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Addiction risk

Achut Prasad Silwal, H Peter Lu
Dopamine (DA) is the catecholamine neurotransmitter which interacts with dopamine receptors (DARs) to generate dopaminergic signals in nervous system. Dopamine transporter (DAT) interacts with DA to maintain DA's homeostasis in synaptic and perisynaptic space. DAT and DARs have great importance in central nervous system (CNS) since they are associated to the targeted binding of drugs. Interactions of DA, or its analogue with DARs, or DAT have been studied extensively to understand the mechanism of the dopaminergic signaling process and several neurodegenerative diseases including schizophrenia, Parkinson's diseases, addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and bipolar disorder...
July 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Stéphanie Baggio, Vladan Starcevic, Joseph Studer, Olivier Simon, Sally M Gainsbury, Gerhard Gmel, Joël Billieux
An important ongoing debate in the addiction field is whether certain technology-mediated behaviors constitute tenable and independent constructs. This study investigated whether problematic technology-mediated behaviors could be conceptualized as a spectrum of related, yet distinct disorders (spectrum hypothesis), using the network approach, which considers disorders as networks of symptoms. We used data from the Cohort Study on Substance Use and Risk Factors (C-SURF; Swiss National Science Foundation), with a representative sample of young Swiss men (subsample of participants engaged in technology-mediated behaviors, n = 3,404)...
July 19, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
M Gabrielle Pagé, Irina Kudrina, Hervé Tchala Vignon Zomahoun, Daniela Ziegler, Pierre Beaulieu, Céline Charbonneau, Jennifer Cogan, Raoul Daoust, Marc O Martel, Andrée Néron, Philippe Richebé, Hance Clarke
BACKGROUND: When patients have been on opioid therapy for more than 90 days, more than half of them continue using opioids years later. Knowing that long-term opioid consumption could lead to harmful side effects including misuse, abuse, and addiction, it is important to understand the risks of transitioning to prolonged opioid therapy to reduce its occurrence. Perioperative and trauma contexts are ideal models commonly used to study such transition. Long-term use of opioids might be associated with transformation of acute pain to chronic, which might be an example of a risk factor...
July 18, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Claudio Augusto Marroni, Alfeu Medeiros Fleck, Sabrina Alves Fernandes, Lucas Homercher Galant, Marcos Mucenic, Mario Henrique de Mattos Meine, Guilherme Mariante-Neto, Ajacio Bandeira de Mello Brandão
Alcohol consumption accounts for 3.8% of annual global mortality worldwide, and the majority of these deaths are due to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), mainly alcoholic cirrhosis. ALD is one of the most common indications for liver transplantation (LT). However, it remains a complicated topic on both medical and ethical grounds, as it is seen by many as a "self-inflicted disease". One of the strongest ethical arguments against LT for ALD is the probability of relapse. However, ALD remains a common indication for LT worldwide...
July 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Aline Wéry, Adriano Schimmenti, Laurent Karila, Joel Billieux
Dysfunctional use of cybersex has often been conceptualized as a 'behavioral addiction' sharing common traits with substance addiction. We describe the case of a treatment-seeking man, who displayed addictive use of pornography. The case is presented from two perspectives: (1) a symptom-based approach inspired by the addiction model of excessive sexual behaviors and (2) a process-based approach aimed to identify the psychological processes and risk factors that may foster the development of addiction-like symptoms...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
Korrina A Duffy, Katie A McLaughlin, Paige A Green
Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with poorer health in adulthood, an association explained, at least in part, by increased engagement in health-risk behaviors (HRBs). In this review, we make the case that ELA influences brain development in ways that increase the likelihood of engaging in HRBs. We argue that ELA alters neural circuitry underpinning cognitive control as well as emotional processing, including networks involved in processing threat and reward. These neural changes are associated psychologically and behaviorally with heightened emotional reactivity, blunted reward responsivity, poorer emotion regulation, and greater delay discounting...
