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Intravital microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133918/fast-simultaneous-assessment-of-renal-and-liver-function-using-polymethine-dyes-in-animal-models-of-chronic-and-acute-organ-injury
#1
A T Press, M J Butans, T P Haider, C Weber, S Neugebauer, M Kiehntopf, U S Schubert, M G Clemens, M Bauer, A Kortgen
Simultaneous assessment of excretory liver and kidney function is still an unmet need in experimental stress models as well as in critical care. The aim of the study was to characterize two polymethine-dyes potentially suitable for this purpose in vivo. Plasma disappearance rate and elimination measurements of simultaneously injected fluorescent dyes DY-780 (hepato-biliary elimination) and DY-654(renal elimination) were conducted using catheter techniques and intravital microscopy in animals subjected to different organ injuries, i...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133360/selective-nanoparticle-targeting-of-the-renal-tubules
#2
Ryan M Williams, Janki Shah, Helen S Tian, Xi Chen, Frederic Geissmann, Edgar A Jaimes, Daniel A Heller
Direct targeting to the kidneys is a promising strategy to improve drug therapeutic index for the treatment of kidney diseases. We sought to investigate the renal selectivity and safety of kidney-targeted mesoscale nanoparticle technology. We found that direct intravenous administration of these particles resulted in 26-fold renal selectivity and localized negligibly in the liver or other organs. The nanoparticles targeted the renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, as evidenced by intravital microscopy and ex vivo imaging...
November 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130484/the-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-prn473-inhibits-neutrophil-recruitment-via-inhibition-of-mac-1-signaling
#3
Jan M Herter, Andreas Margraf, Stephanie Volmering, Benedito Eduardo Correia, J Michael Bradshaw, Angelina Bisconte, Ronald J Hill, Claire L Langrish, Clifford A Lowell, Alexander Zarbock
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Following inflammatory stimuli neutrophils are recruited to sites of inflammation and exert effector functions that often have deleterious effects on tissue integrity, which can lead to organ failure. Btk is expressed in neutrophils, and constitutes a promising pharmacological target for neutrophil mediated tissue damage. Here we evaluate a selective reversible inhibitor of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (PRN473) for its ability to dampen neutrophil influx via inhibition of adhesion receptor signaling pathways...
November 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128674/staged-development-of-long-lived-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-th17-resident-memory-t-cell-population-to-candida-albicans-after-skin-infection
#4
Chang Ook Park, Xiujun Fu, Xiaodong Jiang, Youdong Pan, Jessica E Teague, Nicholas Collins, Tian Tian, John T O'Malley, Ryan O Emerson, Ji Hye Kim, Yookyung Jung, Rei Watanabe, Robert C Fuhlbrigge, Francis R Carbone, Thomas Gebhardt, Rachael A Clark, Charles P Lin, Thomas S Kupper
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus to which humans are exposed early in life and by adulthood it is part of the mycobiome of skin and other tissues. Neonatal skin lacks resident memory T (TRM) cells, but in adults the C. albicans skin test is a surrogate for immunocompetence. Young adult mice raised under SPF conditions are naive to C. albicans, and have recently been shown to have an immune system resembling that of neonatal humans. OBJECTIVE: We studied the evolution of the adaptive cutaneous immune response to Candida...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120019/cellular-protection-mechanisms-that-minimise-accumulation-of-mutations-in-intestinal-tissue
#5
Jacco van Rheenen, Lotte Bruens
The epithelial lining of the intestine is constantly exposed to a hostile environment containing a mixture of gastric acids, consumed harmful substances and microbes. It is widely accepted that the intestine has multiple mechanisms to protect itself against tissue damage. Here, we review three cellular protection mechanisms that protect intestinal tissue against accumulation of somatic mutations: the conveyer belt-like structure, stem cell competition and crypt fusion. We highlight the events that can perturb these cellular protection mechanisms, and their impact on accumulation of new (oncogenic) mutations...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077263/cell-shape-characterization-and-classification-with-discrete-fourier-transforms-and-self-organizing-maps
#6
Fabian L Kriegel, Ralf Köhler, Jannike Bayat-Sarmadi, Simon Bayerl, Anja E Hauser, Raluca Niesner, Andreas Luch, Zoltan Cseresnyes
Cells in their natural environment often exhibit complex kinetic behavior and radical adjustments of their shapes. This enables them to accommodate to short- and long-term changes in their surroundings under physiological and pathological conditions. Intravital multi-photon microscopy is a powerful tool to record this complex behavior. Traditionally, cell behavior is characterized by tracking the cells' movements, which yields numerous parameters describing the spatiotemporal characteristics of cells. Cells can be classified according to their tracking behavior using all or a subset of these kinetic parameters...
