keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Addiction risk

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944936/smoking-cessation-in-workplace-settings-quit-rates-and-determinants-in-a-group-behaviour-therapy-programme
#1
Yann Hausherr, Carlos Quinto, Leticia Grize, Christian Schindler, Nicole Probst-Hensch
INTRODUCTION: To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions...
September 25, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944157/problem-gambling-among-ethnic-minorities-results-from-an-epidemiological-study
#2
Kyle R Caler, Jose Ricardo Vargas Garcia, Lia Nower
A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341) to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394), Black (n = 261), or Asian/other (n = 177)...
2017: Asian journal of gambling issues and public health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942032/post-mortem-review-of-fentanyl-related-overdose-deaths-among-identified-drug-users-in-southern-bavaria-germany-2005-2014
#3
Inga Sinicina, Hans Sachs, Wolfgang Keil
BACKGROUND: Two decades ago, there were only single case reports on deaths in Europe following the consumption of illicitly manufactured fentanyl by problem drug users. Today, lethal fentanyl intoxication is now no longer a rarity. Since 2005, a rapid increase of lethal fentanyl-related intoxications in the drug scene has been observed at the Institute of Legal Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich. We hypothesized that this rise is the result of the launch of fentanyl matrix patches in Germany in 2004, their broad acceptance, their diversion from the regulated supply chain, and incautious prescription by medical care providers...
September 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939573/does-psychedelic-drug-use-reduce-risk-of-suicidality-evidence-from-a-longitudinal-community-based-cohort-of-marginalised-women-in-a-canadian-setting
#4
Elena Argento, Steffanie A Strathdee, Kenneth Tupper, Melissa Braschel, Evan Wood, Kate Shannon
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to longitudinally investigate whether ever having used a psychedelic drug can have a protective effect on incidence of suicidality among marginalised women. DESIGN: Longitudinal community-based cohort study. SETTING: Data were drawn from a prospective, community-based cohort of marginalised women in Metro Vancouver, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 766 women completed the baseline questionnaire between January 2010 and August 2014...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934555/cardiovascular-effects-of-methadone-and-concomitant-use-of-diazepam-during-methadone-maintenance-treatment-induction-low-concentration-risk
#5
Vesna Mijatović, Isidora Samojlik, Stojan Petković, Saša Vukmirović, Arsen Uvelin, Aleksandra Dickov
Background The aim is to evaluate the role of diazepam concentrations in development of low-concentration-methadone-associated QTc prolongation in patients with opioid use disorder during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) induction. Research design and methods Individuals with addiction disorder on MMT were studied before the beginning of MMT and after one and six months of MMT. Serum concentrations of methadone, diazepam, electrolytes and ECG were analyzed. Results Thirty patients were enrolled. The mean methadone concentration at time points was 177±119 ng/ml and 343±182 ng/ml, while the mean diazepam concentration was 561±437 ng/ml and 1045±933 ng/ml...
September 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933310/socialization-alleviates-burden-of-oxidative-stress-in-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-morphine-addiction-period-in-male-rats
#6
Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Morteza Karimian
INTRODUCTION: Addiction is a compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. Reduction of high-risk behaviors can reduce the burden of addiction in society and can improve the overall prognosis of drug addiction. The aim of this study is to show that reduction of oxidative stress with socialization will reduce occurrence of high-risk behavior during addiction period. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: socialized, isolated, addicted socialized and addicted isolated...
