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Radiation bowel disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139310/pudendal-nerve-injury-impairs-anorectal-function-and-health-related-quality-of-life-measures-%C3%A2-2-years-after-3d-conformal-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#1
Eng Eric Yeoh, Rochelle Botten, Addolorata Di Matteo, Marcus Tippett, Jonathon Hutton, Robert Fraser, Phillip G Dinning, David Wattchow
PURPOSE: To compare GI symptoms, measures of generic and disease specific health related quality of life (HRQoL), anorectal and pudendal nerve function and anal sphincter morphology between (i) patients ≥2 years after 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)±high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for carcinoma of the prostate and aged matched patients before radiotherapy and (ii) symptomatic and asymptomatic patients ≥2 years after 3D-CRT ± HDR brachytherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methodology included: (i) modified LENT-SOMA scales for GI symptoms, (ii) EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-PR25 questionnaires for generic and disease specific HRQoL, (iii) anorectal manometry and terminal motor latency for anorectal and pudendal nerve function and (iv) endorectal ultrasound for anal sphincter morphology...
November 15, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131764/nongynecologic-findings-seen-at-pelvic-us
#2
Akram M Shaaban, Maryam Rezvani, Jeffrey D Olpin, Anne M Kennedy, Ayman H Gaballah, Bryan R Foster, Christine O Menias, Khaled M Elsayes
Ultrasonography (US) is frequently the first imaging modality used to examine women with symptoms involving the pelvis. It is widely available and involves no exposure to ionizing radiation. Images can be acquired with a transabdominal, endovaginal, or translabial approach, and the use of video clips and three-dimensional reconstructions can be helpful. US is excellent for assessment of the uterus, ovaries, and adnexa. Occasionally, nongynecologic pelvic diseases arising from the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems and the pelvic peritoneal and extraperitoneal spaces may be detected and can be a source of diagnostic dilemma...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130230/-protective-measures-in-laparoscopic-resection-for-upper-or-mid-rectal-cancer-and-sigmoid-colon-cancer-with-transrectal-specimen-extraction-surgery
#3
Chuangang Fu, Zhuqing Zhou, Junyi Han, Bin Lu, Wei Gao, Zhe Zhu, Qixin Jiang, Fang Ji, Tao Du
OBJECTIVE: To introduce the use of a self-made specimen protective sleeve in laparoscopic resection for upper or mid rectal cancer and sigmoid colon cancer with transrectal specimen extraction surgery and the improvement of implantation method, so as to avoid and reduce bacterial contamination and tumor cell dissemination in abdominal cavity. METHODS: During June 2015 and May 2017, 48 cases of high located rectal or sigmoid colon cancer were operated laparoscopically with natural orifices specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) using a self-made specimen protecting sleeve...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114613/acr-appropriateness-criteria-for-external-beam-radiation-therapy-treatment-planning-for-clinically-localized-prostate-cancer-part-ii-of-ii
#4
REVIEW
Nicholas G Zaorsky, Timothy N Showalter, Gary A Ezzell, Paul L Nguyen, Dean G Assimos, Anthony V D'Amico, Alexander R Gottschalk, Gary S Gustafson, Sameer R Keole, Stanley L Liauw, Shane Lloyd, Patrick W McLaughlin, Benjamin Movsas, Bradley R Prestidge, Al V Taira, Neha Vapiwala, Brian J Davis
Purpose: To present the most updated American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria formed by an expert panel on the appropriate delivery of external beam radiation to manage stage T1 and T2 prostate cancer (in the definitive setting and post-prostatectomy) and to provide clinical variants with expert recommendations based on accompanying Appropriateness Criteria for target volumes and treatment planning. Methods and materials: The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a panel of multidisciplinary experts...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081651/comparison-of-patients-tolerance-between-computed-tomography-enterography-and-double-balloon-enteroscopy
#5
Maochen Zhang, Tianyu Zhang, Liwen Hong, Qiangqiang Wu, Yun Lin, Mengfan Xie, Rong Fan, Zhengting Wang, Jie Zhou, Jie Zhong
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography enterography (CTE) and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) are widely used in diagnosis of small bowel diseases. Both of these examinations bring discomfort to patients. The aim of this study was to compare patients' tolerance and preference between CTE and DBE. METHODS: From August 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016, patients with suspected or known small bowel diseases who underwent both CTE and DBE were prospectively enrolled in our study...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052734/diagnostic-performance-of-magnetic-resonance-enterography-for-detection-of-active-inflammation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-systematic-review-and-diagnostic-meta-analysis
#6
Hee Mang Yoon, Chong Hyun Suh, Jeong Rye Kim, Jin Seong Lee, Ah Young Jung, Kyung Mo Kim, Young Ah Cho
Importance: Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography has the advantage over other techniques of being noninvasive, lacking ionizing radiation, and demonstrating excellent soft-tissue contrast to evaluate pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MR enterography for detection of active inflammation in children and adolescents with known or suspected IBD. Data Sources: A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE up to January 2, 2017, was performed to identify studies...