October 27, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065724/microcirculatory-disturbances-and-cellular-changes-during-progression-of-hepatic-steatosis-to-liver-tumors
#7
Marie Liebig, Alireza Hassanzada, Malte Kämmerling, Berit Genz, Brigitte Vollmar, Kerstin Abshagen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is closely associated with metabolic syndrome and comprises a pathological spectrum of liver disease ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and can progress to fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In 2013, a mouse model was described that mimics non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progression from steatohepatitis to tumors in a short time span and with high incidence. As microcirculatory disturbances play a crucial role in liver disease, the suitability of the steatosis-inflammation-tumor model for microcirculatory studies was assessed...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065178/intravital-imaging-of-osteocytes-in-mouse-calvaria-using-third-harmonic-generation-microscopy
#8
Danielle Tokarz, Richard Cisek, Marc N Wein, Raphaël Turcotte, Christa Haase, Shu-Chi A Yeh, Srinidhi Bharadwaj, Anthony P Raphael, Hari Paudel, Clemens Alt, Tzu-Ming Liu, Henry M Kronenberg, Charles P Lin
Osteocytes are the most abundant cell in the bone, and have multiple functions including mechanosensing and regulation of bone remodeling activities. Since osteocytes are embedded in the bone matrix, their inaccessibility makes in vivo studies problematic. Therefore, a non-invasive technique with high spatial resolution is desired. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy as a noninvasive technique for high-resolution imaging of the lacunar-canalicular network (LCN) in live mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062013/near-simultaneous-intravital-microscopy-of-glucose-uptake-and-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-key-endpoints-that-reflect-major-metabolic-axes-in-cancer
#9
Caigang Zhu, Amy F Martinez, Hannah L Martin, Martin Li, Brian T Crouch, David A Carlson, Timothy A J Haystead, Nimmi Ramanujam
While the demand for metabolic imaging has increased in recent years, simultaneous in vivo measurement of multiple metabolic endpoints remains challenging. Here we report on a novel technique that provides in vivo high-resolution simultaneous imaging of glucose uptake and mitochondrial metabolism within a dynamic tissue microenvironment. Two indicators were leveraged; 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG) reports on glucose uptake and Tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) reports on mitochondrial membrane potential...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055774/functional-nanoparticles-exploit-the-bile-acid-pathway-to-overcome-multiple-barriers-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-for-oral-insulin-delivery
#10
Weiwei Fan, Dengning Xia, Quanlei Zhu, Xiuying Li, Shufang He, Chunliu Zhu, Shiyan Guo, Lars Hovgaard, Mingshi Yang, Yong Gan
Oral absorption of protein/peptide-loaded nanoparticles is often limited by multiple barriers of the intestinal epithelium. In addition to mucus translocation and apical endocytosis, highly efficient transepithelial absorption of nanoparticles requires successful intracellular trafficking, especially to avoid lysosomal degradation, and basolateral release. Here, the functional material, deoxycholic acid-conjugated chitosan, is synthesized and loaded with the model protein drug insulin into deoxycholic acid-modified nanoparticles (DNPs)...
