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Ultra-high risk for psychosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612979/research-and-practice-for-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-national-survey-of-early-intervention-in-psychosis-services-in-england
#1
Helen J Stain, Lauren Mawn, Stephanie Common, Marie Pilton, Andrew Thompson
BACKGROUND: Evidence from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials show interventions for young people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis are effective both clinically and economically. While research evidence has begun to be integrated into clinical guidelines, there is a lack of research on the implementation of these guidelines. This paper examines service provision for UHR individuals in accordance with current clinical guidelines within the National Health Service (NHS) in England...
June 14, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603875/impairments-of-spontaneous-and-deliberative-mentalizing-co-occur-yet-dissociate-in-schizophrenia
#2
Robyn Langdon, Michaela Flynn, Emily Connaughton, Martin Brüne
OBJECTIVES: Evidence of impairment in explicit mentalizing in people with schizophrenia has inspired interventions to improve awareness of others' mental states in these individuals. Less is known of implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia, with current findings mixed. We sought to resolve previous inconsistencies using Heider & Simmel's (H&S) classic animation to elicit spontaneous mentalizing and examined relations between spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing. METHODS: Forty-five schizophrenia outpatients and 27 general-community controls completed two explicit theory-of-mind (TOM) tasks and then described the H&S animation (to elicit spontaneous social attributions about emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviours), before and after an instruction to think of the shapes as people...
June 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602647/state-marker-properties-of-niacin-skin-sensitivity-in-ultra-high-risk-groups-for-psychosis-an-optical-reflection-spectroscopy-study
#3
Kerstin Langbein, Ulrike Schmidt, Stephan Schack, Natalie J Biesel, Maria Rudzok, G Paul Amminger, Maximus Berger, Heinrich Sauer, Stefan Smesny
Impaired niacin sensitivity (NS) is one of the most replicated findings in untreated schizophrenia, and reflects a disturbance of prostaglandin-mediated pathways in association with deregulated arachidonic acid metabolism, pro-inflammatory activation, and vasomotor function. In ultra-high risk individuals (UHR) increased NS was reported recently, pointing towards dynamic alterations of the underlying pathomechanisms in the period preceding psychosis. However, these characteristics are still unresolved in the diverse UHR groups...
June 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601502/neighbourhood-deprivation-is-positively-associated-with-detection-of-the-ultra-high-risk-uhr-state-for-psychosis-in-south-east-london
#4
V Bhavsar, P Fusar-Poli, P McGuire
BACKGROUND: Individuals are defined as being at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis based on a combination of attenuated psychotic symptoms, help-seeking behaviour, genetic risk, and social/occupational deterioration. Limited evidence is available on whether UHR detection differs by neighbourhood, and potential explanations. AIMS: To examine neighbourhood distribution of detected UHR using cases from the OASIS service in South East London, investigating neighbourhood deprivation as an explanatory variable...
June 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595088/the-relationship-between-cannabis-use-and-cortisol-levels-in-youth-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#5
Emily E Carol, Robert L Spencer, Vijay A Mittal
Recent studies have posited a relationship between cannabis use and the biological stress system, but this critical relationship has not been evaluated during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period immediately preceding the onset of psychotic disorders. Salivary cortisol samples were collected on 46 UHR and 29 control adolescents; these individuals were assessed for current cannabis use with a urine panel and self-report. UHR participants where separated into two groups: Current Cannabis Use (UHR-CU) and No Current Cannabis Use (UHR-NC)...
