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Ultra-high risk for psychosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584866/levels-of-serum-brain-derived-neurotropic-factor-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-findings-from-the-longitudinal-youth-at-risk-study-lyriks
#1
Jie Yin Yee, Tih-Shih Lee, Jimmy Lee
Background: Identifying biomarkers to enrich prognostication and risk predictions in individuals at high risk of developing psychosis will enable stratified early intervention efforts. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been widely studied in schizophrenia and in first-episode psychosis with promising results. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum BDNF between healthy controls and individuals with ultra-high risk of psychosis (UHR). Methods: A sample of 106 healthy controls and 105 UHR individuals from the Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study was included in this study...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567371/a-pilot-study-on-immuno-psychiatry-in-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-role-for-th17-cells-in-psychosis
#2
Elfi Vergaelen, Carmen Schiweck, Kristof Van Steeland, Jacqueline Counotte, Wim Veling, Ann Swillen, Hemmo Drexhage, Stephan Claes
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence supports a role for immune alterations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). A high prevalence (25% - 40%) of SSD has been found in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), which is known for T-cell deficits due to thymus hypoplasia. This study is the first to explore the association between the T-cell subsets and psychotic symptoms in adults with 22q11.2DS. METHODS: 34 individuals (aged 19-38 yrs.) with 22q11...
March 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512314/exploring-functional-impairment-in-young-people-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-qualitative-study
#3
Jack Cotter, Sandra Bucci, Richard J Drake, Alison R Yung, Rebekah Carney, Dawn Edge
AIM: Many young people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis exhibit marked and persistent impairments in social and occupational functioning. We aimed to explore UHR patients' subjective experiences of these difficulties and their causes. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 UHR individuals recruited from Early Detection and Intervention Teams in Northwest England. Topics covered included how participants spent their time, their interpersonal relationships, academic and occupational performance, premorbid functioning and clinical treatment...
March 7, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506584/core-beliefs-in-healthy-youth-and-youth-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-dimensionality-and-links-to-depression-anxiety-and-attenuated-psychotic-symptoms
#4
Henry R Cowan, Dan P McAdams, Vijay A Mittal
Cognitive theory posits that core beliefs play an active role in developing and maintaining symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychosis. This study sought to comprehensively examine core beliefs, their dimensionality, and their relationships to depression, anxiety, and attenuated psychotic symptoms in two groups of community youth: a group at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR; n = 73, M age = 18.7) and a matched healthy comparison group (HC; n = 73, M age = 18.1). UHR youth reported significantly more negative beliefs about self and others, and significantly less positive beliefs about self and others...
March 6, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475237/school-counselors-recognition-of-the-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#5
Ju-Yeon Lee, Young-Chul Chung, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon, Sung-Wan Kim
The ability to identify students at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis in school settings is crucial for enabling appropriate referral to a clinician and positive therapeutic results. The aim of this study was to examine school counselors' recognition of the diagnosis and appropriate treatment recommendations for students at UHR for psychosis. In total, 132 school counselors completed surveys, including questions relating to a vignette about a student at UHR for psychosis. In total, 12.4% of the sample provided the correct diagnosis, much lower than that for other schizophrenia spectrum disorders and non-psychotic disorders, including depressive disorder...
February 22, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475231/validation-of-the-korean-version-of-the-16-item-prodromal-questionnaire-in-a-non-help-seeking-college-population
#6
Sung-Wan Kim, Young-Chul Chung, Young-Shin Kang, Jae-Kyeong Kim, Ji-Eun Jang, Min Jhon, Ju-Yeon Lee, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon
OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (KPQ-16) in non-help-seeking university students. METHODS: Among 2,246 university students participated in the initial screening, 257 subjects with KPQ-16 scores ≥4 were interviewed. The criteria for ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) were the gold standard for diagnosis. An exploratory modified version of the questionnaire (mKPQ-16), to which three items from the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory were added, was also used to compensate for items on thought and cognitive problems...
February 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463457/clinical-trajectories-in-the-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-population
#7
Andrea Polari, Suzie Lavoie, Hok-Pan Yuen, Paul Amminger, Gregor Berger, Eric Chen, Lieuwe deHaan, Jessica Hartmann, Connie Markulev, Fritha Melville, Dorien Nieman, Merete Nordentoft, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Stefan Smesny, John Stratford, Swapna Verma, Alison Yung, Patrick McGorry, Barnaby Nelson
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, research in the ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis population has focused on the treatment of existing symptomatology and prevention of transition to psychosis. Recently, there has been an increase in focus on outcomes in individuals who do not transition to psychosis. However, there is a lack of standardised definitions of remission, recovery, recurrence and relapse in UHR, resulting in the inability to generalise and replicate outcomes. METHOD: The aims of the current study were to develop definitions for remission, recovery, recurrence and relapse, and apply them to a UHR cohort allowing the identification of longitudinal clinical trajectories...
