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coccidioidomycosis AND complement

Shayna C Rivard, Elizabeth Satter
A 31-year-old Filipino active duty marine presented with a 2-year history of a waxing and waning nodule on his left cheek that had been incised and drained on multiple occasions. The patient had no significant medical history other than a positive purified protein derivative test with negative chest x-ray finding treated with a 9-month course of isoniazid in 2010. He denied cough, fever, chills, night sweats, weight loss, joint/bone pain, or prior trauma to the area. On initial examination, there was a 1×1-cm erythematous indurated nodule associated with an overlying violaceous scar on his left preauricular cheek...
2016: Skinmed
Jessica M Lee, Ana Lia Graciano, Lukasz Dabrowski, Brenik Kuzmic, Mary Anne Tablizo
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to adults, coccidioidomycosis is a rare disease in infants and the mechanisms of disease acquisition are not well described in infants. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in infants in an endemic area. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of all patients less than 12 months of age admitted to a tertiary free standing children's hospital from 2003-2012 diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis...
August 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Christelle Kassis, Syed Zaidi, Timothy Kuberski, Ana Moran, Omar Gonzalez, Sana Hussain, Carlos Hartmann-Manrique, Layth Al-Jashaami, Ahmad Chebbo, Robert Andy Myers, Laurence Joseph Wheat
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidal meningitis (CM), a common cause of chronic meningitis in endemic area, is usually diagnosed by detection of anti-Coccidioides antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and findings may be negative in up to one-third of cases. CSF cultures and cytology are infrequently positive. Antigen detection has been used for the diagnosis of other forms of coccidioidomycosis and meningitis caused by other mycoses. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic utility of CSF Coccidioides antigen (CAg) detection for the diagnosis of CM...
November 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Cheng-Yuk Lee, George R Thompson, Christine J Hastey, Gregory C Hodge, Jennine M Lunetta, Demosthenes Pappagianis, Volkmar Heinrich
Coccidioides spp. are dimorphic pathogenic fungi whose parasitic forms cause coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in mammalian hosts. We use an innovative interdisciplinary approach to analyze one-on-one encounters between human neutrophils and two forms of Coccidioides posadasii. To examine the mechanisms by which the innate immune system coordinates different stages of the host response to fungal pathogens, we dissect the immune-cell response into chemotaxis, adhesion, and phagocytosis. Our single-cell technique reveals a surprisingly strong response by initially quiescent neutrophils to close encounters with C...
2015: PloS One
Shengmei Zhou, Yanling Ma, Parakrama Chandrasoma
Gastrointestinal coccidioidomycosis is extremely rare, with less than 10 cases reported in the literature. We report a case of small bowel dissemination of coccidioidomycosis in a 21-year-old African American male with a history of living in San Joaquin Valley. The patient presented with one week of abdominal pain, nausea, shortness of breath, intermittent fever, and sweat, and one month of abdominal distention. A chest radiograph revealed complete effusion of left lung. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed diffuse small bowel thickening and enhancement, as well as omental and peritoneal nodules, and ascites...
2015: Case Reports in Pathology
Teodoro Carrada-Bravo
Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii, the two recognized causes of coccidioidomicosis, may be diagnosed by direct microscopy, culture, serologic and the skin-test with mycelial coccidioidin. Identification of spherules by direct examination of secretions after addition of KOH, is more rapid and may speed diagnosis. Histopathology of infected tissue demonstrates acute and chronic granulomatous inflammation and in the section strained with hematoxylin-eosine (HE) or Grocott metamine-silver (GMS). Isolation of Coccidioides spp...
June 2014: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Todd L Schmitt, Diana G Procter
An 11 yr-old female Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) demonstrated decreased appetite and weight loss approximately 4 wk after truck transport from a northern California facility to a southern California facility. An initial blood analysis revealed a leukocytosis of 22,800 white blood cells (WBC)/microl, with a left shift, low iron (58 microg/dl), and mild hyperglobulinemia (4.3 g/dl). Empiric antibiotic therapy was started with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (14 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.). Clinical improvement was observed initially; however, follow-up blood analysis demonstrated a persistent leukocytosis (24,000 WBC/microl), with left shift and progressive hyperglobulinemia (6...
