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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641217/the-aggressor-at-the-mirror-psychiatric-correlates-of-deliberate-self-harm-in-male-prison-inmates
#1
N Verdolini, A Murru, L Attademo, R Garinella, I Pacchiarotti, C Del Mar Bonnin, L Samalin, L Pauselli, M Piselli, A Tamantini, R Quartesan, A F Carvalho, E Vieta, A Tortorella
BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) causes important concern in prison inmates as it worsens morbidity and increases the risk for suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of DSH in a large sample of male prisoners. METHODS: A cross-sectional study evaluated male prisoners aged 18+ years. Current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Disorders and with the Addiction Severity Index-Expanded Version...
April 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627332/dissociation-between-wanting-and-liking-for-alcohol-and-caffeine-a-test-of-the-incentive-sensitisation-theory
#2
Lilani J Arulkadacham, Ben Richardson, Petra K Staiger, Nicolas Kambouropoulos, Renée L O'Donnell, Mathew Ling
Limited human studies have directly tested the dissociation between wanting and liking with human substance users, a core tenet of the Incentive Sensitisation Theory (IST). The aim of this study is to test the dissociation between wanting and liking in humans across two commonly used licit substances, alcohol and caffeine. The STRAP-R (Sensitivity To Reinforcement of Addictive and other Primary Rewards) questionnaire was administered to 285 alcohol users (mean age=33.30, SD= 8.83) and 134 coffee users (mean age=33...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624697/waterpipe-smoking-patterns-and-symptoms-of-nicotine-dependence-the-waterpipe-dependence-in-lebanese-youth-study
#3
Raed Bahelah, Joseph R DiFranza, Kenneth D Ward, Thomas Eissenberg, Fouad M Fouad, Ziyad Ben Taleb, Rana Jaber, Wasim Maziak
INTRODUCTION: Waterpipe typically is smoked intermittently over long smoking sessions. Waterpipe is addictive and its users show symptoms of nicotine dependence (ND). This study examined the risk of developing ND symptoms across waterpipe use patterns among Lebanese youth. METHODS: Waterpipe use patterns (length of smoking session, smoking a whole waterpipe without sharing, past-30day use frequency, number of waterpipes smoked) were assessed. Symptoms of ND were assessed using the 10-item Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC; endorsement of ≥1 symptom) and the 6 criteria of the International Classification of Diseases-10th revision (ICD-10 ND; presence of ≥3 criteria during 12months)...
June 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624106/alcohol-use-and-smoking-after-liver-transplantation-complications-and-prevention
#4
REVIEW
José Ursic-Bedoya, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, Stéphanie Faure, Georges-Philippe Pageaux
The last thirty years have been very prosperous in the field of liver transplantation (LT), with great advances in organ conservation, surgical techniques, peri-operative management and long-term immunosuppression, resulting in improved patient and graft survival rates as well as quality of life. However, substance addiction after LT, namely alcohol and tobacco, results in short term morbidity together with medium and long-term mortality. The main consequences can be vascular (increased risk of hepatic artery thrombosis in smokers), hepatic (recurrent alcoholic cirrhosis in alcohol relapsers) and oncological (increased risk of malignancy in patients consuming tobacco and/or alcohol after LT)...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623937/the-association-of-lipid-metabolism-relative-gene-polymorphisms-and-ischemic-stroke-in-han-and-uighur-population-of-xinjiang
#5
Yun-Hua Yue, Ling-Yun Liu, Liang Hu, You-Mei Li, Jie-Ping Mao, Xiao-Ying Yang, Na-Mu Dila
BACKGROUND: The present study is aimed to evaluate difference of lipid metabolism related gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with ischemic stroke (IS) in Han and Uighur population of Xinjiang, China. METHODS: Four hundred eight patients with ischemic stroke and 347 unrelated healthy individuals of age and sex matched were genotyped for Apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) genes...
June 17, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622030/age-of-initiation-and-internet-gaming-disorder-the-role-of-self-esteem
#6
Charlotte L Beard, Amie L Haas, Robert E Wickham, Vasileios Stavropoulos
The link between early initiation and problematic use has been observed for substance use disorders; however, this link has not been as clearly established for Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Available studies indicate that individuals who initiate Internet use at younger ages exhibit an increased risk for general Internet addiction. Prior research also suggests unique cognitive processes in online gaming, such that an individual's overall sense of self-worth can become contingent upon self-esteem derived from the gaming environment...
