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Ultra-high risk for psychosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143980/white-matter-maturation-during-12-months-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#1
K Krakauer, M Nordentoft, B Y Glenthøj, J M Raghava, D Nordholm, L Randers, L B Glenthøj, B H Ebdrup, E Rostrup
OBJECTIVE: The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of psychosis suggests that disrupted white matter (WM) maturation underlies disease onset. In this longitudinal study, we investigated WM connectivity and compared WM changes between individuals at ultra-high-risk for psychosis (UHR) and healthy controls (HCs). METHOD: Thirty UHR individuals and 23 HCs underwent MR diffusion tensor imaging before and after 12 months of non-manualized standard care. Positive and negative symptoms and level of functioning were assessed...
November 16, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132815/impaired-mismatch-negativity-to-frequency-deviants-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-preliminary-evidence-for-further-impairment-with-transition-to-psychosis
#2
Suzie Lavoie, Bradley N Jack, Oren Griffiths, Ayaka Ando, Paul Amminger, Anthony Couroupis, Aidan Jago, Connie Markulev, Patrick D McGorry, Barnaby Nelson, Andrea Polari, Hok Pan Yuen, Thomas J Whitford
BACKGROUND: There is evidence to suggest that people with established psychotic disorders show impairments in the mismatch negativity induced by a frequency-deviant sound (fMMN), and that these impairments worsen with the deterioration of psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to test whether individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show pre-morbid impairments in fMMN, and if so, whether fMMN continues to deteriorate with transition to psychosis. METHOD: fMMN was recorded in a cohort of UHR individuals (n=42) and compared to healthy controls (n=29)...
November 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107832/impaired-action-self-monitoring-and-cognitive-confidence-among-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#3
Ł Gawęda, E Li, S Lavoie, T J Whitford, S Moritz, B Nelson
BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring biases and overconfidence in incorrect judgments have been suggested as playing a role in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Little is known about whether self-monitoring biases may contribute to early risk factors for psychosis. In this study, action self-monitoring (i.e., discrimination between imagined and performed actions) was investigated, along with confidence in judgments among ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis individuals and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients...
September 22, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081329/treating-sleep-problems-in-young-people-at-ultra-high-risk-of-psychosis-a-feasibility-case-series
#4
Jonathan Bradley, Daniel Freeman, Eleanor Chadwick, Allison G Harvey, Bradley Mullins, Louise Johns, Bryony Sheaves, Belinda Lennox, Matthew Broome, Felicity Waite
BACKGROUND: Our view is that sleep disturbance may be a contributory causal factor in the development and maintenance of psychotic experiences. A recent series of randomized controlled intervention studies has shown that cognitive-behavioural approaches can improve sleep in people with psychotic experiences. However, the effects of psychological intervention for improving sleep have not been evaluated in young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Improving sleep might prevent later transition to a mental health disorder...
October 30, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058115/adolescents-at-ultra-high-risk-of-psychosis-in-italian-neuropsychiatry-services-prevalence-psychopathology-and-transition-rate
#5
Lorenzo Pelizza, Silvia Azzali, Sara Garlassi, Federica Paterlini, Ilaria Scazza, Luigi Rocco Chiri, Simona Pupo, Andrea Raballo
Studies in adolescents on ultra-high risk (UHR) and basic symptoms (BS) criteria for psychosis prediction are scarce. In Italy, early interventions in psychosis are less widespread than in other European countries. In the present study, we (1) assessed the clinical relevance of a UHR diagnosis [according to the comprehensive assessment of at-risk mental states (CAARMS) criteria] to promote the implementation of specific services for UHR adolescents into the Italian health care system; (2) described severity of positive, negative, general, and basic symptoms in UHR adolescents compared to adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and non-UHR adolescents (i...
October 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055567/the-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-groups-evidence-to-maintain-the-status-quo
#6
M J McHugh, P D McGorry, H P Yuen, I B Hickie, A Thompson, L de Haan, N Mossaheb, S Smesny, A Lin, C Markulev, M Schloegelhofer, S J Wood, D Nieman, J A Hartmann, M Nordentoft, M Schäfer, G P Amminger, A Yung, B Nelson
Individuals are considered Ultra-High-Risk (UHR) for psychosis if they meet a set of standardised criteria including presumed genetic vulnerability (Trait), or a recent history of Attenuated Psychotic Symptoms (APS) or Brief Limited Intermittent Psychotic Symptoms (BLIPS). Recent calls to revise these criteria have arisen from evidence that Trait, APS and BLIPS groups may transition to psychosis at different rates. Concurrently, it has become clear that the UHR status confers clinical risk beyond transition to psychosis...
October 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044446/social-cognition-in-schizophrenia-unaffected-relatives-and-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-what-do-we-currently-know
#7
Alejandra Mondragón-Maya, Daniela Ramos-Mastache, Pedro D Román, Guillermina Yáñez-Téllez
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia patients show impairments in social cognition (SC), which is a set of cognitive processes that underlie social interactions. The research about SC in schizophrenia has identified four main domains: Theory of mind (ToM), social perception, attributional style and emotional processing. The present review aims to summarize the most recent and consistent findings about SC in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected relatives and ultra-high risk for psychosis individuals (UHR), as well as its association with clinical variables and functional outcome...