March 2014: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
George Thompson, Sharon Wang, Robert Bercovitch, Michael Bolaris, Dane Van Den Akker, Sandra Taylor, Rodrigo Lopez, Antonio Catanzaro, Jose Cadena, Peter Chin-Hong, Brad Spellberg
Although routinely done, there has been no evaluation of the utility of performing routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination in patients with active coccidioidomycosis and high complement fixation (IgG) antibody titers or other risk factors for disseminated infection. In our review 100% of patients diagnosed with coccidioidal meningitis had at least one sign or symptom consistent with infection of the central nervous system, headache was present in 100% of those with meningitis, while no patients without signs/symptoms of CNS infection were found to have coccidioidal meningitis, irrespective of antibody titers or other risk factors...
2013: PloS One
Caroline Kim, Amy Mehta
SESSION TYPE: Infectious Disease Cases IIIPRESENTED ON: Wednesday, October 24, 2012 at 11:15 AM - 12:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Coccidioidomycosis is caused by the soil-dwelling dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii, which are endemic in southwestern United States, as well as northwestern Mexico. The most typical clinical manifestation is asymptomatic pulmonary disease. However, a subset may develop complications, such as cavitary disease.CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old Mexican man with a history of diabetes mellitus and tobacco use presented with three months of hemoptysis (one teaspoon daily), unintentional weight loss and fatigue...
October 1, 2012: Chest
James M McCarty, Lindsey C Demetral, Lukasz Dabrowski, Amandeep K Kahal, Anna M Bowser, Julianne E Hahn
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis, an endemic fungal infection seen throughout the southwestern United States, is not well described in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of all children admitted to Children's Hospital Central California with coccidioidomycosis from 1 January 2010 to 1 September 2011. RESULTS: Thirty-three children, aged 6 months to 17 years, were hospitalized during the study period. These included patients with pneumonia (n = 28), pleural effusion (n = 13), pleural empyema (n = 4), lung abscess (n = 7), pericarditis (n = 2), osteomyelitis (n = 5), meningitis/cerebritis (n = 2), and vocal cord infection (n = 1)...
June 2013: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
N Mendoza, J E Blair
Solid organ transplant recipients who acquire coccidioidomycosis have high rates of disseminated infection and mortality, and diagnosis of infection in these immunosuppressed patients is challenging because of suboptimal sensitivity of diagnostic tests. To characterize the utility of diagnostic tests for coccidioidomycosis in this population, we conducted a retrospective chart review of all solid organ transplant recipients with newly acquired coccidioidomycosis who were seen at our institution from 1999 to 2011...
April 2013: American Journal of Transplantation
George R Thompson, Shobha Sharma, Derek J Bays, Rachel Pruitt, David M Engelthaler, Jolene Bowers, Elizabeth M Driebe, Michael Davis, Robert Libke, Stuart H Cohen, Demosthenes Pappagianis
BACKGROUND: In a patient with positive serum serology for coccidioidomycosis, the differential diagnosis of concurrent pleural effusions can be challenging. We, therefore, sought to clarify the performance characteristics of biochemical, serologic, and nucleic-acid-based testing in an attempt to avoid invasive procedures. The utility of adenosine deaminase (ADA), coccidioidal serology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the evaluation of pleuropulmonary coccidioidomycosis has not been previously reported...
March 2013: Chest
Janis E Blair, Neil Mendoza, Shannon Force, Yu-Hui H Chang, Thomas E Grys
The diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis relies heavily on serologic test results in addition to clinical history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. Use of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has increased because it is rapidly performed and does not require referral to a reference laboratory, as do complement fixation and immunodiffusion tests. However, interpretation of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactivity by EIA in the absence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivity has been problematic. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of all patients with such IgM reactivity at our institution to identify situations where the finding was more likely to be clinically specific for coccidioidal infection...