October 13, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051336/exercise-limitations-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-and-preserved-ejection-fraction
#11
David C Poole, Russell S Richardson, Mark J Haykowsky, Daniel M Hirai, Timothy I Musch
The hallmark symptom of chronic heart failure (CHF) syndrome is severe exercise intolerance. Impaired perfusive and diffusive O2 transport are two of the major determinants of reduced physical capacity and lowered maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) in CHF patients. It has now become evident that this syndrome manifests two different phenotypic variations: heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF and HFrEF, respectively). Unlike HFrEF, however, there is currently limited understanding of HFpEF pathophysiology leading to a lack of effective pharmacological treatments for this subpopulation...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047209/effects-of-cryopreservation-on-adipose-tissue-derived-microvascular-fragments
#12
Matthias W Laschke, Philipp Karschnia, Claudia Scheuer, Alexander Heß, Wolfgang Metzger, Michael D Menger
Adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) are effective vascularization units for tissue engineering. They rapidly reassemble into new microvascular networks after seeding on scaffolds and subsequent in vivo implantation. Herein, we analyzed whether the vascularization capacity of ad-MVF is affected by cryopreservation. Ad-MVF were isolated from the epididymal fat pads of C57BL/6 mice and cryopreserved for 7 days to compare their morphology, viability, cellular composition and protein expression with freshly isolated control ad-MVF...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045904/inkt-cells-orchestrate-a-switch-from-inflammation-to-resolution-of-sterile-liver-injury
#13
Pei Xiong Liew, Woo-Yong Lee, Paul Kubes
After traumatic injury, some cells function as detectors to sense injury and to modulate the local immune response toward a restitution phase by affecting the local cytokine milieu. Using intravital microscopy, we observed that patrolling invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells were initially excluded from a site of hepatic injury but subsequently were strategically arrested first via self-antigens and then by cytokines, circumscribing the injured site at exactly the location where monocytes co-localized and hepatocytes proliferated...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045127/revealing-dynamics-of-accumulation-of-systemically-injected-liposomes-in-the-skin-by-intravital-microscopy
#14
James I Griffin, Guankui Wang, Weston J Smith, Vivian P Vu, Robert Scheinman, Dominik Stitch, Radu Moldovan, Seyed Moein Moghimi, Dmitri Simberg
Accumulation of intravenously injected cytotoxic liposomes in the skin induces serious toxicity. We used single time point and longitudinal intravital microscopy to understand skin accumulation dynamics of non-PEGylated and PEGylated liposomes after systemic injection into mice. Non-PEGylated egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes showed short circulation half-life (1.3 h) and immediate aggregation in the blood, with some aggregates lodging in skin microvasculature soon after the injection. At 24 h, and more prominently at 48 h postinjection, liposomes appeared in dermal and subdermal cells...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044327/generation-of-a-triple-fluorescent-mouse-strain-allows-a-dynamic-and-spatial-visualization-of-different-liver-phagocytes-in-vivo
#15
Brenda N Nakagaki, Maria A Freitas-Lopes, Érika Carvalho, Raquel Carvalho-Gontijo, Hortência M Castro-Oliveira, Rafael M Rezende, Denise C Cara, Mônica M Santos, Rodrigo Pestana Lopes, Bruna A David, Gustavo B Menezes
Resident and circulating immune cells have been extensively studied due to their almost ubiquitous role in cell biology. Despite their classification under the "immune cell department", it is becoming increasingly clear that these cells are involved in many different non-immune related phenomena, including fetus development, vascular formation, memory, social behavior and many other phenotypes. There is a huge potential in combining high-throughput assays - including flow cytometry and gene analysis - with in vivo imaging...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039777/the-specific-mitogen-and-stress-activated-protein-kinase-msk1-inhibitor-sb-747651a-modulates-chemokine-induced-neutrophil-recruitment
#16
Mokarram Hossain, Entesar Omran, Najia Xu, Lixin Liu