September 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042899/evidence-for-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-immune-alterations-at-prodrome-of-psychosis-in-males
#8
Evangelos Karanikas, Evangelos Ntouros, Dimitrios Oikonomou, Georgios Floros, Ioannis Griveas, Georgios Garyfallos
We aimed to investigate the inflammatory substrate in psychosis by evaluating both the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function and immune state at prodrome. This involved the recruitment of Ultra High Risk (UHR) of Psychosis subjects, Healthy Controls (HC) and patients with established Schizophrenia (CHRON). Serum cortisol at 3 different times throughout the day was measured. The Dexamethasone Suppression Test was performed plus 12 circulating cytokines were measured. The UHR subjects presented increased IL-4 levels compared with both the HC and CHRON patients...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042877/impaired-social-and-role-function-in-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-first-episode-schizophrenia-its-relations-with-negative-symptoms
#9
So Jung Lee, Kyung Ran Kim, Su Young Lee, Suk Kyoon An
OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial dysfunction was a nettlesome problem of schizophrenia even in their prodromal phase as well as in their first-episode. In addition, its relations with psychopathology were not determined. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the social and role function impairment was found in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals as well as first-episode schizophrenia patients and to explore its relations with psychopathology. METHODS: Thirty-seven normal controls, 63 UHR participants and 28 young, first-episode schizophrenia patients were recruited...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986006/association-between-mismatch-negativity-and-global-functioning-is-specific-to-duration-deviance-in-early-stages-of-psychosis
#10
Daisuke Koshiyama, Kenji Kirihara, Mariko Tada, Tatsuya Nagai, Mao Fujioka, Shinsuke Koike, Motomu Suga, Tsuyoshi Araki, Kiyoto Kasai
BACKGROUND: Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a candidate biomarker for early stages of psychosis. Although an association among duration MMN (dMMN), cognitive deficits, and functional outcome in chronic schizophrenia has been shown by a large-scale study, the effects of deviant type and clinical stages have not been investigated. METHODS: We investigated the relationships among dMMN, frequency MMN (fMMN), global functioning, and cognitive function in early stages of psychosis...
October 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984077/broad-clinical-high-risk-mental-state-charms-methodology-of-a-cohort-study-validating-criteria-for-pluripotent-risk
#11
Jessica A Hartmann, Barnaby Nelson, Rachael Spooner, G Paul Amminger, Andrew Chanen, Christopher G Davey, Meredith McHugh, Aswin Ratheesh, Devi Treen, Hok Pan Yuen, Patrick D McGorry
AIM: The development of the ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria for psychosis created a new paradigm for the prevention research in psychiatry. Since (1) prevention research faces the challenge of achieving adequate statistical power when focusing on single low-incidence syndromes and (2) early clinical phenotypes are overlapping and non-specific, this study broadens the UHR state beyond psychosis as an outcome. The CHARMS (clinical high at-risk mental state) study aims to prospectively validate a set of trans-diagnostic criteria to identify help-seeking young people at risk of developing a range of serious mental illnesses...
October 5, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972591/altered-activation-and-connectivity-in-a-hippocampal-basal-ganglia-midbrain-circuit-during-salience-processing-in-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#12
T Winton-Brown, A Schmidt, J P Roiser, O D Howes, A Egerton, P Fusar-Poli, N Bunzeck, A A Grace, E Duzel, S Kapur, P McGuire
Animal models of psychosis propose that abnormal hippocampal activity drives increased subcortical dopamine function, which is thought to contribute to aberrant salience processing and psychotic symptoms. These effects appear to be mediated through connections between the hippocampus, ventral striatum/pallidum and the midbrain. The aim of the present study was to examine the activity and connectivity in this pathway in people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain network during reward, novelty and aversion processing between 29 UHR subjects and 32 healthy controls...
October 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903120/opening-the-black-box-of-cognitive-behavioural-case-management-in-clients-with-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#13
Jessica A Hartmann, Patrick D McGorry, Stefanie J Schmidt, G Paul Amminger, Hok Pan Yuen, Connie Markulev, Gregor E Berger, Eric Y H Chen, Lieuwe de Haan, Ian B Hickie, Suzie Lavoie, Meredith J McHugh, Nilufar Mossaheb, Dorien H Nieman, Merete Nordentoft, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Miriam R Schäfer, Monika Schlögelhofer, Stefan Smesny, Andrew Thompson, Swapna Kamal Verma, Alison R Yung, Barnaby Nelson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the first-choice treatment in clients with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. However, CBT is an umbrella term for a plethora of different strategies, and little is known about the association between the intensity and content of CBT and the severity of symptomatic outcome. METHODS: A sample of 268 UHR participants received 6 months of CBT with case management (CBCM) in the context of the multi-centre NEURAPRO trial with monthly assessments of attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS)...