May 30, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575528/increased-striatal-and-reduced-prefrontal-cerebral-blood-flow-in-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#6
Jochen Kindler, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Martinus Hauf, Thomas Dierks, Andrea Federspiel, Sebastian Walther, Benno G Schimmelmann, Daniela Hubl
Increased striatal dopaminergic activity and decreased prefrontal functioning have been reported in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Abnormal metabolic rate might affect resting-state cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the respective regions. Here, we examined if striatal and prefrontal rCBF differ between patients with CHR, first-episode psychosis (FEP), chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SZ) and controls. Two cohorts with a total of 122 participants were included and analyzed separately: 32 patients with SZ and 31 healthy controls (HC) from the University Hospital of Psychiatry, and 59 patients from the Bern Early Recognition and Intervention Center (29 with CHR, 12 with FEP, and 18 clinical controls [CC])...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560266/the-effect-of-cognitive-remediation-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#7
Louise Birkedal Glenthøj, Carsten Hjorthøj, Tina Dam Kristensen, Charlie Andrew Davidson, Merete Nordentoft
Cognitive deficits are prominent features of the ultra-high risk state for psychosis that are known to impact functioning and course of illness. Cognitive remediation appears to be the most promising treatment approach to alleviate the cognitive deficits, which may translate into functional improvements. This study systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive remediation in the ultra-high risk population. The electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase were searched using keywords related to cognitive remediation and the UHR state...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536477/reduced-mismatch-negativity-is-associated-with-increased-plasma-level-of-glutamate-in-first-episode-psychosis
#8
Tatsuya Nagai, Kenji Kirihara, Mariko Tada, Daisuke Koshiyama, Shinsuke Koike, Motomu Suga, Tsuyoshi Araki, Kenji Hashimoto, Kiyoto Kasai
Reduced amplitude of mismatch negativity (MMN) is one of the more promising biological markers of schizophrenia. This finding holds true in both early and chronic phases of the disorder, and is compatible with the glutamatergic dysfunction hypothesis. To further establish MMN as a biomarker of aberrant glutamatergic neurotransmission, an exploration for an association with blood levels of glutamatergic amino acids is an important next step. Despite a large body of work investigating MMN in schizophrenia, no previous studies have undertaken this endeavor...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531821/examining-the-physical-health-and-lifestyle-of-young-people-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-qualitative-study-involving-service-users-parents-and-clinicians
#9
Rebekah Carney, Jack Cotter, Tim Bradshaw, Alison R Yung
Emerging evidence suggests young people at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) are also at-risk for poor physical health, and display high rates of modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors. However, before we can develop effective interventions there is a need to understand factors affecting lifestyle choices in the UHR group. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 UHR individuals (50% male; mean age 21.7), 5 parents (4 mothers, 1 father), and 6 clinicians from early intervention services in the Northwest of England to identify barriers and facilitators to living a healthy lifestyle, including achieving regular exercise, eating well and refraining from excessive substance use...
May 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521060/diagnostic-and-prognostic-significance-of-dsm-5-attenuated-psychosis-syndrome-in-services-for-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#10
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Andrea De Micheli, Marco Cappucciati, Grazia Rutigliano, Cathy Davies, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, Dominic Oliver, Ilaria Bonoldi, Matteo Rocchetti, Lauren Gavaghan, Rashmi Patel, Philip McGuire
Background: The diagnostic and prognostic significance of the DSM-5-defined Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (DSM-5-APS) in individuals undergoing an ultra high risk (UHR) clinical assessment for suspicion of psychosis risk is unknown. Methods: Prospective cohort study including all consecutive help-seeking individuals undergoing both a DSM-5-APS and a Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental States (CAARMS 12/2006) assessment for psychosis risk at the Outreach and Support in South London (OASIS) UHR service (March 2013-April 2014)...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498602/treatment-of-people-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#11
Alison R Yung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498576/a-critique-of-the-ultra-high-risk-and-transition-paradigm
#12
Jim van Os, Sinan Guloksuz
The transdiagnostic expression of psychotic experiences in common mental disorder (anxiety/depression/substance use disorder) is associated with a poorer prognosis, and a small minority of people may indeed develop a clinical picture that meets criteria for schizophrenia. However, it appears neither useful nor valid to observe early states of multidimensional psychopathology in young people through the "schizo"-prism, and apply misleadingly simple, unnecessary and inefficient binary concepts of "risk" and "transition"...
June 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483103/cytokines-cortisol-and-igf-1-in-first-episode-psychosis-and-ultra-high-risk-males-evidence-for-tnf-%C3%AE-ifn-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE-il-4-deviation
#13
Evangelos Karanikas, Stefanos Manganaris, Evangelos Ntouros, Georgios Floros, Diomidis Antoniadis, Georgios Garyfallos
The aim of the study was to determine circulating cytokines, cortisol and Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-1, known for their involvement in inflammation, in male patients with First Episode Psychosis (FEP) and subjects at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for Psychosis. The FEP group presented increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, ΤNF-β) as well as increased anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4) compared with Healthy Controls (HC). The UHR group showed increased IL-4 against HC. In contrast, none of the groups did show deviation from normality in either cortisol or IGF-1 levels...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476338/corrigendum-to-self-reported-cannabis-use-is-inconsistent-with-the-results-from-drug-screening-in-youth-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-in-colorado-schizophr-res-157-0-august-2014-317-318
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468563/-developmental-aspects-in-the-early-detection-and-intervention-in-clinical-high-risk-states-for-psychosis
#15
Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Stefanie J Schmidt, Petra Walger, Benno G Schimmelmann
Developmental Aspects in the Early Detection and Intervention in Clinical High Risk States for Psychosis The early detection and intervention in psychoses, which are a main source of disability-adjusted life years already in children and adolescents, have made good progress within the past years. In particular the attenuated and transient positive symptoms of the ultra-high risk criteria and the basic symptom criterion "Cognitive Disturbances" open promising routes to an indicated prevention and have recently been considered as diagnostic criteria of a psychosis-risk syndrome by the European Psychiatric Association (EPA)...
