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Intravital microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198734/new-frontiers-in-intravital-microscopy-of-the-kidney
#1
Andrew M Hall, Claus D Schuh, Dominik Haenni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intravital imaging with multiphoton microscopy enables the detailed study of dynamic cellular processes within functioning organs in living animals, in ways that would not otherwise be possible. It therefore represents a powerful tool in translational kidney research. In this article, we will discuss several new technical developments that have significantly increased the capabilities of kidney imaging. RECENT FINDINGS: Important contemporary advances in biomedical imaging technology include longer wavelength excitation lasers, far-red emitting fluorescent reporters, highly sensitive detectors, fluorescence lifetime measurements, adaptive optics, microendoscopes, high-throughput automated analysis algorithms and tissue clearing techniques...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187268/fibroblast-growth-factor-signaling-mediates-pulmonary-endothelial-glycocalyx-reconstitution
#2
Yimu Yang, Sarah M Haeger, Matthew A Suflita, Fuming Zhang, Kyrie L Dailey, James F Colbert, Joshay A Ford, Mario A Picon, Robert S Stearman, Lei Lin, Xinyue Liu, Xiaorui Han, Robert J Linhardt, Eric P Schmidt
RATIONALE: The endothelial glycocalyx is a heparan sulfate-rich endovascular structure critical to endothelial function. Accordingly, endothelial glycocalyx degradation during sepsis contributes to tissue edema and organ injury. OBJECTIVE: We determined the endogenous mechanisms governing pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx reconstitution, and if these reparative mechanisms are impaired during sepsis. METHODS: We performed intravital microscopy of wild-type and transgenic mice to determine the rapidity of pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx reconstitution after non-septic (heparinase-III-mediated) or septic (cecal ligation and puncture-mediated) endothelial glycocalyx degradation...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182324/clumping-factor-a-von-willebrand-factor-binding-protein-and-von-willebrand-factor-anchor-staphylococcus-aureus-to-the-vessel-wall
#3
J Claes, L Liesenborghs, M Peetermans, T R Veloso, D Missiakas, O Schneewind, S Mancini, J M Entenza, M F Hoylaerts, R Heying, P Verhamme, T Vanassche
OBJECTIVE: When establishing endovascular infections, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) overcomes shear forces of flowing blood by binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF). Staphylococcal VWF-binding protein (vWbp) interacts with VWF, but it is unknown how this secreted protein binds to the bacterial cell wall. We hypothesized that vWbp interacts with a staphylococcal surface protein, mediating the adhesion of S. aureus to VWF and vascular endothelium under shear stress. METHODS: We studied the binding of S...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178387/transient-von-willebrand-factor-mediated-platelet-influx-stimulates-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-mice
#4
Marc Kirschbaum, Craig N Jenne, Zwanida J Veldhuis, Klaas A Sjollema, Peter J Lenting, Ben N G Giepmans, Robert J Porte, Paul Kubes, Cécile V Denis, Ton Lisman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In addition to their function in thrombosis and hemostasis, platelets play an important role in the stimulation of liver regeneration. It has been suggested that platelets deliver mitogenic cargo to the regenerating liver, and accumulation of platelets in the regenerating liver has been demonstrated. We studied kinetics of platelet influx in the regenerating liver and investigated the signal that initiates platelet influx. METHODS: We visualized platelets in the liver remnant after partial hepatectomy in mice using intravital microscopy and assessed liver regeneration by examination of liver/body weight ratio and the number of proliferating hepatocytes examined by immunohistochemistry...
February 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166139/novel-injury-site-targeted-fusion-protein-comprising-annexin-v-and-kunitz-inhibitor-domains-ameliorates-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-promotes-survival-of-ischemic-rat-abdominal-skin-flaps
#5
Victor Bong-Hang Shyu, Chung En Hsu, Chih-Jen Wen, Tze-Chein Wun, Rui Tang, Samuel Achilefu, Fu-Chan Wei, Hui-Yun Cheng
: Appropriate antithrombotic therapy is critical for successful outcomes in reconstructive microsurgical procedures involving free tissue transfer. The annexin V-6L15 (ANV-6L15) fusion protein was developed as a targeted antithrombotic reagent. Annexin V specifically binds to exposed phosphatidylserine on apoptotic or injured cells, and prevents coagulation and cell adhesion, whereas 6L15 inhibits tissue factor-VIIa pathway within the coagulation cascade. The treatment efficacy of ANV-6L15 on rat island muscle and pedicled abdominal fasciocutaneous flaps following ischemic injury and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) was evaluated...