February 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440719/prefrontal-gaba-levels-hippocampal-resting-perfusion-and-the-risk-of-psychosis
#8
Gemma Modinos, Fatma Şimşek, Matilda Azis, Matthijs Bossong, Ilaria Bonoldi, Carly Samson, Beverly Quinn, Jesus Perez, Matthew R Broome, Fernando Zelaya, David J Lythgoe, Oliver D Howes, James M Stone, Anthony A Grace, Paul Allen, Philip McGuire
Preclinical models propose that the onset of psychosis is associated with hippocampal hyperactivity, thought to be driven by cortical GABAergic interneuron dysfunction and disinhibition of pyramidal neurons. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that resting hippocampal perfusion is increased in subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, but how this may be related to GABA concentrations is unknown. The present study used a multimodal neuroimaging approach to address this issue in UHR subjects. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling imaging were acquired to investigate the relationship between medial prefrontal (MPFC) GABA+ levels (including some contribution from macromolecules) and hippocampal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 36 individuals at UHR of psychosis, based on preclinical evidence that MPFC dysfunction is involved in hippocampal hyperactivity...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410313/motor-dysfunction-as-research-domain-in-the-period-preceding-manifest-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Dusan Hirjak, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Katharina M Kubera, Philipp A Thomann, Robert C Wolf
Schizophrenia is a severe behavioral syndrome of neurodevelopmental nature marked by primary or genuine motor abnormalities (GMA), which refer to spontaneous and medication-independent motor phenomena. Since motor dysfunction thus might be a consequence of events occurring during early childhood and adolescence, GMA can be detected in the period preceding manifest schizophrenia. However, the question whether motor system dysfunction might be a promising motor intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia remains unanswered...
February 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358438/study-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study-examining-the-predictive-potential-of-dynamic-symptom-networks-for-the-onset-and-progression-of-psychosis-the-mapping-individual-routes-of-risk-and-resilience-mirorr-study
#10
Sanne H Booij, Marieke Wichers, Peter de Jonge, Sjoerd Sytema, Jim van Os, Lex Wunderink, Johanna T W Wigman
INTRODUCTION: Our current ability to predict the course and outcome of early psychotic symptoms is limited, hampering timely treatment. To improve our understanding of the development of psychosis, a different approach to psychopathology may be productive. We propose to reconceptualise psychopathology from a network perspective, according to which symptoms act as a dynamic, interconnected system, impacting on each other over time and across diagnostic boundaries to form symptom networks...
January 21, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352556/what-causes-psychosis-an-umbrella-review-of-risk-and-protective-factors
#11
Joaquim Radua, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, John P A Ioannidis, Abraham Reichenberg, Nacharin Phiphopthatsanee, Taha Amir, Hyi Yenn Thoo, Dominic Oliver, Cathy Davies, Craig Morgan, Philip McGuire, Robin M Murray, Paolo Fusar-Poli
Psychosis is a heterogeneous psychiatric condition for which a multitude of risk and protective factors have been suggested. This umbrella review aimed to classify the strength of evidence for the associations between each factor and psychotic disorders whilst controlling for several biases. The Web of Knowledge database was searched to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies which examined associations between socio-demographic, parental, perinatal, later factors or antecedents and psychotic disorders, and which included a comparison group of healthy controls, published from 1965 to January 31, 2017...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352548/prediction-of-psychosis-across-protocols-and-risk-cohorts-using-automated-language-analysis
#12
Cheryl M Corcoran, Facundo Carrillo, Diego Fernández-Slezak, Gillinder Bedi, Casimir Klim, Daniel C Javitt, Carrie E Bearden, Guillermo A Cecchi
Language and speech are the primary source of data for psychiatrists to diagnose and treat mental disorders. In psychosis, the very structure of language can be disturbed, including semantic coherence (e.g., derailment and tangentiality) and syntactic complexity (e.g., concreteness). Subtle disturbances in language are evident in schizophrenia even prior to first psychosis onset, during prodromal stages. Using computer-based natural language processing analyses, we previously showed that, among English-speaking clinical (e...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338796/cortical-morphology-development-in-patients-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-at-ultra-high-risk-of-psychosis
#13
Maria Carmela Padula, Marie Schaer, Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Daniela Zöller, Elisa Scariati, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
BACKGROUND: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) present a high risk of developing psychosis. While clinical and cognitive predictors for the conversion towards a full-blown psychotic disorder are well defined and largely used in practice, neural biomarkers do not yet exist. However, a number of investigations indicated an association between abnormalities in cortical morphology and higher symptoms severities in patients with 22q11DS. Nevertheless, few studies included homogeneous groups of patients differing in their psychotic symptoms profile...
