a pediatric radiologist. The timely diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases in children is particularly important in acute cases. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS/METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: This nonsystematic article intends to give an overview of the radiologic imaging methods for the diagnosis and work-up of pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel diseases...
February 23, 2018: Der Radiologe
Inês Pita, Fernando Magro
Treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) is intrinsically reliant on imaging techniques, due to the preponderance of small bowel disease and its transmural pattern of inflammation. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most widely employed imaging methods and have excellent diagnostic accuracy in most instances. Some limitations persist, perhaps the most clinically relevant being the distinction between inflammatory and fibrotic strictures. In this regard, several methodologies have recently been tested in animal models and human patients, namely US strain elastography, shear wave elastography, contrast-enhanced US, magnetization transfer MRI and contrast dynamics in standard MRI...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Fei Sjöberg, Dilip Kumar Malipatlolla, Piyush Patel, Ulrica Wilderäng, Marie Kalm, Gunnar Steineck, Cecilia Bull
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Traditionally, elastase has been used to study exocrine activity of the pancreas in patients with chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis, and calprotectin as a marker for gut-wall inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of the study was to find out whether elastase and calprotectin could be used as inflammatory markers for radiation-induced gut wall injury of the distal bowel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult male mice were exposed to two, three, or four fractions of 6 Gy or 8 Gy irradiation to the sigmoid and rectum of the large bowel, using a linear accelerator...
February 15, 2018: Acta Oncologica
M M Hennessy, I Ivanovski, C B Ó Súilleabháin
INTRODUCTION: Trichotillomania and trichotillophagia can result in huge intraluminal coagulations of hair. Rarely, these can present with gastric perforation. This work has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria (Agha et al., 2016) [1]. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the case of a 15 year old girl who attended the emergency department with abdominal pain and vomiting. Ultrasound abdomen and pelvis identified free fluid within the pelvis concerning for inflammatory bowel disease...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Kathryn L Taylor, George Luta, Richard M Hoffman, Kimberly M Davis, Tania Lobo, Yingjun Zhou, Amethyst Leimpeter, Jun Shan, Roxanne E Jensen, David S Aaronson, Stephen K Van Den Eeden
As many as 40% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer have low-risk disease, which results in the need to decide whether to undergo active treatment (AT) or active surveillance (AS). The treatment decision can have a significant effect on general and prostate-specific quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to assess the QOL among men with low-risk prostate cancer during the first year following diagnosis. In a prospective cohort study, we conducted pretreatment telephone interviews (N = 1,139; 69...
February 7, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
S Grozinsky-Glasberg, G Kaltsas, M Kaltsatou, N Lev-Cohain, A Klimov, V Vergadis, I Uri, A I Bloom, D J Gross
BACKGROUND: Liver metastases are common in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), having a negative impact on disease prognosis. The options for selective therapy in patients with unresectable multiple liver metastases are limited to TACE (transarterial chemoembolization), TAE (transarterial embolization), or SIRT (selective internal radiation therapy). AIM: To explore the clinical outcome, survival and safety of these therapies in NETs patients. METHODS: Retrospective case series of consecutive patients (mean age 56...
January 30, 2018: Endocrine
William C Jackson, Robert T Dess, Dale W Litzenberg, Pin Li, Matthew Schipper, Seth A Rosenthal, Garrick C Chang, Eric M Horwitz, Robert A Price, Jeff M Michalski, Hiram A Gay, John T Wei, Mary Feng, Felix Y Feng, Howard M Sandler, Robert E Wallace, Daniel E Spratt, Daniel A Hamstra
PURPOSE: The use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer has been reported predominantly from single institutional studies, although concerns for broader adoption exist. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2011 through 2013, 66 men were accrued to a phase 2 trial at 5 centers. SBRT consisted of 5 fractions of 7.4 Gy to a total dose of 37 Gy using conventional linear accelerators. Electromagnetic transponders were used for motion management. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was evaluated via the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite 26 questionnaire...
January 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
L Conti, E Baldini, P Capelli, C Capelli
INTRODUCTION: The obturator hernia is a rare pelvic hernia that often comes in the shape of bowel obstruction caused by the presence of an intestinal segment, more often ileum, passing trough the obturator foramen of the pelvic wall (Fig. 1). This type of hernia accounts for 0.5-1.4% of all hernias. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the clinical case of a 84-year-old woman with no previous surgical interventions, who went to the emergency room complaining of vomit and nausea, bowels closed to gas and stool, which she had experienced for three previous days...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Greg Rosenfeld, Jacqueline Brown, Patrick M Vos, Jonathon Leipsic, Robert Enns, Brian Bressler
OBJECTIVE: CT enterography (CTE) is sensitive and specific for active inflammatory changes of Crohn disease (CD), but its use has been limited by exposure to ionizing radiation. The objective of this study is to show the noninferiority of a model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) technique using lower radiation doses compared with standard-dose CTE in the assessment of CD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients referred to a hospital radiology department for CTE for the evaluation of CD underwent both a standard examination (used to generate filtered back-projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction [ASIR] images) and low-dose MBIR CTE performed in a random sequence on the same day...