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling is involved in a variety of cellular functions. MAPK-dependent functions rely on phosphorylation of target proteins such as mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 participates in the early gene expression and in the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of MSK1 in neutrophil recruitment remains elusive. Here, we show that chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (CXCL2) enhances neutrophil MSK1 expression...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032551/two-photon-intravital-microscopy-of-lyme-borrelia-in-mice
#17
Alexia A Belperron, Jialing Mao, Linda K Bockenstedt
Two-photon intravital microscopy is a powerful tool that allows visualization of cells in intact tissues in a live animal in real time. In recent years, this advanced technology has been applied to understand pathogen-host interactions using fluorescently labeled bacteria. In particular, infectious fluorescent transformants of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, an Ixodes tick-transmitted pathogen, have been imaged by two-photon intravital microscopy to study bacterial motility and interactions of the pathogen with feeding ticks and host tissues...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032512/il-33-signalling-in-liver-immune-cells-enhances-drug-induced-liver-injury-and-inflammation
#18
Maísa Mota Antunes, Alan Moreira Araújo, Ariane Barros Diniz, Rafaela Vaz Sousa Pereira, Débora Moreira Alvarenga, Bruna Araújo David, Renata Monti Rocha, Maria Alice Freitas Lopes, Sarah Cozzer Marchesi, Brenda Naemi Nakagaki, Érika Carvalho, Pedro Elias Marques, Bernhard Ryffel, Valérie Quesniaux, Rodrigo Guabiraba Brito, José Carlos Alves Filho, Denise Carmona Cara, Rafael Machado Rezende, Gustavo Batista Menezes
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of IL-33/ST2 axis in the onset and progression of acute liver injury using a mice model of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). MATERIAL AND TREATMENTS: DILI was induced by overdose administration of acetaminophen (APAP) by oral gavage in wild-type BALB/c, ST2-deficient mice and in different bone marrow chimeras. Neutrophils were depleted by anti-Ly6G and macrophages with clodronate liposomes (CLL)...
October 14, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026370/preliminary-molecular-characterization-of-a-proinflammatory-and-nociceptive-molecule-from-the-echinometra-lucunter-spines-extracts
#19
Juliana Mozer Sciani, Bianca Zychar, Luis Roberto Gonçalves, Renata Giorgi, Thiago Nogueira, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Sea urchins are animals commonly found on the Brazilian shoreline, being Echinometra lucunter the most abundant species. Accidents caused by E. lucunter have been reported as one of the most frequent in Brazil, and are characterized by intense pain and inflammation, consequence of spine puncture in the skin. In order to characterize such toxic effects, we isolated one molecule that caused inflammatory and nociceptive effects. METHODS: E. lucunter specimens were collected without gender distinction...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023813/dual-catenin-loss-in-murine-liver-causes-tight-junctional-deregulation-and-progressive-intrahepatic-cholestasis
#20
Tirthadipa Pradhan-Sundd, Lili Zhou, Ravi Vats, An Jiang, Laura Molina, Sucha Singh, Minakshi Poddar, Jacquelyn M Russell, Donna B Stolz, Michael Oertel, Udayan Apte, Simon Watkins, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Kari N Nejak-Bowen, Prithu Sundd, Satdarshan P Monga
β-Catenin, the downstream effector of the Wnt signaling, plays important roles in hepatic development, regeneration and tumorigenesis. However, its role at hepatocyte adherens junctions (AJ) is relatively poorly understood, chiefly due to spontaneous compensation by γ-catenin. Here, we simultaneously ablate β- and γ-catenin expression in mouse liver by interbreeding β-catenin-γ-catenin double-floxed mice and albumin-cre transgenic mice. Double knockout mice (DKO) show failure to thrive, impaired hepatocyte differentiation, cholemia, ductular reaction, progressive cholestasis, inflammation, fibrosis and tumorigenesis, which was associated with deregulation of tight junctions (TJ) and bile acid transporters, leading to early morbidity and mortality, a phenotype reminiscent of Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (PFIC)...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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