January 2013: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Chiung-Yu Hung, Brady J Hurtgen, Michael Bellecourt, Sam D Sanderson, Edward L Morgan, Garry T Cole
Coccidioides is a fungal pathogen and causative agent of a human respiratory disease against which no clinical vaccine exists. In this study we evaluated a novel vaccine adjuvant referred to as EP67, which is a peptide agonist of the biologically active C-terminal region of human complement component C5a. The EP67 peptide was conjugated to live spores of an attenuated vaccine strain (ΔT) of Coccidioides posadasii. The non-conjugated ΔT vaccine provided partial protection to BALB/c mice against coccidioidomycosis...
June 29, 2012: Vaccine
George R Thompson, Jennine M Lunetta, Suzanne M Johnson, Sandra Taylor, Derek Bays, Stuart H Cohen, Demosthenes Pappagianis
BACKGROUND: We have observed a number of patients who fail to develop coccidioidal complement fixing (CF) antibody (immunoglobulin [IgG]) after the initiation of early antifungal therapy. Although this is the first description of this phenomenon in mycology, a precedent for the abrogation of the immune response has been observed in other conditions, including primary syphilis and primary Lyme disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study to determine any patient-specific risk factors associated with this observation...
September 2011: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Katsuhiko Kamei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2010: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Neil M Ampel
Coccidioidomycosis is a growing problem in the endemic regions of Arizona and California. The reasons for its increase are unclear, but may relate to an influx of nonsusceptible individuals into the endemic regions, construction and dust, and climate. Most cases of coccidioidal infection are completely asymptomatic, but approximately 40% present as a pulmonary process that may be difficult to distinguish from a bacterial community-acquired pneumonia. This has led to underdiagnosis of coccidioidomycosis and inappropriate antibacterial therapy...
May 2010: Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society
Sumeet S Mitter, Ariss Derhovanessian, Joseph D Hillman, Daniel Z Uslan
BACKGROUND: A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-3 month history of left lower quadrant abdominal pain, right periorbital headache, blurry vision, tinnitus, polydipsia, right elbow pain, and a 32 kg weight loss over the past year. He had a 34-year history of complicated Crohn's disease that was notable for surgical stricture repair and partial colectomy for bowel perforation. The patient was receiving mesalazine and 6-mercaptopurine and, 2 months before admission, had stopped a 4-month therapy course with the biologic agent adalimumab for treatment of Crohn's disease...
April 2010: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Lauren A Burwell, Benjamin J Park, Kathleen A Wannemuehler, Newton Kendig, James Pelton, Emma Chaput, Babatunde A Jinadu, Kirt Emery, Gil Chavez, Scott K Fridkin
BACKGROUND: Treatment of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is typically limited to patients with severe disease or those with increased risk of dissemination. In response to an increase of coccidioidomycosis at a correctional institution in an endemic area, physicians initiated an enhanced diagnosis and treatment program. METHODS: Case patients were inmates with laboratory-confirmed coccidioidomycosis during January 1, 2003, through October 31, 2004. We abstracted medical record data, including demographics, IgG complement fixation (CF) titers, treatment, and clinical outcome for initial and follow-up visits...
December 1, 2009: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Rachel Lee, Nancy Crum-Cianflone
BACKGROUND: Increasing rates of coccidioidomycosis among the general population are being described. Given the large number of military personnel stationed and training in endemic areas, data regarding infection trends among military members would be informative. METHODS: We performed a retrospective epidemiological study concerning the incidence and severity of clinical cases of coccidioidomycosis at a naval base located in an endemic area in California. RESULTS: Eighty-two military beneficiaries at the base were diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis from January 2002 to December 2006...
August 2008: Military Medicine
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