September 19, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930612/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-%C3%A2-a-predictor-of-vulnerability-to-opioid-dependence
#7
Kenneth Blum, Amanda L C Chen, Panayotis K Thanos, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Kristina Dushaj, Abraham Kovoor, David Baron, David E Smith, Alphonso Kenison Roy Iii, Lyle Fried, Thomas J H Chen, Edwin Chapman, Edward Modestino, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930051/addiction-and-the-role-of-circadian-genes
#8
Laura A Forde, Gursharan Kalsi
OBJECTIVE: In mammals, intimate interactions exist between the circadian system and other molecular systems, and mounting evidence is suggesting that these relationships may affect substance use disorders. Research in preclinical models supports the role of circadian genes as risk factors for addiction. Here, we explore the evidence and review human genetic studies testing the association between specific circadian genes and substance use disorders. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in PubMed for studies testing variants in eight circadian genes known to be central to the functioning of the master clock in the brain...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928305/awakening-to-the-alcohol-epidemic-need-of-the-hour
#9
Dharav Sunil Shah
Globally, alcohol has become the most common risk factor for death and disability in the young age group of 15-49 years. Its use has been rapidly increasing in developing countries. It is a critical time wherein if effective preventive measures are not undertaken urgently, damage done will be difficult to reverse. However, health professionals are not responding to the alcohol epidemic in the manner that they responded to the tobacco epidemic. The article discusses two beliefs which are making us accept the use of alcohol as normal...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927660/addictive-salt-may-not-be-solely-responsible-for-causing-hypertension-a-sweet-and-fatty-hypothesis
#10
V Mehta
In literature, since many decades, it is often believed and condoned that excessive common salt (Nacl) ingestion can lead to hypertension. Hence, every health organisation, agencies and physicians have been advising salt restriction to hypertensive patients. However, there is no concrete evidence suggesting that salt restriction can reduce the risk of hypertension (HTN). The present article is based on the current literature search which was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and PubMed. The meta-analysis, randomised control trials, clinical trials and review articles were chosen...
September 16, 2017: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922061/alanine-aminotransferase-and-total-bilirubin-are-synergistically-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-among-middle-aged-and-elderly-japanese-women
#11
Ryuichi Kawamoto, Daisuke Ninomiya, Kensuke Senzaki, Teru Kumagi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at high levels and total bilirubin (T-BiL) at low levels were oxidative potentials, but it was uncertain whether ALT and T-BiL had an additive interaction for the risk of MetS. METHODS: From a single community, we recruited 864 women (70 ± 8 years) during their annual health examination. We cross-sectionally investigated whether ALT and T-BiL are associated with MetS and its components based on the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III report...
September 18, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921935/assessing-causal-relationships-using-genetic-proxies-for-exposures-an-introduction-to-mendelian-randomisation
#12
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Michael Green, Amy E Taylor, George Davey Smith, Marcus R Munafò
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studying the consequences of addictive behaviours is challenging, with understanding causal relationships from observational data being particularly difficult. For example, people who smoke or drink excessively are often systematically different from those who do not, are less likely to participate in research, and may misreport their behaviours when they do. Furthermore, the direction of causation between an addictive behaviour and outcome may be unclear. Mendelian randomisation (MR) offers potential solutions to these problems...
September 18, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921760/genome-wide-association-study-of-a-nicotine-metabolism-biomarker-in-african-american-smokers-impact-of-chromosome-19-genetic-influences
#13
Meghan J Chenoweth, Jennifer J Ware, Andy Z X Zhu, Christopher B Cole, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Nikki Nollen, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Neal L Benowitz, Robert A Schnoll, Larry W Hawk, Paul M Cinciripini, Tony P George, Caryn Lerman, Joanne Knight, Rachel F Tyndale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The activity of CYP2A6, the major nicotine-inactivating enzyme, is measurable in smokers using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine). Due to its role in nicotine clearance, the NMR is associated with smoking behaviours and response to pharmacotherapies. The NMR is highly heritable (~80%), and on average lower in African Americans (AA) versus Whites. We previously identified several reduce and loss-of-function CYP2A6 variants common in individuals of African descent...