February 4, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150854/imaging-analyses-of-coagulation-dependent-initiation-of-fibrinolysis-on-activated-platelets-and-its-modification-by-thrombin-activatable-fibrinolysis-inhibitor
#6
Tomasz Brzoska, Yuko Suzuki, Hideto Sano, Seiichirou Suzuki, Martyna Tomczyk, Hiroki Tanaka, Tetsumei Urano
Using intravital confocal microscopy, we observed previously that the process of platelet phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, fibrin formation and lysine binding site-dependent plasminogen (plg) accumulation took place only in the center of thrombi, not at their periphery. These findings prompted us to analyse the spatiotemporal regulatory mechanisms underlying coagulation and fibrinolysis. We analysed the fibrin network formation and the subsequent lysis in an in vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma supplemented with fluorescently labelled coagulation and fibrinolytic factors, using confocal laser scanning microscopy...
February 2, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128708/detection-of-stem-cell-transplant-rejection-with-ferumoxytol-mr-imaging-correlation-of-mr-imaging-findings-with-those-at-intravital-microscopy
#7
Heike E Daldrup-Link, Carmel Chan, Olga Lenkov, Seyedmeghdad Taghavigarmestani, Toktam Nazekati, Hossein Nejadnik, Fanny Chapelin, Aman Khurana, Xinming Tong, Fan Yang, Laura Pisani, Michael Longaker, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir
Purpose To determine whether endogenous labeling of macrophages with clinically applicable nanoparticles enables noninvasive detection of innate immune responses to stem cell transplants with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods Work with human stem cells was approved by the institutional review board and the stem cell research oversight committee, and animal experiments were approved by the administrative panel on laboratory animal care. Nine immunocompetent Sprague-Dawley rats received intravenous injection of ferumoxytol, and 18 Jax C57BL/6-Tg (Csf1r-EGFP-NGFR/FKBP1A/TNFRSF6) 2Bck/J mice received rhodamine-conjugated ferumoxytol...
January 27, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126314/intravital-real-time-analysis-of-t-cell-activation-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Dmitri Lodygin, Alexander Flügel
Antigenic activation is a central process in T-cell biology essential for efficient protection of the host from infections and tumors by the adaptive immune system. Furthermore, this process is of paramount importance for the initiation of autoimmunity. Many insights into the mechanisms of T-cell activation have been gained from real-time studies. The development of 2-photon microscopy transferred the focus of T cell activation to in vivo research and the analysis of the highly dynamic and complex T-cell response in the physiologic context of an animal model...
December 28, 2016: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123541/differential-effects-of-recombinant-human-endostatin-treatment-on-differentiated-and-undifferentiated-blood-vessels-in-lewis-lung-cancer
#9
Weijiang Fu, Jing Zhuo, Likuan Hu
In the present study, we evaluated the effects of recombinant human (rh-)endostatin treatment on differentiated and undifferentiated tumor vasculature in Lewis lung cancer for the first time. Lewis lung carcinoma models were established. The animals were treated daily with varying doses of rh-endostatin or physiological saline for 14 days. Intravital microscopy was performed following treatment. The expression of CD31 and CD34 was determined by immunohistochemical staining, and microvessel density (MVD) was determined...