June 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619473/cocaine-adulteration
#7
REVIEW
Oliver Kudlacek, Tina Hofmaier, Anton Luf, Felix P Mayer, Thomas Stockner, Constanze Nagy, Marion Holy, Michael Freissmuth, Rainer Schmid, Harald H Sitte
Cocaine is a naturally occurring and illicitly used psychostimulant drug, which exerts its activity at monoaminergic neurotransmitter transporters. These transporters mediate the reuptake of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine and are blocked by cocaine. The increase of monoamines in the extracellular space is the phenomenon underlying the drug effects that cocaine users seek. Currently, it is one of the most important illicit drugs on the European market. However, this increase in monoamines is also the underlying cause for the development of addiction and a number of severe side effects...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617949/anxiety-and-depression-among-school-students-in-jordan-prevalence-risk-factors-and-predictors
#8
Malakeh Z Malak, Anas H Khalifeh
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression, examine their relationships with sociodemographic factors and Internet addiction, and identify their main predictors among Jordanian school students aged 12-18 years. DESIGN AND METHODS: A descriptive correlational study was conducted on a random sample of 800 students from 10 public schools in Amman. Symptom Checklist-anxiety, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children, and Young's Internet Addiction Tool were used for the purpose...
June 15, 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617565/psychotropic-medications-in-swedish-homicide-victims-and-offenders-a-forensic-toxicological-case-control-study-of-adherence-and-recreational-use
#9
Jonatan Hedlund, Jonas Forsman, Joakim Sturup, Thomas Masterman
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the extent to which adherence to, and recreational use of, psychotropic medications influence the risk of homicide offending and victimization. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study by way of linking a nationwide registry of dispensed prescriptions with a forensic-toxicological database. Homicide victims (n = 200) and offenders (n = 105) were identified for the years 2007-2009 and vehicle-accident controls (n = 1,643) for the years 2006-2013...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615766/psychosocial-factors-associated-with-relapse-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence
#10
Kailash Sureshkumar, Shabeeba Kailash, Pronob Kumar Dalal, Murali Mohan Reddy, P K Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Despite the recent developments in the biology of addiction, a significant part of relapse and its management is still influenced by psychosocial factors and the interplay between them. This study aims at finding the extent of association of various psychosocial factors with relapse in patients of alcohol dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study of two groups of alcohol dependence patients: abstinence (n = 31) and relapse (n = 35)...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613124/low-risk-of-seizures-with-slow-flumazenil-infusion-and-routine-anticonvulsant-prophylaxis-for-high-dose-benzodiazepine-dependence
#11
Stefano Tamburin, Marco Faccini, Rebecca Casari, Angela Federico, Laura Morbioli, Enrica Franchini, Luigi Giuseppe Bongiovanni, Fabio Lugoboni
High-dose benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence represents an emerging and under-reported addiction phenomenon and is associated with reduced quality of life. To date there are no guidelines for the treatment of high-dose BZD withdrawal. Low-dose slow flumazenil infusion was reported to be effective for high-dose BZD detoxification, but there is concern about the risk of convulsions during this treatment. We evaluated the occurrence of seizures in 450 consecutive high-dose BZD dependence patients admitted to our unit from April 2012 to April 2016 for detoxification with low-dose slow subcutaneous infusion of flumazenil associated with routine anticonvulsant prophylaxis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611698/improving-assessment-of-the-spectrum-of-reward-related-eating-the-red-13
#12
Ashley E Mason, Uku Vainik, Michael Acree, A Janet Tomiyama, Alain Dagher, Elissa S Epel, Frederick M Hecht
A diversity of scales capture facets of reward-related eating (RRE). These scales assess food cravings, uncontrolled eating, addictive behavior, restrained eating, binge eating, and other eating behaviors. However, these scales differ in terms of the severity of RRE they capture. We sought to incorporate the items from existing scales to broaden the 9-item Reward-based Eating Drive scale (RED-9; Epel et al., 2014), which assesses three dimensions of RRE (lack of satiety, preoccupation with food, and lack of control over eating), in order to more comprehensively assess the entire spectrum of RRE...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611509/hepatitis-c-in-injection-drug-users-it-is-time-to-treat
#13
EDITORIAL
Alberto Grassi, Giorgio Ballardini
Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, due to needle and syringe sharing. Chronic HCV infection is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality but can be cured with antiviral treatment leading to sustained viral response (SVR). It is well demonstrated that, when close cooperation between specialists in drug addiction and psychiatrists is assured, patients on maintenance treatment with methadone/buprenorphine can be treated for HCV with response rate, tolerability and side effects similar to those reported in non-IDUs...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603684/addictive-behavior-interventions-among-college-students
#14
Emily R Jeffries, Austin W Lemke, Sonia M Shah, Kimberlye E Dean, Ashley A Richter, Julia D Buckner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Addictive behaviors among college students are a significant public health concern. This manuscript reviews the past two years of literature on prevention and treatment approaches for college students who engage in addictive behaviors. RECENT FINDINGS: In-person skills-based interventions and motivational interventions that incorporate personalized feedback are effective in the short-term but little support was found for long-term effects. Although web-based interventions reduced certain addictive behaviors (e...
