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Intravital microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792273/heterogeneity-of-renal-cortical-oxygenation-seeing-is-believing
#1
Roger G Evans, Connie P C Ow
The limited spatial and temporal resolution of available methods for quantifying renal tissue oxygen tension is a major impediment to identification of the roles of renal hypoxia in kidney diseases. Intravital phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy allows cellular oxygen tension in the renal cortex of live animals to be resolved to the level of individual tubular cross-sections. This paves the way for future investigations of the spatial relationships between cellular hypoxia and pathophysiological events in kidney disease...
June 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788500/microvascular-dysfunction-following-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-exposure-is-mediated-by-thrombospondin-1-receptor-cd47
#2
W Kyle Mandler, Timothy R Nurkiewicz, Dale W Porter, Eric E Kelley, I Mark Olfert
Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) disrupts peripheral microvascular function. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is highly expressed during lung injury and has been shown to alter microvascular reactivity. It is unclear exactly how TSP-1 exerts effects on vascular function, but we hypothesized that the TSP-1 receptor CD47 may mediate changes in vasodilation.Wildtype (WT) or CD47 knockout (CD47 KO) C57B6/J-background animals were exposed to 50 µg of MWCNT or saline control via pharyngeal aspiration...
May 21, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785490/microcirculatory-effects-of-sildenafil-in-experimental-testicular-torsion-in-rats
#3
Márton Oroszi, Andrea Szabó, Ádám Miklós Fehér, Gábor Deák, Zoltán Bajory
PURPOSE: Investigate the short-term effect of sildenafil on microcirculation, especially the velocity, the pattern of the flow and the recruitment of the leukocyte in postcapillaries. METHODS: In male Sprague-Dawley rats, the microcirculatory consequences of 60 min experimental testicular torsion, followed by 240 min of reperfusion, were examined. Using fluorescence intravital microscopy, changes in red blood cell velocity in post-capillary venules and rolling as well as adhesion of leukocytes in the postcapillary venules were examined before the torsion and every hour during the reperfusion period...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782675/hierarchical-micro-nanostructures-from-human-hair-for-biomedical-applications
#4
Di-Wei Zheng, Sheng Hong, Lu Xu, Chu-Xin Li, Ke Li, Si-Xue Cheng, Xian-Zheng Zhang
With the prominent progress of biomedical engineering, materials with high biocompatibility and versatile functions are urgently needed. So far, hierarchical structures in nature have shed some light on the design of high performance materials both in concept and implementation. Inspired by these, the hierarchical micro-/nanostructures of human hair are explored and human hair is further broken into hierarchical microparticles (HMP) and hierarchical nanoparticles (HNP) with top-down procedures. Compared with commercialized carriers, such as liposomes or albumin nanoparticles, the obtained particles exhibit high hemocompatibility and negligible immunogenicity...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781999/preparation-of-murine-submandibular-salivary-gland-for-upright-intravital-microscopy
#5
Xenia Ficht, Flavian Thelen, Bettina Stolp, Jens V Stein
The submandibular salivary gland (SMG) is one of the three major salivary glands, and is of interest for many different fields of biological research, including cell biology, oncology, dentistry, and immunology. The SMG is an exocrine gland comprised of secretory epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, nerves, and extracellular matrix. Dynamic cellular processes in the rat and mouse SMG have previously been imaged, mostly using inverted multi-photon microscope systems. Here, we describe a straightforward protocol for the surgical preparation and stabilization of the murine SMG in anesthetized mice for in vivo imaging with upright multi-photon microscope systems...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780806/myeloperoxidase-negatively-regulates-neutrophil-endothelial-cell-interactions-by-impairing-%C3%AE-m%C3%AE-2-integrin-function-in-sterile-inflammation
#6
Alan Tseng, Kyungho Kim, Jing Li, Jaehyung Cho
Interactions of neutrophils with endothelial cells (ECs) and platelets contribute to tissue damage and vascular occlusion under sterile inflammatory conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating the cell-cell interactions remain poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), produced from NADPH oxidase 2 play a critical role in platelet-neutrophil interactions by regulating the function of neutrophil αMβ2 integrin during sterile inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778648/impact-of-insulin-on-the-intestinal-microcirculation-in-a-model-of-sepsis-related-hyperglycemia
#7
Alexa Caldwell, Jan Niklas Morick, Anne-Marie Jentsch, Annette Wegener, Dragan Pavlovic, Nadia Al-Banna, Christian Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Sepsis involves dysfunctional glucose metabolism. Among patients with sepsis, hyperglycemia is frequent and insulin administration has been evaluated for glycemic control to improve patient outcomes. Only few studies have examined the hyperglycemic microcirculation and the impact of insulin on the microvasculature in sepsis. OBJECTIVE: To study the functional capillary density (FCD) and leukocyte activation within the intestinal microcirculation in endotoxin-induced experimental sepsis...