January 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123461/involvement-of-nadph-oxidase-in-high-dose-phenolic-acid-induced-pro-oxidant-activity-on-rat-mesenteric-venules
#10
Wen-Yuan Du, Ying Xiao, Jian-Jing Yao, Zhe Hao, Yu-Bin Zhao
In the present study, we investigated the potential role of phenolic acids in initiating oxidative damage to microvascular endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism mediating the pro-oxidant action. Male Wistar rats received high doses of phenolic acid [caffeic acid (CA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), chlorogenic acid (ChA) or ferulic acid (FA)]. The creation of reactive oxygen species in mesenteric microcirculation endothelial cells and adherent leukocytes along with venules were assessed using intravital microscopy...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122967/hydrodynamic-isotonic-fluid-delivery-ameliorates-moderate-to-severe-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat-kidneys
#11
Jason A Collett, Peter R Corridon, Purvi Mehrotra, Alexander L Kolb, George J Rhodes, Caroline A Miller, Bruce A Molitoris, Janice G Pennington, Ruben M Sandoval, Simon J Atkinson, Silvia B Campos-Bilderback, David P Basile, Robert L Bacallao
Highly aerobic organs like the kidney are innately susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, which can originate from sources including myocardial infarction, renal trauma, and transplant. Therapy is mainly supportive and depends on the cause(s) of damage. In the absence of hypervolemia, intravenous fluid delivery is frequently the first course of treatment but does not reverse established AKI. Evidence suggests that disrupting leukocyte adhesion may prevent the impairment of renal microvascular perfusion and the heightened inflammatory response that exacerbate ischemic renal injury...
January 25, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122813/hs1-deficiency-impairs-neutrophil-recruitment-in-vivo-and-activation-of-the-small-gtpases-rac1-and-rap1
#12
Joanna Latasiewicz, Annette Artz, Ding Jing, Mariana Pacheco Blanco, Silke M Currie, Martha Velázquez Avila, Michael Schnoor, Dietmar Vestweber
Neutrophil extravasation is a critical step of the innate immune system's response to inflammation. This multistep process is tightly regulated by adhesion and signaling molecules in the endothelium and neutrophils. Activation of the β2 integrin LFA-1 is critical for adhesion of leukocytes to postcapillary venules. This step requires coordinated activation of signaling pathways in chemokine-stimulated neutrophils, including GTPase activation and cytoskeletal remodeling, leading to conformational changes in LFA-1...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122237/t-cell-migration-from-inflamed-skin-to-draining-lymph-nodes-requires-intralymphatic-crawling-supported-by-icam-1-lfa-1-interactions
#13
Alvaro Teijeira, Morgan C Hunter, Erica Russo, Steven T Proulx, Thomas Frei, Gudrun F Debes, Marc Coles, Ignacio Melero, Michael Detmar, Ana Rouzaut, Cornelia Halin
T cells are the most abundant cell type found in afferent lymph, but their migration through lymphatic vessels (LVs) remains poorly understood. Performing intravital microscopy in the murine skin, we imaged T cell migration through afferent LVs in vivo. T cells entered into and actively migrated within lymphatic capillaries but were passively transported in contractile collecting vessels. Intralymphatic T cell number and motility were increased during contact-hypersensitivity-induced inflammation and dependent on ICAM-1/LFA-1 interactions...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102536/evaluation-of-iris-functional-capillary-density-in-experimental-local-and-systemic-inflammation
#14
N Arora, S Islam, K Wafa, J Zhou, J T Toguri, V Cerny, C Lehmann
The ocular microcirculation represents an important target to treat inflammatory diseases of eye, where impairment of microvascular blood flow plays key role as, for example, in anterior uveitis. To evaluate novel interventions targeting the microcirculation, appropriate and reliable tools to study this particular microvascular bed are needed. Intravital microscopy (IVM) belongs to several methods allowing evaluation of microcirculation experimentally, even in small animals. The aim of our study was to examine the iridial microcirculation (IMIC) in uveitis induced by local or systemic endotoxin administration in rats and mice by IVM and to propose new parameters to quantify the changes within the IMIC...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102120/intestinal-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-health-and-disease
#15
Theodore J Sanders, Ulf Yrlid, Kevin J Maloy
The intestine is the tissue of the body with the highest constitutive exposure to foreign antigen and is also a common entry portal for many local and systemic pathogens. Therefore, the local immune system has the unenviable task of balancing efficient responses to dangerous pathogens with tolerance toward beneficial microbiota and food antigens. As in most tissues, the decision between tolerance and immunity is critically governed by the activity of local myeloid cells. However, the unique challenges posed by the intestinal environment have necessitated the development of several specialized mononuclear phagocyte populations with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics that have vital roles in maintaining barrier function and immune homeostasis in the intestine...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100205/a-fast-and-effective-determination-of-the-biodistribution-and-subcellular-localization-of-fluorescent-immunoliposomes-in-freshly-excised-animal-organs
#16
Felista L Tansi, Ronny Rüger, Ansgar M Kollmeier, Claudia Böhm, Roland E Kontermann, Ulf K Teichgraeber, Alfred Fahr, Ingrid Hilger
BACKGROUND: Preclinical research implementing fluorescence-based approaches is inevitable for drug discovery and technology. For example, a variety of contrast agents developed for biomedical imaging are usually evaluated in cell systems and animal models based on their conjugation to fluorescent dyes. Biodistribution studies of excised organs are often performed by macroscopic imaging, whereas the subcellular localization though vital, is often neglected or further validated by histological procedures...