May 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464976/patterns-of-white-matter-microstructure-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-associations-to-level-of-functioning-and-clinical-symptoms
#16
K Krakauer, B H Ebdrup, B Y Glenthøj, J M Raghava, D Nordholm, L Randers, E Rostrup, M Nordentoft
BACKGROUND: Individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis present with emerging symptoms and decline in functioning. Previous univariate analyses have indicated widespread white matter (WM) aberrations in multiple brain regions in UHR individuals and patients with schizophrenia. Using multivariate statistics, we investigated whole brain WM microstructure and associations between WM, clinical symptoms, and level of functioning in UHR individuals. METHODS: Forty-five UHR individuals and 45 matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 Tesla...
May 3, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456857/age-effect-on-prevalence-of-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-symptoms-replication-in-a-clinical-sample-of-an-early-detection-of-psychosis-service
#17
Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Daniela Hubl, Benno G Schimmelmann, Chantal Michel
Higher frequencies of perceptual and lesser clinical significance of non-perceptual attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) have been reported by 8- to 15-year-old of the general population compared to 16- to 40-year-old. We examined if such an age-effect can also be detected in a clinical never-psychotic sample (N = 133) referred to a specialized service for clinical suspicion of developing psychosis. APS and brief intermittent psychotic symptoms (BIPS) were assessed using items P1-P3 and P5 (non-perceptual), and P4 (perceptual) of the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes, current axis-I disorders with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and psychosocial functioning with the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale...
April 29, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454920/automated-analysis-of-written-narratives-reveals-abnormalities-in-referential-cohesion-in-youth-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#18
Tina Gupta, Susan J Hespos, William S Horton, Vijay A Mittal
Schizophrenia and at-risk populations are suggested to exhibit referential cohesion deficits in language production (e.g., producing fewer pronouns or nouns that clearly link to concepts from previous sentences). Much of this work has focused on transcribed speech samples, while no work to our knowledge has examined referential cohesion in written narratives among ultra high risk (UHR) youth using Coh-Metrix, an automated analysis tool. In the present study, written narratives from 84 individuals (UHR=41, control=43) were examined...
April 25, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436017/attachment-styles-and-clinical-correlates-in-people-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#19
Debra A Russo, Jan Stochl, Joanne Hodgekins, Maria Iglesias-González, Penelope Chipps, Michelle Painter, Peter B Jones, Jesus Perez
Evidence suggests that attachment styles may influence subclinical psychosis phenotypes (schizotypy) and affective disorders and may play a part in the association between psychosis and childhood adversity. However, the role of attachment in the initial stages of psychosis remains poorly understood. Our main aim was to describe and compare attachment styles in 60 individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR) and a matched sample of 60 healthy volunteers (HV). The HV had lower anxious and avoidant attachment scores than the UHR individuals (p < ...
April 24, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412612/impairment-in-social-functioning-differentiates-youth-meeting-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-criteria-from-other-mental-health-help-seekers-a-validation-of-the-italian-version-of-the-global-functioning-social-and-global-functioning-role-scales
#20
Nella Lo Cascio, Martina Curto, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Juliana Fortes Lindau, Nicoletta Girardi, Riccardo Saba, Martina Brandizzi, Elena Monducci, Alice Masillo, Giada Colafrancesco, Andrea Solfanelli, Franco De Crescenzo, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Claudia Dario, Mauro Ferrara, Stefano Vicari, Paolo Girardi, Andrea M Auther, Barbara A Cornblatt, Christoph U Correll, Paolo Fiori Nastro
Social and occupational impairments are present in the schizophrenia prodrome, and poor social functioning predicts transition to psychosis in Ultra-High Risk (UHR) individuals. We aimed to: 1) validate the Italian version of the Global Functioning: Social (GF: S) and Global Functioning: Role (GF: S) scales; 2) evaluate their association with UHR criteria. Participants were 12-21-years-old (age, mean=15.2, standard deviation=2.1, male/female ratio=117/120) nonpsychotic help-seekers, meeting (N=39) or not (N=198) UHR criteria...
April 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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