May 17, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761823/erythropoietin-promotes-network-formation-of-transplanted-adipose-tissue-derived-microvascular-fragments
#8
P Karschnia, C Scheuer, A Heß, T Später, M D Menger, M W Laschke
The seeding of tissue constructs with adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) is an emerging pre-vascularisation strategy. Ad-MVF rapidly reassemble into new microvascular networks after in vivo implantation. Herein it was analysed whether this process was improved by erythropoietin (EPO). Ad-MVF were isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ as well as wild-type C57BL/6 mice and cultivated for 24 h in medium supplemented with EPO (20 IU/mL) or vehicle. Freshly isolated, non-cultivated ad-MVF served as controls...
May 9, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760995/intravital-imaging-of-a-pulmonary-endothelial-surface-layer-in-a-murine-sepsis-model
#9
Inwon Park, Kibaek Choe, Howon Seo, Yoonha Hwang, Eunjoo Song, Jinhyo Ahn, You Hwan Jo, Pilhan Kim
Direct intravital imaging of an endothelial surface layer (ESL) in pulmonary microcirculation could be a valuable approach to investigate the role of a vascular endothelial barrier in various pathological conditions. Despite its importance as a marker of endothelial cell damage and impairment of the vascular system, in vivo visualization of ESL has remained a challenging technical issue. In this work, we implemented a pulmonary microcirculation imaging system integrated to a custom-design video-rate laser scanning confocal microscopy platform...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750566/advanced-age-results-in-a-diminished-endothelial-glycocalyx
#10
Daniel R Machin, Samuel I Bloom, Robert A Campbell, Tam T T Phuong, Phillip Ellis Gates, Lisa A Lesniewski, Matthew T Rondina, Anthony John Donato
Age-related microvascular dysfunction is well characterized in rodents and humans, but little is known about the properties of the microvascular endothelial glycocalyx in advanced age. We examined the glycocalyx in microvessels of young and old C57BL6 mice (young: 6.1{plus minus}0.1 vs old: 24.6{plus minus}0.2 mo) using intravital microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and in human participants (young: 27{plus minus}1 vs old: 61{plus minus}2 yr) using intravital microscopy. Glycocalyx thickness in mesenteric and skeletal muscle microvessels was 51-54% lower in old, compared to young mice...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748872/two-photon-probes-for-in-vivo-multicolor-microscopy-of-the-structure-and-signals-of-brain-cells
#11
REVIEW
Clément Ricard, Erica D Arroyo, Cynthia X He, Carlos Portera-Cailliau, Gabriel Lepousez, Marco Canepari, Daniel Fiole
Imaging the brain of living laboratory animals at a microscopic scale can be achieved by two-photon microscopy thanks to the high penetrability and low phototoxicity of the excitation wavelengths used. However, knowledge of the two-photon spectral properties of the myriad fluorescent probes is generally scarce and, for many, non-existent. In addition, the use of different measurement units in published reports further hinders the design of a comprehensive imaging experiment. In this review, we compile and homogenize the two-photon spectral properties of 280 fluorescent probes...
May 11, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748664/nanovesicles-from-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibit-t-lymphocyte-trafficking-and-ameliorate-chronic-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
Alessia Farinazzo, Stefano Angiari, Ermanna Turano, Edoardo Bistaffa, Silvia Dusi, Serena Ruggieri, Roberta Bonafede, Raffaella Mariotti, Gabriela Constantin, Bruno Bonetti
Cell based-therapies represent promising strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. We have previously shown that adipose stem cells (ASC) ameliorate chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent evidence indicates that most ASC paracrine effects are mediated by extracellular vesicles, i.e. micro- and nanovesicles (MVs and NVs). We show that preventive intravenous administration of NVs isolated from ASC (ASC-NVs) before disease onset significantly reduces the severity of EAE and decreases spinal cord inflammation and demyelination, whereas therapeutic treatment with ASC-NVs does not ameliorate established EAE...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733749/real-time-dynamics-of-neutrophil-clustering-in-response-to-phototoxicity-induced-cell-death-and-tissue-damage-in-mouse-ear-dermis
#13
Sang A Park, Young Ho Choe, Eunji Park, Young-Min Hyun
Neutrophils are highly motile innate immune cells; they actively migrate in response to inflammatory signals. Using two-photon intravital microscopy, we discovered that neutrophils form stable clusters upon phototoxicity at a certain threshold. Without significant damage to the collagen structure of mouse dermis, neutrophils aggregated together with nearby neutrophils. Surprisingly, this in situ neutrophil clustering resulted in rigorous changes of migratory direction. The density of residing neutrophils was also a critical factor affecting clustering...
