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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734893/genetic-polymorphisms-in-cyp2a6-are-associated-with-a-risk-of-cigarette-smoking-and-predispose-to-smoking-at-younger-ages
#1
Gloria Pérez-Rubio, Luis Alberto López-Flores, Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas, Valeri Noé-Díaz, Leonor García-Gómez, Enrique Ambrocio-Ortiz, Candelaria Sánchez-Romero, Rafael De Jesús Hernández-Zenteno, Raúl Humberto Sansores, Ramcés Falfán-Valencia
Nicotine is the main component of cigarettes that causes addiction, which is considered a complex disease, and genetic factors have been proposed to be involved in the development of addiction. The CYP2A6 gene encodes the main enzyme responsible for nicotine metabolism. Depending on the study population, different genetic variants of CYP2A6 associated with cigarette smoking have been described. Therefore, we evaluated the possible association between SNPs in CYP2A6 with cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction-related variables in Mexican mestizo smokers...
July 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733813/individual-and-combined-effects-of-cannabis-and-tobacco-on-drug-reward-processing-in-non-dependent-users
#2
Chandni Hindocha, Will Lawn, Tom P Freeman, H Valerie Curran
RATIONALE: Cannabis and tobacco are often smoked simultaneously in joints, and this practice may increase the risks of developing tobacco and/or cannabis use disorders. Currently, there is no human experimental research on how these drugs interact on addiction-related measures. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate how cannabis and tobacco, each alone and combined together in joints, affected individuals' demand for cannabis puffs and cigarettes, explicit liking of drug and non-drug-related stimuli and craving...
July 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729846/what-s-new-in-addiction-prevention-in-young-people-a-literature-review-of-the-last-years-of-research
#3
REVIEW
Cédric Kempf, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Frank Pizon, Georges Brousse, Valentin Flaudias
Rationale: Addiction prevention is a major public health problem, particularly concerning young people. Despite the consensus that primary prevention is essential, the evaluation of its impact is questioned. Objective: The objective of this paper is to assess the latest knowledge of addiction prevention programs for young people. Method: Review a collection of research articles using a keyword-based search on three databases: Pubmed, Eric, and PsycInfo. The research was carried out using three groups of keywords and the eligibility study was completed using two criteria: articles published between 2010 and 2017, and articles in refereed journals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725283/q-is-addiction-a-brain-disease-or-a-moral-failing-a-neither
#4
Nick Heather
This article uses Marc Lewis' work as a springboard to discuss the socio-political context of the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA). The claim that promotion of the BDMA is the only way the general public can be persuaded to withhold blame and punishment from addicts is critically examined. After a discussion of public understandings of the disease concept of addiction, it is pointed out that it is possible to develop a scientific account of addiction which is neither a disease nor a moral model but which the public could understand...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724038/sexual-addiction-in-drug-addicts-the-impact-of-drug-of-choice-and-poly-addiction
#5
Nelson Antonio, Alessandra Diehl, Marcelo Niel, Sandra Pillon, Lilian Ratto, Maria Carolina Pinheiro, Dartiu Silveira, Thais Zelia Otani, Victor Otani, Quirino Cordeiro, Ricardo Ushida
Objective: To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. Method: All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719091/multimodal-analgesia-as-an-alternative-to-the-risks-of-opioid-monotherapy-in-surgical-pain-management
#6
John J Savarese, Norman G Tabler
Clinicians have long been aware of the danger of overreliance on opioids to manage acute pain, such as the pain accompanying surgery. The risk of adverse drug events is higher with opioids than with any other common class of drugs. Overreliance on opioids increases length of stay and hospital costs, while decreasing patient satisfaction. Opioids can lead to problems that continue well after discharge, including chronic pain, abuse and addiction, and even death. Increasingly, prescribed opioids have proved to lead to heroin addiction...
July 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718830/exploring-relationships-between-recurrent-binge-eating-and-illicit-substance-use-in-a-non-clinical-sample-of-women-over-two-years
#7
Henry Kewen Lu, Haider Mannan, Phillipa Hay
(1) Background: With the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), numerous parallels have been drawn between recurrent binge eating (RBE) and substance use disorders, with many authors examining RBE or binge eating disorder (BED) as a "food addiction". The present study aims to clarify the relationship between recurrent binge eating (RBE) and illicit substance use (ISU) through investigating the temporal association between the two problems. (2) Methods: This study was embedded within a larger longitudinal study of non-clinical adult women recruited from Australian tertiary institutions...