January 18, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097236/lung-vaso-occlusion-in-sickle-cell-disease-mediated-by-arteriolar-neutrophil-platelet-microemboli
#17
Margaret F Bennewitz, Maritza A Jimenez, Ravi Vats, Egemen Tutuncuoglu, Jude Jonassaint, Gregory J Kato, Mark T Gladwin, Prithu Sundd
In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the polymerization of intraerythrocytic hemoglobin S promotes downstream vaso-occlusive events in the microvasculature. While vaso-occlusion is known to occur in the lung, often in the context of systemic vaso-occlusive crisis and the acute chest syndrome, the pathophysiological mechanisms that incite lung injury are unknown. We used intravital microscopy of the lung in transgenic humanized SCD mice to monitor acute vaso-occlusive events following an acute dose of systemic lipopolysaccharide sufficient to trigger events in SCD but not control mice...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094049/ep4-receptor-promotes-invadopodia-and-invasion-in-human-breast-cancer
#18
Felix Tönisen, Louisiane Perrin, Battuya Bayarmagnai, Koen van den Dries, Alessandra Cambi, Bojana Gligorijevic
The production of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is elevated in human breast cancer cells. The abnormal expression of COX-2, which is involved in the synthesis of PGE2, was recently reported as a critical determinant for invasiveness of human breast cancer cells. Autocrine and paracrine PGE2-mediated stimulation of the PGE2 receptor EP4 transduces multiple signaling pathways leading to diverse patho-physiological effects, including tumor cell invasion and metastasis. It is known that PGE2-induced EP4 activation can transactivate the intracellular signaling pathway of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081484/new-insights-into-antiviral-immunity-gained-through-intravital-imaging
#19
REVIEW
Heather D Hickman
Viral infections pose an ongoing challenge for mankind. Much of our knowledge of the immune response to viral infections comes from ex vivo analyses of infected animals, which provide important yet static information about events occurring within the host. Recently, a relatively new technique known as intravital microscopy (IVM) has been applied to the study of antiviral immunity. Intravital imaging affords a unique, real-time view of both viral dynamics and the ensuing immune response (along with their interplay) in the living animal...
January 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075525/dynamic-remodeling-of-arteriolar-collaterals-after-acute-occlusion-in-chick-chorioallantoic-membrane
#20
Weiwei Xiang, Bettina Reglin, Bianca Nitzsche, Martin Maibier, Wenwei Rong, Björn Hoffmann, Alfredo Ruggeri, Pedro Guimarães, Timothy W Secomb, Axel R Pries
After arteriolar occlusion, collaterals enlarge and initially elevated wall shear stress (WSS) normalizes. While most previous studies focused on endpoints of such adaptive changes in larger collaterals the present investigation aimed to continuously determine the relation between WSS and diameter in microvascular collaterals during adaptive reactions METHODS: In Hamburger-Hamilton stage 40 chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs), junction points between arteriolar segments were identified and the third upstream segment on one side was occluded...
January 11, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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