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Jian Peng, Jing Ma, Qianyuan Liu, Yanxu Liu, Yi'na Hu, Yingru Li, Yuemin Yue
As an important theme in global climate change and urban sustainable development, the changes of land surface temperature (LST) and surface urban heat island (SUHI) have been more and more focused by urban ecologists. This study used land-use data to identify the urban-rural areas in 285 cities in China and comparatively analyzed LST in urban-rural areas with the perspective of spatial-temporal dynamics heterogeneity. The results showed that, 98.9% of the cities exhibited SUHI effect in summer nighttime and the effect was stronger in northern cities than that in southern cities...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chiara Volta, David T Ho, Gernot Friederich, Victor C Engel, Mahadev Bhat
High-resolution time series measurements of temperature, salinity, pH and pCO2 were made during the period October 2014-September 2015 at the midpoint of Shark River, a 15km tidal river that originates in the freshwater Everglades of south Florida (USA) and discharges into the Gulf of Mexico. Dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in this system vary over time, and during this study could be classified into three distinct regimes corresponding to October 2014-February 2015 (a wet to dry season transition period), March-May 2015 (dry period) and July-September 2015 (wet period)...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhixiang Lu, Yongping Wei, Qi Feng, Jiali Xie, Honglang Xiao, Guodong Cheng
There is limited quantitative understanding of interactions between human and environmental systems over the millennial scale. We aim to reveal the co-evolutionary dynamics of the human-environment system in a river basin by simulating the water use and net primary production (NPP) allocation for human and environmental systems over the last 2000years in Heihe River basin (HRB) in northwest China. We partition the catchment total evapotranspiration (ET) into ET for human and environmental systems with a social-hydrological framework and estimate the NPP for human and environmental systems using the Box-Lieth model, then classify the co-evolutionary processes of the human-environment system into distinct phases using the rate of changes of NPP over time, and discover the trade-offs or synergies relationships between them based on the elasticity of change of the NPP for humans to the change of NPP for environment...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Linlin Li, Yizhang Zhang, Lei Zheng, Shaoyong Lu, Zhenguang Yan, Junhong Ling
The occurrence and distributions of simazine, and its environmental behaviors were studied in Taizi River, China. Results showed that concentration of simazine in surface water and suspended solids (SS) were in the range of 35-1150 ng L-1 and 0.00-1075 ng g-1 with mean value of 240.26 ng L-1 and 311.68 ng g-1 , respectively. A significant correlation between the concentrations of simazine and organic carbon was observed in both surface water and SS (r1  = 0.82, n1  = 15, r2  = 0...
April 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Karel Mena-Ulecia, Desmond MacLeod-Carey
2-phenyl-benzotriazole xenobiotic compounds (PBTA-4, PBTA-6, PBTA-7 and PBTA-8) that were previously isolated and identified in waters of the Yodo river, in Japan (Nukaya et al., 2001; Ohe et al., 2004; Watanabe et al., 2001) were characterized as powerful pro-mutagens. In order to predict the activation mechanism of these pro-mutagens, we designed a computational biochemistry protocol, which includes, docking experiments, molecular dynamics simulations and free energy decomposition calculations to obtain information about the interaction of 2-phenyl-benzotriazole molecules into the active center of cytochrome P450-CYP1A1 (CYP1A1)...
April 7, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Evripidis Gavathiotis, Qi Zhang, Jingyu Zhang
Shanghai, a city situated on the estuary of Yangtze River in east China (Figure 1), welcomed the gathering of diverse chemical biologists from around the globe at the 6th annual conference of the International Chemical Biology Society (ICBS; held October 17-20, 2017. The annual conference is the flagship meeting for the ICBS, an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting research and educational opportunities at the interface of chemistry and biology.