July 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715440/transcriptional-profiling-of-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens-after-modest-or-high-alcohol-exposure
#8
Julia Morud, Arghavan Ashouri, Erik Larsson, Mia Ericson, Bo Söderpalm
Alcohol use disorder is a chronic relapsing brain disorder and a global health issue. Prolonged high alcohol consumption increases the risk for dependence development, a complex state that includes progressive alterations in brain function. The molecular mechanisms behind these changes remain to be fully disclosed, but several genes show altered expression in various regions of the rat brain even after modest alcohol exposure. The present study utilizes whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate expression changes in the brain nucleus accumbens (NAc), an area of particular interest in addictive disorders, of alcohol consuming rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713877/the-impact-of-limited-housing-opportunities-on-formerly-incarcerated-people-in-the-context-of-addiction-recovery
#9
Dina Chavira, Leonard Jason
BACKGROUND: Formerly incarcerated individuals with substance use disorders encounter numerous obstacles following incarceration that threaten their sobriety. Obtaining safe and stable housing is a notoriously difficult task resulting in precarious housing that can increase the likelihood of relapse. The current study examined the relationship between substance use and 11 housing settings in a sample of 211 formerly incarcerated individuals with a history of substance abuse to identify the housing characteristics with the highest risk of use...
2017: J Addict Behav Ther
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708935/testing-the-nicotine-dependence-measure-mftq-for-adolescent-smokers-a-multinational-investigation
#10
Alexander V Prokhorov, Georges E Khalil, Dawn W Foster, Salma K Marani, Michele Guindani, Jose P Espada, Maria T Gonzálvez, Bulat Idrisov, Artur Galimov, Monika Arora, Abha Tewari, Richard Isralowitz, Punyarat Lapvongwatana, Natkamol Chansatitporn, Xinguang Chen, Hong Zheng, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As a measure of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers, the modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ; seven items), has been successfully used in the United States (USA). Nonetheless, the validity and reliability of mFTQ at the international level is still needed. The current study is the first to test the validity and reliability of mFTQ in four countries: Thailand, Spain, the USA, and Russia. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, mFTQ, risk factors of nicotine dependence, and sociodemographic characteristics were assessed...
July 14, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708124/considerations-and-future-research-directions-for-e-cigarette-warnings-findings-from-expert-interviews
#11
Olivia A Wackowski, David Hammond, Richard J O'Connor, Andrew A Strasser, Cristine D Delnevo
Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug Administration's new nicotine addiction warning for e-cigarettes could be informative but that it might not resonate with young people...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707583/cannabis-an-overview-of-its-adverse-acute-and-chronic-effects-and-their-implications
#12
Talitha C Ford, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey, Andrew C Parrott
In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. However, acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. These in turn have adverse implications for public safety and health expenditure...
July 12, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704116/popular-views-on-addictions-and-on-prospects-for-recovery-in-poland
#13
Justyna I Klingemann, Harald Klingemann, Jacek Moskalewicz
BACKGROUND: Popular views of addictive substances and behaviors constitute an important research topic because these views have an impact upon the functioning of treatment systems and societal responses to substance use disorders. METHODS: The analysis is based on a random sample of N = 1000 telephone interviews collected in Poland in 2013. Questionnaire measures targeted such issues as the perceived risks of addictions and beliefs about potential recovery from various types of addictions...
July 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702262/hemispheric-asymmetry-of-development-due-to-drug-exposure
#14
Harold W Gordon
BACKGROUND: A previous survey of the literature of fMRI brain activation for two risk factors, impulsivity and craving, for addiction were lateralized to the right and left hemispheres respectively. Most articles reported these findings without consideration of how lateral asymmetries might be relevant to understanding the underlying factors leading to addiction. OBJECTIVE: The current survey is intended to extend these observations by demonstrating hemispheric asymmetry of development due to pre-natal or adolescent/adult exposure to drugs of abuse...