September 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921667/polysubstance-use-among-adolescents-in-a-low-income-rural-community-latent-classes-for-middle-and-high-school-students
#14
Roderick A Rose, Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski, Matthew O Howard, Katie L Stalker
PURPOSE: Rural communities are currently being impacted by a nationwide epidemic of prescription opioid misuse. Rural adolescent substance users may be at substantial risk for later addiction to these and other drugs. METHODS: This study uses Latent Class Analysis to identify subtypes of polysubstance users among a sample of 7,074 rural adolescents. Separate models were estimated for middle- and high-school youth. Predictive validity was estimated using cumulative ordinal logistic regression of the classes on a set of youth and family characteristics...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920590/incubation-of-accumbal-neuronal-reactivity-to-cocaine-cues-during-abstinence-predicts-individual-vulnerability-to-relapse
#15
Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
An important goal for the treatment of cocaine addiction is to identify neuromarkers that can predict individual vulnerability to relapse after abstinence. There is some evidence that individual reactivity to cue-induced craving may predict subsequent relapse after a period of abstinence. Here we sought to identify the neuronal correlates of this predictive relationship in rats. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (6-h) for 16 days to induce escalation of cocaine intake. Then rats underwent a 1-month period of forced abstinence after which they were re-exposed to cocaine self-administration (6-h) for 8 additional days to induce re-escalation of cocaine intake...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919771/the-challenge-of-perioperative-pain-management-in-opioid-tolerant-patients
#16
REVIEW
Flaminia Coluzzi, Francesca Bifulco, Arturo Cuomo, Mario Dauri, Claudio Leonardi, Rita Maria Melotti, Silvia Natoli, Patrizia Romualdi, Gennaro Savoia, Antonio Corcione
The increasing number of opioid users among chronic pain patients, and opioid abusers among the general population, makes perioperative pain management challenging for health care professionals. Anesthesiologists, surgeons, and nurses should be familiar with some pharmacological phenomena which are typical of opioid users and abusers, such as tolerance, physical dependence, hyperalgesia, and addiction. Inadequate pain management is very common in these patients, due to common prejudices and fears. The target of preoperative evaluation is to identify comorbidities and risk factors and recognize signs and symptoms of opioid abuse and opioid withdrawal...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918416/-the-methodology-and-sample-description-of-the-national-survey-on-addiction-problems-in-hungary-2015-nsaph-2015
#17
Borbala Paksi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Magi, Katalin Felvinczi
This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS)...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915841/is-there-room-for-resilience-a-scoping-review-and-critique-of-substance-use-literature-and-its-utilization-of-the-concept-of-resilience
#18
REVIEW
Katherine Rudzinski, Peggy McDonough, Rosemary Gartner, Carol Strike
Research in the area of illicit substance use remains preoccupied with describing and analyzing the risks of people who use drugs (PWUD), however more recently there has been a drive to use a strengths-based or resilience approach as an alternative to investigating drug use. This leads us to ask: what can be known about PWUD from the point of view of resilience? The objective of this scoping review is to analyze how the concept of resilience is defined, operationalized, and applied in substance use research...
September 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912753/food-addiction-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-in-northeast-china
#19
Fan Yang, Aihua Liu, Yongze Li, Yaxin Lai, Guixia Wang, Chenglin Sun, Guang Sun, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng
AIM: The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of food addiction (FA) in individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in China and to analyze risk factors of FA. METHODS: A total of 624 subjects [312 individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM, 312 age-matched and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy participants] were recruited. All participants were asked to complete the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) and received physical and lab examinations...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904544/changing-beliefs-and-behaviors-related-to-sexually-transmitted-diseases-in-vulnerable-women-a-qualitative-study
#20
Zahra Boroumandfar, Masoud Kianpour, Ali Zargham, Samereh Abdoli, Katayoun Tayeri, Mehrdad Salehi, Godratollah Momeni, Farzin Khorvash
BACKGROUND: The first step in health education is awareness of the people and their acceptance to change their behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of empowerment program towards the concept of self-care and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women at risk of STDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted as a qualitative approach (step of action and observation of an action) by using conventional content analysis method...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
keyword
keyword
452
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"