July 16, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Qianyi Zhan, Sherry Emery, Philip Yu, Chongjun Wang, Yuan Liu
E-cigarettes(vape) are now the most commonly used tobacco product among youth in the United States. Ads are claiming e-cigarettes help smokers quit, but most of them contain nicotine, which can cause addiction and harm the developing adolescent brain. Therefore national, state and local health organizations have proposed anti-vaping campaigns to warn the potential risks of e-cigarettes. However, there is some evidence that these products may reduce harm for adult users who reduce or quit combustible cigarette smoking, and little evidence that e-cigarettes cause long-term harm, pro-vaping advocates have used this equivocal evidence base to oppose the anti-vaping media campaign messaging, generating a very high volume of oppositional messages on social media...
July 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Angela Jury, Jennifer Lai, Charito Tuason, Ashley Koning, Mark Smith, Lois Boyd, Caro Swanson, David Fergusson, Angela Gruar
The Health of the Nation Outcomes Scales (HoNOS) provides an overview of a person's behaviour, impairment, clinical symptoms, and social functioning. This study investigated the profile of people who had been secluded in New Zealand's adult mental health inpatient services using 12 individual HoNOS ratings. Routinely collected clinical data were extracted from the Programme for the Integration of Mental Health Data (PRIMHD). This is the national data set for mental health and addiction services. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data which adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, bed nights, compulsory treatment, and district health board...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Attila Szabo
Exercise addiction is widely studied in sport science and psychology, but at this time it is not recognized as an independently diagnosable mental or psychiatric disorder. Indeed, studies on exercise addiction assess a level of risk for disordered exercise behaviour, characterized by lack of control and negative personal consequences. It is argued that commitment and passion are two overlapping features of high exercise involvement which obscure the fine line between healthy and unhealthy exercise. The present case study examined a successful female body builder who initially claimed that she was addicted to exercise...
June 2018: Europe's journal of psychology
A Chinneck, K Thompson, I T Mahu, P Davis-MacNevin, K Dobson, S H Stewart
Emerging adults (18-25 year olds) endorse the highest rates of prescription drug misuse. Attending college or university may confer additional risk. Previous research suggests that personality is an important predictor of many addictive behaviours. Four traits have been consistently implicated: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity. Published studies on personality as a predictor of prescription drug abuse are limited, however, by a primary focus on overall prescription drug use, inconsistent operationalisation of misuse, and failure to control for alcohol use...
July 4, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen, Claire Gudex, Cecilie Juul Hinze, Uffe Jørgensen
Introduction: Exercise addiction is characterized by the use of physical activity to cope with emotions and mood, while sports injuries can lead to psychological distress such as depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between risk of exercise addiction and psychological distress, and whether this association was modified by injury status. Methods: A cross-sectional study with injured and non-injured recreational exercisers (n = 1083)...
December 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Nikki Bozinoff, Lerly Luo, Huiru Dong, Andrea Krüsi, Kora DeBeck
Syringe sharing places street-involved young people at risk of acquiring HIV and hepatitis C. While markers of economic marginalization, such as homelessness, have been linked with syringe sharing and have led to targeted interventions, the relationship between syringe sharing and other markers of economic vulnerability, such as sex work, are not well documented among young people. This study examines whether those engaged in sex work are at increased risk of syringe borrowing and syringe lending among street-involved youth who use injection drugs in Vancouver, Canada...