2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700935/deletion-of-type-2-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-decreases-sensitivity-to-cocaine-reward-in-rats
#15
Hong-Ju Yang, Hai-Ying Zhang, Guo-Hua Bi, Yi He, Jun-Tao Gao, Zheng-Xiong Xi
Cocaine users show reduced expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2), but it is not clear whether this is a predisposing trait for addiction or a consequence of drug exposure. In this study, we found that a nonsense mutation at the mGluR2 gene decreased mGluR2 expression and altered the seeking and taking of cocaine. mGluR2 mutant rats show reduced sensitivity to cocaine reward, requiring more cocaine to reach satiation when it was freely available and ceasing their drug-seeking behavior sooner than controls when the response requirement was increased...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700118/factors-associated-with-attrition-rate-in-a-supportive-care-service-for-substance-using-pregnant-women-in-brazil
#16
Rosa Marina Avilla, Juliana Surjan, Maria de Fátima Ratto Padin, Martha Canfield, Ronaldo Ramos Laranjeira, SandroSendin Mitsuhiro
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Retaining substance using women in antenatal care remains a major challenge. This study explored factors associated with attrition rate among women with substance use problems attending a supportive care service during pregnancy and soon after the birth of the infant. METHODS: Records of 166 women's antenatal consultations were analyzed. RESULTS: Attrition rate was high (75/166, 45.2%), and was associated with women having no schooling/primary schooling only, no family contact, having child(ren), crack-cocaine use, poly drug use, and substance use problems by the expected child's father...
July 12, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697914/introduction-the-specter-of-opiate-addiction-in-reproductive-medicine
#17
William D Schlaff
The alarming trend in opiate misuse in developed countries is prompting an increasingly strident public call for action. Although many in our field have assumed that this building crisis does not really affect us or our patients, data show that the emerging demographic at highest risk for misusing opiates clearly includes patients who seek care in our practices. The goals of this Views and Reviews are to provide a clear understanding of emerging trends in opiate misuse, to review the impact of opiates on the reproductive axis, and to suggest practical recommendations aimed at both mitigating iatrogenic influences on promoting misuse and developing treatment frameworks when misuse is suspected or identified...
July 8, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692954/process-variables-predicting-changes-in-adolescent-alcohol-consumption-and-mental-health-symptoms-following-personality-targeted-interventions
#18
Maeve O'Leary-Barrett, Robert O Pihl, Patricia J Conrod
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify key process variables that are associated with changes in alcohol consumption and mental health symptoms over 12months following personality-targeted interventions in youth. METHOD: 154 high-risk youth (aged 12-13years) in 7 Montreal high schools were identified using the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale and participated in personality-matched interventions. Preliminary process variables were identified using a combination of psychotherapy process variables and youth-generated (qualitative) feedback immediately post-intervention...
July 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689498/the-slow-death-of-the-concept-of-schizophrenia-and-the-painful-birth-of-the-psychosis-spectrum
#19
S Guloksuz, J van Os
The concept of schizophrenia only covers the 30% poor outcome fraction of a much broader multidimensional psychotic syndrome, yet paradoxically has become the dominant prism through which everything 'psychotic' is observed, even affective states with mild psychosis labelled 'ultra-high risk' (for schizophrenia). The inability of psychiatry to frame psychosis as multidimensional syndromal variation of largely unpredictable course and outcome - within and between individuals - hampers research and recovery-oriented practice...
July 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678934/-clinical-and-social-vulnerabilities-in-crack-users-according-to-housing-status-a-multicenter-study-in-six-brazilian-state-capitals
#20
Silvia Chwartzmann Halpern, Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Vinicius Roglio, Sibele Faller, Anne Sordi, Felipe Ornell, Carla Dalbosco, Flavio Pechansky, Félix Kessler, Lísia von Diemen
The study had the goal to evaluate psychoactive substance use severity, violence, physical and emotional health of crack users who seeks specialized treatment in Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPSad) concerning housing status. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study in six Brazilian capitals with 564 crack users categorized into two groups (1) users who have been homeless sometime in life (n = 266) and (2) individuals who have never lived on streets (n = 298). To assess the substance use severity and the characteristics of the individuals, the Addiction Severity Index, 6th version (ASI-6) was used...
July 3, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
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