April 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Patrick Videau, Orion S Rivers, Sasa K Tom, Reid T Oshiro, Blake Ushijima, Vaille A Swenson, Benjamin Philmus, Michael O Gaylor, Loralyn M Cozy
Multicellular development requires the careful orchestration of gene expression to correctly create and position specialized cells. In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, nitrogen-fixing heterocysts are differentiated from vegetative cells in a reproducibly periodic, and physiologically relevant pattern. While many genetic factors required for heterocyst development have been identified, the role of HetZ has remained unclear. Here we present evidence to clarify the requirement of hetZ for heterocyst production and support a model where HetZ functions in the patterning stage of differentiation...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Faissal Aziz, Naaila Ouazzani, Laila Mandi, Aziz Assaad, Steve Pontvianne, Hélène Poirot, Marie-Noëlle Pons
Water storage tanks, fed directly from the river through opened channels, are particular systems used for water supply in rural areas in Morocco. The stored water is used as drinking water by the surrounding population without any treatment. UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy (excitation-emission matrices and synchronous fluorescence) have been tested as rapid methods to assess the quality of the water stored in the reservoirs as well as along the river feeding them. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS50), collected with a difference of 50 nm between excitation and emission wavelengths, revealed a high tryptophan-like fluorescence, indicative of a pollution induced by untreated domestic and/or farm wastewater...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Zhuang Tian, Can Wang, Min Ji
Eutrophication of urban rivers has caused severe environmental problems due to the pollution from point and diffuse sources. Although eutrophication can be alleviated by reducing the input to the river system, fast-treating terminal control technologies, especially under emergent situations, should be developed to reduce risks induced by eutrophication. The present study developed an emergency purification device based on dissolved air flotation (DAF) technology. After equipment commissioning and parameter optimization for applications in the field of engineering, the device was found to effectively remove total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, chemical oxygen demand, and turbidity in water by controlling the coagulant dosage and adjusting the gas-liquid mixing pump parameters...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Fernando Magdaleno
The science and practice of environmental flows - aimed at the protection of ecosystem values and functions in regulated rivers - has progressively recognized the relevance of incorporating socio-cultural demands of local communities in the calculation of water requirements of rivers' habitats and services. This review paper synthesizes the concept of cultural flows, and presents the main approaches explored or conducted up to this date to provide such flows in rivers of different regions and typology. This work highlights the necessity of integrating cultural demands in future attempts to protect and restore altered flow patterns, due to the multiple interactions between flow, ecology and people which typically characterize rivers and other aquatic systems...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Yunho Lee, Che Ok Jeon
A novel orange-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain HR-UT , was isolated from a water sample of the Han River located in the Republic of Korea. Cells were catalase-positive and oxidase-positive, and non-motile curved rods without flagella. The strain grew at 5-35 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 6-10 (optimum of 7-8) and 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HR-UT formed a tight phylogenic lineage with Siphonobacter aquaeclarae DSM 21668T and 'Siphonobacter intestinalis' 63MJ-2...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yunho Lee, Che Ok Jeon
A yellow-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, catalase-negative and oxidase-positive bacterium, designated strain HR-AYT , was isolated from a water sample of the Han River. Cells were non-motile rods without flagella. Growth was observed at 5-30 °C (optimum, 20 °C), pH 5-9 (optimum, pH 7) and 0 % NaCl. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. Strain HR-AYT did not produce flexirubin-type pigments. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul Ghani, Ahmad Abas Kutty, Mohd Akmal Mahazar, Salman Abdo Al-Shami, Suhaila Ab Hamid
In order to evaluate the water quality of one of the most polluted urban river in Malaysia, the Penchala River, performance of eight biotic indices, Biomonitoring Working Party (BMWP), BMWPThai , BMWPViet , Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT), ASPTThai , BMWPViet , Family Biotic Index (FBI), and Singapore Biotic Index (SingScore), was compared. The water quality categorization based on these biotic indices was then compared with the categorization of Malaysian Water Quality Index (WQI) derived from measurements of six water physicochemical parameters (pH, BOD, COD, NH3 -N, DO, and TSS)...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Kate C Mellor, Anne Meyer, Doaa A Elkholly, Guillaume Fournié, Pham T Long, Ken Inui, Pawin Padungtod, Marius Gilbert, Scott H Newman, Timothée Vergne, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Kim B Stevens