October 9, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050211/silibinin-attenuates-radiation-induced-intestinal-fibrosis-and-reverses-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#7
Joong Sun Kim, Na-Kyung Han, Sung-Ho Kim, Hae-June Lee
Radiotherapy is a common treatment for cancer patients, but its use is often restricted by the tolerance of normal tissue. As cancer patients live longer, delayed radiation effects on normal tissue have become a concern. Radiation-induced enteropathy, including inflammatory bowel disease and fibrosis, are major issues for long-term cancer survivors. To investigate whether silibinin attenuates delayed radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice, we focused on intestinal fibrotic changes. Silibinin improved delayed radiation injuries in mice in association with decreased collagen deposition within the intestines and deceased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels in the intestine and plasma...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034790/minimal-toxicity-after-proton-beam-therapy-for-prostate-and-pelvic-nodal-irradiation-results-from-the-proton-collaborative-group-reg001-09-trial
#8
Michael D Chuong, William Hartsell, Gary Larson, Henry Tsai, George E Laramore, Carl J Rossi, J Ben Wilkinson, Adeel Kaiser, Carlos Vargas
BACKGROUND: Proton beam therapy (PBT) reduces normal organ dose compared to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMXT) for prostate cancer patients who receive pelvic radiation therapy. It is not known whether this dosimetric advantage results in less gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity than would be expected from IMXT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated treatment parameters and toxicity outcomes for non-metastatic prostate cancer patients who received pelvic radiation therapy and enrolled on the PCG REG001-09 trial...
October 14, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983442/minimal-rectal-toxicity-in-the-setting-of-comorbid-crohn-s-disease-following-prostate-cancer-radiotherapy-with-a-hydrogel-rectal-spacer
#9
Raj Singh, Philip S Jackson, Mollie Blake, James Cutlip, Sanjeev Sharma
We present one of the first cases of a prostate cancer (PCa) patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and a hydrogel rectal spacer. A 73-year-old male with a past medical history significant for Crohn's disease (CD) and the recent diagnosis of T1cN0M0 high-risk PCa was referred for definitive radiotherapy. Given the patient's history of CD and the possible increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and disease exacerbation, prior to IMRT, a hydrogel spacer was placed between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall to further minimize irradiation to the rectum...
August 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963700/enterocutaneous-fistulas-a-primer-for-radiologists-with-emphasis-on-ct-and-mri
#10
REVIEW
Massimo Tonolini, Paolo Magistrelli
Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECFs) represent abnormal communications between the gastrointestinal tract and the skin. Nowadays, the majority (~80%) of ECFs develops secondary to abdominal surgeries; alternative, less common causes include chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease, tumours, and radiation enteritis in descending order of frequency. These rare disorders require thorough patient assessment and multidisciplinary management to limit the associated morbidity and mortality. This pictorial review includes an overview of causes, clinical manifestations, complications and management of ECFs...