July 12, 2018: AIDS Care
Martin Kåberg, Georg Navér, Anders Hammarberg, Ola Weiland
The major transmission route for HCV is through sharing of unsterile injection equipment among people who inject drugs (PWID). The WHO strategy for HCV elimination by 2030 proposes increased efforts to treat PWID populations that drive the HCV epidemic. Among participants in the Stockholm needle exchange program (NEP), the HCV prevalence is 60%. We aimed to study HCV incidence, spontaneous HCV clearance rate, and predictors associated with new HCV infections and reinfections in NEP participants. All 2320 patients enrolled in the program between 8th of April 2013 and 23rd of September 2016 were tested for HCV at baseline, and responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic data and injection risk behaviour...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Seung-Yup Lee, Hae Kook Lee, Soo-Young Bang, Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim, Yong-Sil Kweon
Background: Relatively little is known about which neuropsychological factors promote recovery from Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Methods: With informed consents, a cohort study was conducted in Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, to investigate the course of IGD in youths. At baseline, we assessed psychosocial measures and gaming related measures such as Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Aggression Questionnaire. The Balloon Analog Risk Task was also performed to study risk-taking behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kirsten M A Trayner, Amanda Weir, Andrew McAuley, Gauri Godbole, Corinne Amar, Kathie Grant, Gillian Penrice, Kirsty Roy
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at an increased risk of wound botulism, a potentially fatal acute paralytic illness. During the first 6 months of 2015, a large outbreak of wound botulism was confirmed among PWID in Scotland, which resulted in the largest outbreak in Europe to date. METHODS: A multidisciplinary Incident Management Team (IMT) was convened to conduct an outbreak investigation, which consisted of enhanced surveillance of cases in order to characterise risk factors and identify potential sources of infection...
July 11, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Jueun Kim, Aesoon Park
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Youth drinking is a pervasive public health concern with serious negative developmental implications. Candidate gene and environment interaction studies (cGxE) show that environmental effects on drinking behaviors may differ by individuals' genotypes. Yet little is known about whether genetic and environmental effects on drinking behaviors are developmentally specific. METHODS: This systematic review evaluated 42 cGxE studies of drinking in adolescence and young adulthood...
July 10, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Michael R Riquino, Sarah E Priddy, Matthew O Howard, Eric L Garland
Background: Chronic pain is a prevalent condition that causes functional impairment and emotional suffering. To allay pain-induced suffering, opioids are often prescribed for chronic pain management. Yet, chronic pain patients on opioid therapy are at heightened risk for opioid misuse-behaviors that can lead to addiction and overdose. Relatedly, chronic pain patients are at elevated risk for suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors. Main body: Opioid misuse and suicidality are maladaptive processes aimed at alleviating the negative emotional hyperreactivity, hedonic hyporeactivity, and emotion dysregulation experienced by chronic pain patients on opioid therapy...
2018: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Brian A Anderson, Haena Kim
Attention is biased toward learned predictors of reward. The degree to which attention is automatically drawn to arbitrary reward cues has been linked to a variety of psychopathologies, including drug dependence, HIV-risk behaviors, depressive symptoms, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In the context of addiction specifically, attentional biases toward drug cues have been related to drug craving and treatment outcomes. Given the potential role of value-based attention in psychopathology, the ability to quantify the magnitude of such bias before and after a treatment intervention in order to assess treatment-related changes in attention allocation would be desirable...
July 9, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Daniel H Wiznia, Theodore Zaki, Michael P Leslie, Thomas M Halaszynski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses both obvious and hidden barriers in trauma patient access to pain management specialists and provides some suggestions focusing on outcome optimization in the perioperative period. RECENT FINDINGS: Orthopedic trauma surgeons strive to provide patients the best possible perioperative pain management, while balancing against potential risks of opioid abuse and addiction. Surgeons often find they are ill-prepared to effectively manage postoperative pain in patients returning several months following trauma surgery, many times still dependent on opioids for pain control...
July 10, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Concetta De Pasquale, Carmela Dinaro, Federica Sciacca
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate the prevalence of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) among Italian university students and (b) to explore the associations between the former and dissociative phenomena. The sample included 221 college students, 93 males and 128 females, aged between 18 and 25 ( M  = 21.56; SD = 1.42). They were asked to state their favourite games choice and were administered a demographic questionnaire, the APA symptom checklist based on the diagnostic criteria of IGD in the DSM-5, the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale Short Form (IGD9-SF) and the Italian version of dissociative experience scale for adolescents and young adults...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
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