January 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334657/relationship-of-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-to-clinical-variables-and-cognitive-functions-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#14
Ahmet Zihni Soyata, Selin Akışık, Damla İnhanlı, Handan Noyan, Alp Üçok
Few studies have investigated the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and clinical variables, and cognition in individuals at ultra high-risk (UHR) for psychosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of OCS and their relationship with clinical variables and cognitive functions in individuals at UHR. Eighty-four individuals at UHR for psychosis were administered the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsession Compulsion Symptom Check List and, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289662/th17-t-regulator-cell-balance-and-nk-cell-numbers-in-relation-to-psychosis-liability-and-social-stress-reactivity
#15
J Counotte, H A Drexhage, J M Wijkhuijs, R Pot-Kolder, V Bergink, H W Hoek, W Veling
BACKGROUND: Psychotic disorders are characterized by a deranged immune system, including altered number and function of Natural Killer (NK) and T cells. Psychotic disorders arise from an interaction between genetic vulnerability and exposure to environmental risk factors. Exposure to social adversity during early life is particularly relevant to psychosis risk and is thought to increase reactivity to subsequent minor daily social stressors. Virtual reality allows controlled experimental exposure to virtual social stressors...
March 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261427/addiction-vulnerability-exploring-relationships-among-cigarette-smoking-substance-misuse-and-early-psychosis
#16
Vanessa Clark, Agatha M Conrad, Terry J Lewin, Amanda L Baker, Sean A Halpin, Ketrina A Sly, Juanita Todd
OBJECTIVE: Smoking rates in adolescents at risk for psychosis are significantly greater than in those who are not at risk. Recent research suggests that cigarette smoking in adolescence may be a potential marker of transition to psychosis, although the exact relationship between the two remains unclear. Our aim was to examine whether tobacco smoking is a potential marker of transition to psychosis or subsequent episodes of psychosis, independently of other substance use, or alternatively whether smoking is essentially a general marker of later mental illness episodes...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249990/mediators-linking-childhood-adversities-and-trauma-to-suicidality-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis
#17
Stefanie J Schmidt, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Sarah Bendall, Nicola Groth, Chantal Michel, Nadja Inderbitzin, Benno G Schimmelmann, Daniela Hubl, Barnaby Nelson
Suicidality is highly prevalent in patients at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Childhood adversities and trauma are generally predictive of suicidality. However, the differential effects of adversity/trauma-domains and CHR-criteria, i.e., ultra-high risk and basic symptom criteria, on suicidality remain unclear. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms and, thus, worthwhile targets for suicide-prevention are still poorly understood. Therefore, structural equation modeling was used to test theory-driven models in 73 CHR-patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248027/peripheral-levels-of-superoxide-dismutase-and-glutathione-peroxidase-in-youths-in-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-pilot-study
#18
Maiara Zeni-Graiff, Adiel C Rios, Pawan K Maurya, Lucas B Rizzo, Sumit Sethi, Ana S Yamagata, Rodrigo B Mansur, Pedro M Pan, Elson Asevedo, Graccielle R Cunha, André Zugman, Rodrigo A Bressan, Ary Gadelha, Elisa Brietzke
Introduction Oxidative stress has been documented in chronic schizophrenia and in the first episode of psychosis, but there are very little data on oxidative stress prior to the disease onset. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to compare serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in young individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis with a comparison healthy control group (HC). METHODS: Thirteen UHR subjects and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in this study...
December 17, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218852/psychotic-conversion-of-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-the-potential-roles-of-schizotypy-and-basic-symptoms
#19
Minji Bang, Jin Young Park, Kyung Ran Kim, Su Young Lee, Yun Young Song, Jee In Kang, Eun Lee, Suk Kyoon An
AIM: To improve strategies for the early identification of individuals at a heightened risk for the development of psychosis, we investigated the relationships and interactions between 3 psychosis-proneness dimensions for the development of schizophrenia spectrum psychosis: schizotypy, basic symptoms and the ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria. METHODS: Seventy-seven UHR individuals and 79 healthy controls were assessed for schizotypy and basic symptoms using self-report questionnaires at baseline...
December 8, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198207/neuroanatomical-changes-in-people-with-high-schizotypy-relationship-to-glutamate-levels
#20
Gemma Modinos, Alice Egerton, Anna McLaughlin, Katrina McMullen, Veena Kumari, David J Lythgoe, Gareth J Barker, André Aleman, Steve C R Williams
BACKGROUND: Cortical glutamatergic dysfunction is thought to be fundamental for psychosis development, and may lead to structural degeneration through excitotoxicity. Glutamate levels have been related to gray matter volume (GMV) alterations in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis, and we previously reported GMV changes in individuals with high schizotypy (HS), which refers to the expression of schizophrenia-like characteristics in healthy people. This study sought to examine whether GMV changes in HS subjects are related to glutamate levels...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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