September 29, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921009/radiation-overexposure-from-repeated-ct-scans-in-young-adults-with-acute-abdominal-pain
#11
Massimo Tonolini, Elena Valconi, Angelo Vanzulli, Roberto Bianco
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the dose of ionizing radiation caused by repeated CT scans performed to investigate non-traumatic acute abdominal conditions in young adults. METHODS: Over 26 months, we collected a cohort of patients aged 18 to 45 years who were subject to at least one urgent contrast-enhanced abdomen/pelvis CT. Patients affected with urolithiasis, HIV infection, tumors, and vascular and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases were excluded...
September 18, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826742/a-comprehensive-review-and-update-on-crohn-s-disease
#12
Mahesh Gajendran, Priyadarshini Loganathan, Anthony P Catinella, Jana G Hashash
The term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers principally to two major categories of chronic relapsing inflammatory intestinal disorders: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In the United States, it is currently estimated that about 1.5 million people suffer from IBD, causing considerable suffering, mortality and economic loss every year. Yet the cause of IBD is unknown, and until we understand more, prevention or cure will not be possible. There is a lot of variation in the incidence and prevalence of CD based on geographic region, environment, immigrant population, and ethnic groups...
August 18, 2017: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817406/idiopathic-myointimal-hyperplasia-of-mesenteric-veins-an-uncommon-cause-of-ischemic-colitis-with-distinct-mucosal-features
#13
Rhonda K Yantiss, Isabelle Cui, Nicole C Panarelli, Jose Jessurun
Idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins causes chronic ischemic mucosal injury with segmental strictures that mimic inflammatory bowel disease and nonocclusive ischemic colitis. It is characterized by myointimal proliferative changes that narrow the lumina of veins combined with ischemic injury and ulcers. Most cases reported to date have been diagnosed following surgical resection. The aim of this study was to determine whether mucosal changes of idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins are sufficiently sensitive and specific to allow its recognition in biopsy material...
December 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807748/dosimetric-analysis-and-preliminary-clinical-result-of-image-guided-brachytherapy-with-or-without-hybrid-technique-for-cervical-cancer-using-varisource-titanium-ring-applicator-with-siriraj-ring-cap
#14
Pittaya Dankulchai, Suphalerk Lohasammakul, Janjira Petsuksiri, Pitchayut Nakkrasae, Lalida Tuntipumiamorn, Chumpot Kakanaporn, Yaowalak Chansilpa
PURPOSE: Titanium ring cap applicator (VariSource) was applied in treating cervical cancer patients by using image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT). However, its sizes appeared to be relatively large for most of our patients. Thus, we have developed a specific applicator "Siriraj Ring Cap," which is slightly smaller and more suitable for our patients. This study was to evaluate effectiveness of this equipment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Locally advanced cervical cancer patients were treated with external beam radiation therapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy...
August 11, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758177/the-5-year-outcomes-of-moderately-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-66%C3%A2-gy-in-22-fractions-3-fractions-per-week-for-localized-prostate-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#15
Yaichiro Hashimoto, Atsushi Motegi, Tetsuo Akimoto, Norio Mitsuhashi, Junpei Iizuka, Kazunari Tanabe, Yuka Ishii, Sawa Kono, Sachiko Izumi, Kumiko Karasawa
BACKGROUND: Hypofractionated radiotherapy using fewer and larger fractional doses may be more beneficial than conventional external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. We evaluated the 5-year outcomes of moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 195 patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-3N0M0) who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) (66 Gy delivered in fractions of 3 Gy every other weekday) between May 2005 and December 2011...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679552/randomized-controlled-trial-of-dietary-fiber-for-the-prevention-of-radiation-induced-gastrointestinal-toxicity-during-pelvic-radiotherapy
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Linda Wedlake, Clare Shaw, Helen McNair, Amyn Lalji, Kabir Mohammed, Tanya Klopper, Lindsey Allan, Diana Tait, Maria Hawkins, Navita Somaiah, Susan Lalondrelle, Alexandra Taylor, Nicholas VanAs, Alexandra Stewart, Sharadah Essapen, Heather Gage, Kevin Whelan, H Jervoise N Andreyev
Background: Therapeutic radiotherapy is an important treatment of pelvic cancers. Historically, low-fiber diets have been recommended despite a lack of evidence and potentially beneficial mechanisms of fiber.Objective: This randomized controlled trial compared low-, habitual-, and high-fiber diets for the prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity in patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy.Design: Patients were randomly assigned to low-fiber [≤10 g nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)/d], habitual-fiber (control), or high-fiber (≥18 g NSP/d) diets and received individualized counseling at the start of radiotherapy to achieve these targets...