2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893493/brain-tspo-imaging-and-gray-matter-volume-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-in-people-at-ultra-high-risk-of-psychosis-an-11-c-pbr28-study
#14
Sudhakar Selvaraj, Peter S Bloomfield, Bo Cao, Mattia Veronese, Federico Turkheimer, Oliver D Howes
Patients with schizophrenia show whole brain and cortical gray matter (GM) volume reductions which are progressive early in their illness. Microglia, the resident immune cells in the CNS, phagocytose neurons and synapses. Some post mortem and in vivo studies in schizophrenia show evidence for elevated microglial activation compared to matched controls. However, it is currently unclear how these results relate to changes in cortical structure. METHODS: Fourteen patients with schizophrenia and 14 ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR) subjects alongside two groups of age and genotype matched healthy controls received [(11)C]PBR28 PET scans to index TSPO expression, a marker of microglial activation and a 3T MRI scan...
September 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889802/prevalence-and-clinical-relevance-of-interview-assessed-psychosis-risk-symptoms-in-the-young-adult-community
#15
Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Chantal Michel, Stephan Ruhrmann, Benno G Schimmelmann
BACKGROUND: An efficient indicated prevention of psychotic disorders requires valid risk criteria that work in both clinical and community samples. Yet, ultra-high risk and basic symptom criteria were recently recommended for use in clinical samples only. Their use in the community was discouraged for lack of knowledge about their prevalence, clinical relevance and risk factors in non-clinical, community settings when validly assessed with the same instruments used in the clinic. METHODS: Using semi-structured telephone interviews with established psychosis-risk instruments, we studied the prevalence of psychosis-risk symptoms and criteria, their clinical relevance (using presence of a non-psychotic mental disorder or of functional deficits as proxy measures) and their risk factors in a random, representative young adult community sample (N=2683; age 16-40 years; response rate: 63...
September 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857488/preliminary-study-of-higher-order-language-and-extralinguistic-impairments-in-individuals-with-high-clinical-risk-of-psychosis-and-first-episode-of-schizophrenia
#16
Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Magdalena Kotlicka-Antczak, Emila Łojek, Tomasz Pawełczyk
AIM: Higher-order language functions are associated with understanding indirect speech acts, lexical-semantic processes, the understanding and production of prosody, discourse production and comprehension. Only a few studies imply that language abnormalities may be present in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) and first-episode of schizophrenia (FE). The purpose of this study was to test the presence of higher-order language dysfunctions in UHR and FE subjects using a standardized comprehensive test battery...
August 31, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792130/perceptual-abnormalities-in-an-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-population-relationship-to-trauma-and-co-morbid-disorder
#17
Karen O' Connor, Barnaby Nelson, Mary Cannon, Alison Yung, Andrew Thompson
AIMS: The aims of this study were 3-fold. We wished to investigate whether at baseline entry to an ultra-high risk (UHR) clinic whether: (1) perceptual abnormalities are more prevalent in those young people with co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses, (2) perceptual abnormalities are more prevalent in those young people with histories of childhood adversity (childhood trauma, bullying) and (3) perceptual abnormality type is associated with co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses or histories of childhood adversity...
August 9, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782283/psychosis-risk-screening-in-different-populations-using-the-prodromal-questionnaire-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Mark Savill, Jennifer D'Ambrosio, Tyrone D Cannon, Rachel L Loewy
AIM: Diagnosing individuals at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis can improve early access to treatment, and a two-stage model utilizing self-report screening followed by a clinical interview can be accurate and efficient. However, it is currently unclear which screening cut-offs to adopt with different populations. METHODS: A systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies evaluating the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ) as a preliminary screener for UHR and psychosis was conducted to examine screening effectiveness in different contexts...
August 6, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768599/pre-onset-risk-characteristics-for-mania-among-young-people-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#19
Aswin Ratheesh, Susan M Cotton, Christopher G Davey, Ashleigh Lin, Stephen Wood, Hok Pan Yuen, Andreas Bechdolf, Patrick D McGorry, Alison Yung, Michael Berk, Barnaby Nelson
INTRODUCTION: Psychosis and mania share conceptual, genetic and clinical features, which suggest the possibility that they have common antecedents. Participants identified to be at-risk for psychosis might also be at-risk for mania. We aimed to identify the rate and predictors of transition to mania in a cohort of youth with clinical or familial risk for psychosis. METHODS: Among a cohort of 416 young people with an at-risk mental state for psychosis defined using the Ultra-High-Risk (UHR) criteria, 74...
May 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761988/neurological-soft-signs-precede-the-onset-of-schizophrenia-a-study-of-individuals-with-schizotypy-ultra-high-risk-individuals-and-first-onset-schizophrenia
#20
Raymond C K Chan, Hui-Ru Cui, Min-Yi Chu, Tian-Hong Zhang, Ya Wang, Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Simon S Y Lui, Ji-Jun Wang, Eric F C Cheung
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are one of the biomarkers for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, a few studies have examined the prevalence of NSS across the schizophrenia spectrum. The present study adopted a quasi-longitudinal study design and examined the prevalence of NSS and their associations with clinical and behavioural manifestations in participants in different stages of the illness. The abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory was administered to 39 patients with the first-episode schizophrenia, 39 individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, 39 individuals with schizotypy, and 39 healthy controls...
July 31, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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