February 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Spyridon Pagkratis, Sara Kryeziu, Miranda Lin, Samah Hoque, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Jonathan M Buscaglia, Georgios V Georgakis, Aaron R Sasson, Joseph Kim
RATIONALE: Heterotaxy with polysplenia is an extremely rare congenital condition resulting from abnormal arrangement of organs in the abdominal and thoracic cavities during embryologic development. When a malignancy such as pancreatic cancer develops under these conditions, surgical resection becomes particularly complex. This case report demonstrates successful pancreatic cancer resection despite the patient's complicated anatomy. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 82-year-old female presented to our institution with complaints of mild right upper quadrant pain radiating to the mid-epigastric region...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cynthia Gail Leichman, Shannon L McDonough, Stephen R Smalley, Kevin G Billingsley, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Matthew A Beldner, Aram F Hezel, Mario R Velasco, Katherine A Guthrie, Charles D Blanke, Howard S Hochster
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NCRT) is standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Pathologic complete response (pCR) has associated with improved survival. In modern phase III trials of NCRT, pCR ranges from 10% to 20%. Cetuximab improves response in KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene) wild type (wt) metastatic colorectal cancer. S0713 was designed to assess improvement in pCR with additional use of cetuximab with induction chemotherapy and NCRT for locally advanced, KRAS-wt rectal cancer...
March 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Marcia L Moss, Dmitry Minond
Since its discovery, ADAM17, also known as TNF α converting enzyme or TACE, is now known to process over 80 different substrates. Many of these substrates are mediators of cancer and inflammation. The field of ADAM metalloproteinases is at a crossroad with many of the new potential therapeutic agents for ADAM17 advancing into the clinic. Researchers have now developed potential drugs for ADAM17 that are selective and do not have the side effects which were seen in earlier chemical entities that targeted this enzyme...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Mrinal M Gounder, David M Thomas, William D Tap
In this review, we highlight the complexities of the natural history, biology, and clinical management of three intermediate connective tissue tumors: desmoid tumor (DT) or aggressive fibromatosis, tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) or diffuse-type pigmented villonodular synovitis (dtPVNS), and giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). Intermediate histologies include tumors of both soft tissue and bone origin and are locally aggressive and rarely metastatic. Some common aspects to these tumors are that they can be locally infiltrative and/or impinge on critical organs, which leads to disfigurement, pain, loss of function and mobility, neurovascular compromise, and occasionally life-threatening consequences, such as mesenteric, bowel, ureteral, and/or bladder obstruction...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
S Nagaraju, S J Grethlein, S Vaishnav, A A Sharfuddin, J A Powelson, J A Fridell
BACKGROUND: The majority of malignancies after transplantation appear to be virally mediated and of recipient origin. Donor-derived neoplasms occur early, whereas recipient-origin tumors typically occur many years after transplantation. Sarcomas are a relatively rare form of cancer. The etiology of sarcomas remains largely unknown, although some are linked to viruses, familial cancer syndromes, or therapeutic radiation exposure. Primary sarcomas are extremely rare, accounting for <0...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
Eng Eric Yeoh, Rochelle Botten, Addolorata Di Matteo, Marcus Tippett, Jonathon Hutton, Robert Fraser, Phillip G Dinning, David Wattchow
PURPOSE: To compare GI symptoms, measures of generic and disease specific health related quality of life (HRQoL), anorectal and pudendal nerve function and anal sphincter morphology between (i) patients ≥2 years after 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)±high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for carcinoma of the prostate and aged matched patients before radiotherapy and (ii) symptomatic and asymptomatic patients ≥2 years after 3D-CRT ± HDR brachytherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methodology included: (i) modified LENT-SOMA scales for GI symptoms, (ii) EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-PR25 questionnaires for generic and disease specific HRQoL, (iii) anorectal manometry and terminal motor latency for anorectal and pudendal nerve function and (iv) endorectal ultrasound for anal sphincter morphology...
November 15, 2017: Acta Oncologica
Akram M Shaaban, Maryam Rezvani, Jeffrey D Olpin, Anne M Kennedy, Ayman H Gaballah, Bryan R Foster, Christine O Menias, Khaled M Elsayes
Ultrasonography (US) is frequently the first imaging modality used to examine women with symptoms involving the pelvis. It is widely available and involves no exposure to ionizing radiation. Images can be acquired with a transabdominal, endovaginal, or translabial approach, and the use of video clips and three-dimensional reconstructions can be helpful. US is excellent for assessment of the uterus, ovaries, and adnexa. Occasionally, nongynecologic pelvic diseases arising from the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems and the pelvic peritoneal and extraperitoneal spaces may be detected and can be a source of diagnostic dilemma...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Chuangang Fu, Zhuqing Zhou, Junyi Han, Bin Lu, Wei Gao, Zhe Zhu, Qixin Jiang, Fang Ji, Tao Du
OBJECTIVE: To introduce the use of a self-made specimen protective sleeve in laparoscopic resection for upper or mid rectal cancer and sigmoid colon cancer with transrectal specimen extraction surgery and the improvement of implantation method, so as to avoid and reduce bacterial contamination and tumor cell dissemination in abdominal cavity. METHODS: During June 2015 and May 2017, 48 cases of high located rectal or sigmoid colon cancer were operated laparoscopically with natural orifices specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) using a self-made specimen protecting sleeve...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Nicholas G Zaorsky, Timothy N Showalter, Gary A Ezzell, Paul L Nguyen, Dean G Assimos, Anthony V D'Amico, Alexander R Gottschalk, Gary S Gustafson, Sameer R Keole, Stanley L Liauw, Shane Lloyd, Patrick W McLaughlin, Benjamin Movsas, Bradley R Prestidge, Al V Taira, Neha Vapiwala, Brian J Davis
Purpose: To present the most updated American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria formed by an expert panel on the appropriate delivery of external beam radiation to manage stage T1 and T2 prostate cancer (in the definitive setting and post-prostatectomy) and to provide clinical variants with expert recommendations based on accompanying Appropriateness Criteria for target volumes and treatment planning. Methods and materials: The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a panel of multidisciplinary experts...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
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