September 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624334/seasonality-and-autoimmune-diseases-the-contribution-of-the-four-seasons-to-the-mosaic-of-autoimmunity
#17
REVIEW
Abdulla Watad, Shir Azrielant, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Kassem Sharif, Paula David, Itay Katz, Gali Aljadeff, Mariana Quaresma, Galya Tanay, Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are a heterogeneous groups of diseases that occur as a results of loss of tolerance to self antigens. While the etiopathogeneis remain obscure, different environmental factors were suggested to have a role in the development of autoimmunity, including infections, low vitamin D levels, UV radiation, and melatonin. Interestingly, such factors possess seasonal variation patterns that could influence disease development, severity and progression. Vitamin D levels which reach a nadir during late winter and early spring is correlated with increased disease activity, clinical severity as well as relapse rates in several disease entities including multiple sclerosis (MS), non-cutaneous flares of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
August 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595876/a-diagnostic-accuracy-meta-analysis-of-ct-and-mri-for-the-evaluation-of-small-bowel-crohn-disease
#18
Wenhong Liu, Jincai Liu, Wenlian Xiao, Guanghua Luo
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in assessing small bowel (SB) Crohn disease (CD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, Karger, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and Springer for studies in which CT or MRI were evaluated to assess SB CD. Bivariate random effect meta-analytic methods were used to estimate pooled sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic curves...
June 5, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581400/first-results-of-a-phase-2-trial-of-once-weekly-hypofractionated-breast-irradiation-whbi-for-early-stage-breast-cancer
#19
Anthony E Dragun, Nicholas J Ajkay, Elizabeth C Riley, Teresa L Roberts, Jianmin Pan, Shesh N Rai, Dharamvir Jain, Amy R Quillo, Charles R Scoggins, Kelly M McMasters, Shiao Y Woo
PURPOSE: To report early outcome analysis of a prospective institutional phase 2 trial of weekly hypofractionated breast irradiation (WHBI) for patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients who underwent BCS for American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0, I, or II breast cancer with negative surgical margins received whole-breast radiation therapy to 30 or 28.5 Gy in 5 weekly fractions with or without an additional boost. The eligibility criteria were the same as for NSABP (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project) B39/RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) 0413, and there were no restrictions on age, breast size, tumor grade, receptor status, or the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy for otherwise eligible patients...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550027/exceptional-response-to-nivolumab-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt-in-neuroendocrine-cervical-carcinoma-with-high-tumor-mutational-burden-management-considerations-from-the-center-for-personalized-cancer-therapy-at-uc-san-diego-moores-cancer-center
#20
Andrew Sharabi, Sangwoo Shawn Kim, Shumei Kato, Philip D Sanders, Sandip Pravin Patel, Parag Sanghvi, Elizabeth Weihe, Razelle Kurzrock
Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is an ultra-rare malignancy with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has rapidly developed into an emerging standard of care for several common disease types. Interestingly, in preclinical and retrospective clinical data, radiation therapy has been demonstrated to synergize with checkpoint inhibitors. Here we report a patient with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory neuroendocrine carcinoma who presented with partial bowel obstruction due to a large tumor burden...
June 2017: Oncologist
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