December 2016: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601731/methamphetamine-alcohol-interactions-in-murine-models-of-sequential-and-simultaneous-oral-drug-taking
#15
Elissa K Fultz, Douglas L Martin, Courtney N Hudson, Tod E Kippin, Karen K Szumlinski
BACKGROUND: A high degree of co-morbidity exists between methamphetamine (MA) addiction and alcohol use disorders and both sequential and simultaneous MA-alcohol mixing increases risk for co-abuse. As little preclinical work has focused on the biobehavioral interactions between MA and alcohol within the context of drug-taking behavior, we employed simple murine models of voluntary oral drug consumption to examine how prior histories of either MA- or alcohol-taking influence the intake of the other drug...
May 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600883/association-between-elementary-school-personality-and-high-school-smoking-and-drinking
#16
Sarah J Peterson, Gregory T Smith
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Among U.S. high school students, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with numerous concurrent and future harms. We tested whether multiple elementary school personality dispositions to behave impulsively can predict these addictive behaviors invariably across gender and race. DESIGN AND SETTING: This longitudinal design involved testing whether individual differences on impulsigenic traits in elementary school predicted drinking and smoking four years later in high school in 23 public schools in Kentucky, USA...
June 10, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599850/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-during-adolescence-interactive-mechanisms-in-animal-models
#17
REVIEW
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Alex C Manhães, Thomas E Krahe, Claudio C Filgueiras, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho
There is a strong association between tobacco smoking and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. When compared to the effects of either drug on its own, the combined use may lead to worsened outcomes, such as less successful quitting attempts and increased likelihood of developing mood disorders. Co-consumption most frequently begins during adolescence, a developmental period that is characterized by an increased risk for substance use disorders. However, to date, most studies that have contributed to the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie tobacco or alcohol use/abuse, and their consequences, adopted adult animal models...
June 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599210/long-term-recall-of-social-relationships-related-to-addiction-and-hiv-risk-behaviors
#18
R L Stout, T Janssen, J M Braciszewski, A Vose-O'Neal
BACKGROUND: Social relationships have been demonstrated as a key predictor of relapse among addicted persons and are likely to be important determinants of HIV risk behaviors also. However, the degree to which this population can reliably and consistently identify important people (IPs) in retrospect has been understudied. METHODS: Using the modified Important People and Activities questionnaire, we investigated to what degree IPs were dropped, added, or retained, and whether data about individual IPs were reported accurately on 6- and 12-month follow up periods using a sample of 50 drug or alcohol abusing participants...
May 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595830/-negative-perceptions-of-the-risks-associated-with-gaming-in-young-adolescents-an-exploratory-study-to-help-thinking-about-a-prevention-program
#19
C Bonnaire, O Phan
Given the growing use of video games and the growing number of adolescents with Internet gaming disorder (IGD), prevention in this area is necessary. The objective of this study was to investigate the use and most particularly the representations of the risks associated with the use of video games in young adolescents by comparing problematic (PGs) and nonproblematic gamers (NPGs). Gender differences were also explored. Five Parisian middle schools participated in this study and 434 adolescents (231 boys, mage=13...
June 5, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594439/genetic-and-psychosocial-predictors-of-alcohol-use-trajectories-among-disaster-exposed-adolescents
#20
Kaitlin Bountress, Carla Kmett Danielson, Vernell Williamson, Vladimir Vladmirov, Joel Gelernter, Kenneth Ruggiero, Ananda Amstadter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescent alcohol misuse is associated with numerous long-term adverse outcomes, so we examined predictors of alcohol use among disaster-exposed adolescents, a group at-risk for alcohol misuse. METHODS: The current study (n = 332) examined severity of tornado-related exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, emotional support, and a genetic risk sum score (GRSS) as predictors of alcohol use trajectories. RESULTS: Severity of exposure interacted with the GRSS to predict both intercept (12-month follow up quantity of alcohol use) and growth rate...
June 8, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
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