May 7, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732011/intravital-microscopy-in-the-study-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-from-bench-to-human-application
#14
REVIEW
Emmanuel M Gabriel, Daniel T Fisher, Sharon Evans, Kazuaki Takabe, Joseph J Skitzki
Intravital microscopy (IVM) is a dynamic imaging modality that allows for the real time observation of biologic processes in vivo , including angiogenesis and immune cell interactions. In the setting of preclinical cancer models, IVM has facilitated an understanding of the tumor associated vasculature and the role of effector immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Novel approaches to apply IVM to human malignancies have thus far focused on cancer diagnosis and tumor vessel characterization, but have the potential to provide advances in the field of personalized medicine by identifying individual patients who may respond to systemically delivered chemotherapeutic drugs or immunotherapeutic agents...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729895/implications-of-polymorphonuclear-neutrophils-for-ischemic-stroke-and-intracerebral-hemorrhage-predictive-value-pathophysiological-consequences-and-utility-as-therapeutic-target
#15
REVIEW
Dirk M Hermann, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Matthias Gunzer
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) orchestrate the removal of cell debris in ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. In both pathologies, high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios in peripheral blood are predictive of poor outcome in human stroke patients. Following earlier studies indicating that the cerebral microvasculature forms an efficient barrier that impedes neutrophil brain entry, intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry in the meantime unequivocally revealed the accumulation of PMN in the ischemic and hemorrhagic brain parenchyma...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728120/il-33-st2-plays-a-critical-role-in-endothelial-cell-activation-and-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation-modulation
#16
Kelei Cao, Xiang Liao, Jiahui Lu, Shu Yao, Fengjiao Wu, Xingxing Zhu, Dongyan Shi, Shuang Wen, Lixin Liu, Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is increasingly being recognized as a key immunomodulatory cytokine in many neurological diseases. METHODS: In the present study, wild-type (WT) and IL-33-/- mice received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce neuroinflammation. Intravital microscopy was employed to examine leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the brain vasculature. The degree of neutrophil infiltration was determined by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716625/6-hydroxyethyl-starch-hes-130-0-4-diminishes-glycocalyx-degradation-and-decreases-vascular-permeability-during-systemic-and-pulmonary-inflammation-in-mice
#17
Andreas Margraf, Jan M Herter, Katharina Kühne, Anika Stadtmann, Thomas Ermert, Manuel Wenk, Melanie Meersch, Hugo Van Aken, Alexander Zarbock, Jan Rossaint
BACKGROUND: Increased vascular permeability is a pathophysiological hallmark of sepsis and results in increased transcapillary leakage of plasma fluid, hypovolemia, and interstitial edema formation. 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4) is commonly used to treat hypovolemia to maintain adequate organ perfusion and oxygen delivery. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of 6% HES 130/0.4 on glycocalyx integrity and vascular permeability in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation and systemic inflammation in mice...
May 1, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710687/analysis-of-human-microcirculation-in-weightlessness-study-protocol-and-pre-study-experiments
#18
Nana-Yaw Bimpong-Buta, Peter Jirak, Bernhard Wernly, Michael Lichtenauer, Maryna Masyuk, Johanna Maria Muessig, Kristina Braun, Sema Kaya, Malte Kelm, Christian Jung
BACKGROUND: In weightlessness, alterations in organ systems have been reported. The microcirculation consists of a network of blood vessels with diameters of a few μm. It is considered the largest part of the circulatory system of the human body and essential for exchange of gas, nutrients and waste products. An investigation of the microcirculation in weightlessness seems warranted but has not yet been performed. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we outline a study in which we will investigate the possible interrelations between weightlessness and microcirculation...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705743/-in-vivo-visualisation-of-different-modes-of-action-of-biological-dmards-inhibiting-osteoclastic-bone-resorption
#19
Yoshinobu Matsuura, Junichi Kikuta, Yuika Kishi, Tetsuo Hasegawa, Daisuke Okuzaki, Toru Hirano, Masafumi Minoshima, Kazuya Kikuchi, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Masaru Ishii
OBJECTIVES: Osteoclasts play critical roles in inflammatory bone destruction. Precursor cell migration, cell differentiation, and functional cell activation are all in play. Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been shown to significantly inhibit both bone erosion as well as synovitis, although how such agents reduce osteoclastic bone destruction in vivo has not been fully explained. Here, we used an intravital time-lapse imaging technique to directly visualise mature osteoclasts and their precursors, and explored how different biological DMARDs acted in vivo ...
April 28, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701894/fluorescent-labeling-of-endogenous-platelets-for-intravital-microscopy-effects-on-platelet-function
#20
Qi Da, Paul J Derry, Fong W Lam, Rolando E Rumbaut
OBJECTIVE: Monitoring endogenous platelets during intravital microscopy often involves two approaches: fluorescently-labeled antibodies or genetic models of platelet-specific fluorescent protein expression. Due to limited data available on platelet functional changes induced by these methods, we compared functional effects of these methods on platelets. METHODS: Platelet aggregation to collagen and thrombin, and collagen matrix-mediated platelet adhesion/aggregation under flow were tested...
April 27, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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