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been circulating in Vietnam since 2003, whilst outbreaks of HPAI H5N6 virus are more recent, having only been reported since 2014. Although the spatial distribution of H5N1 outbreaks and risk factors for virus occurrence has been extensively studied, there have been no comparative studies for H5N6. Data collected through active surveillance of Vietnamese live bird markets (LBMs) between 2011 and 2015 were used to explore and compare the spatiotemporal distributions of H5N1- and H5N6-positive LBMs...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Britt A Henke, Kendra A Turk-Kubo, Sophie Bonnet, Jonathan P Zehr
Nitrogen (N2 ) fixation is a major source of nitrogen that supports primary production in the vast oligotrophic areas of the world's oceans. The Western Tropical South Pacific has recently been identified as a hotspot for N2 fixation. In the Noumea lagoon (New Caledonia), high abundances of the unicellular N2 -fixing cyanobacteria group A (UCYN-A), coupled with daytime N2 fixation rates associated with the <10 μm size fraction, suggest UCYN-A may be an important diazotroph (N2 -fixer) in this region. However, little is known about the seasonal variability and diversity of UCYN-A there...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Itanna O Fernandes, Jorge L P de Souza
Background: Biodiversity loss is accelerating rapidly in response to increasing human influence on the Earth's natural ecosystems. One way to overcome this problem is by focusing on places of human interest and monitoring the changes and impacts on the biodiversity. This study was conducted at six sites within the influence area of the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Power Plant in the margins of the Madeira River in Rondônia State. The sites cover a latitudinal gradient of approximately 100 km in the Brazilian Amazon Basin...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
Waldir Miron Berbel-Filho, Luciano Freitas Barros-Neto, Ricardo Marques Dias, Liana Figueiredo Mendes, Carlos Augusto Assumpção Figueiredo, Rodrigo Augusto Torres, Sergio Maia Queiroz Lima
Poecilia vivipara , a small euryhaline guppy is reported at the Maceió River micro-basin in the Fernando de Noronha oceanic archipelago, northeast Brazil. However, the origin (human-mediated or natural dispersal) of this insular population is still controversial. The present study investigates how this population is phylogenetically related to the surrounding continental populations using the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene from eleven river basins in South America. Our phylogenetic reconstruction showed a clear geographical distribution arrangement of P...
2018: ZooKeys
Enio B Cano, Jack C Schuster, Juan J Morrone
A phylogenetic morphological analysis of the genus Ogyges Kaup, distributed in Nuclear Central America, from Chiapas, Mexico, to northwestern Nicaragua was undertaken. Five species of Proculejus Kaup, distributed north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Mexico, were selected as outgroup. Ogyges was recovered as monophyletic with three species groups: championi , laevissimus , and crassulus . Each species group shows a distinct, generally allopatric distribution. The O. championi species group, with ten species, is distributed in the Maya block, more specifically in the mountainous system north of the Motozintla-Comaltitlán fault in Chiapas, and north of the dry valleys of the Cuilco and Motagua rivers in Guatemala...
2018: ZooKeys
Goran Volf, Nataša Atanasova, Mateja Škerjanec, Nevenka Ožanić
Northern Adriatic (NA) is one of the most productive parts of the Mediterranean Sea due to vast nutrient discharges from the contributing watershed. To understand better the excess of nutrients as stressors to the state of the marine ecosystem, a hybrid modeling approach following the DPSIR framework and terminology was developed, linking: 1) the AVGWLF model for modeling the pressures, i.e. nutrients originating from the watershed caused by two major drivers (urbanization and agriculture), 2) the ML tool MTSMOTI for inducing a model tree connecting the pressures with the marine ecosystem state, and 3) the water quality index, TRIX, equation to evaluate the trophic state of the marine ecosystem...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Virginia Ruiz-Villanueva, Andrés Díez-Herrero, Juan Antonio García, Alfredo Ollero, Hervé Piégay, Markus Stoffel
Instream large wood (LW) is widely perceived as a source of hazard that should be avoided. This is also the case of Spain, where wood has been systematically removed from rivers for decades. Consequently, people are accustomed to rivers with minimal or no LW at all. However, the presence and transport of wood is natural and has positive ecological effects. Previous studies reported that the general negative perception towards LW in rivers is related to the lack of background knowledge about stream ecology or fluvial dynamics...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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