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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455687/distinct-risk-factors-for-obsessive-and-compulsive-symptoms-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#1
Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Yulia Worbe, Miguel Bernardo, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common in clozapine-treated patients although the actual prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to address the three aforementioned questions. METHODS: The electronic records of a large cohort of clozapine-medicated schizophrenia patients routinely screened for OCD were used. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory Revised version (OCI-R) was available from 118 cases and a 21 points cut-off threshold for OCD was defined...
February 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451967/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-and-related-disorders-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#2
REVIEW
Joseph K Carpenter, Leigh A Andrews, Sara M Witcraft, Mark B Powers, Jasper A J Smits, Stefan G Hofmann
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety-related disorders based on randomized placebo-controlled trials. We included 41 studies that randomly assigned patients (N = 2,843) with acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or social anxiety disorder (SAD) to CBT or a psychological or pill placebo condition. Findings demonstrated moderate placebo-controlled effects of CBT on target disorder symptoms (Hedges' g = 0...
February 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451027/a-case-of-late-onset-ocd-developing-pls-and-ftd
#3
Enrica Bersano, Maria Francesca Sarnelli, Valentina Solara, Fabiola De Marchi, Gian Mauro Sacchetti, Alessandro Stecco, Lucia Corrado, Sandra D'alfonso, Roberto Cantello, Letizia Mazzini
We describe a 64-year-old woman, suffering from late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from the age of 57, who developed dysarthria and dysphagia, spastic diplegic, and proximal muscles weakness. Needle electromyography showed no active denervation. Neuropsychological evaluation showed intact cognitive functioning. We diagnosed upper motor neuron disease (MND), with no known genetic correlates. Brain magnetic resonance (MRI) detected bilateral hippocampal atrophy with sclerosis of right hippocampus...
February 16, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448863/mental-health-literacy-sub-clinical-personality-disorders-and-job-fit
#4
Adrian Furnham, Kelly Petropoulou
BACKGROUND: This study looked at lay theories of how people with sub-clinical personality disorders experience the world of work. AIMS: The aim was to investigate the paradox that subclinical and clinical personality disorders are seen as beneficial for success, rather than a handicap in certain jobs. METHODS: In all, 230 participants read 14 vignettes derived from Oldham and Morris's book describing DSMIII personality disorders for a popular audience...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440404/multivariate-resting-state-functional-connectivity-predicts-response-to-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Nicco Reggente, Teena D Moody, Francesca Morfini, Courtney Sheen, Jesse Rissman, Joseph O'Neill, Jamie D Feusner
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for many with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, response varies considerably among individuals. Attaining a means to predict an individual's potential response would permit clinicians to more prudently allocate resources for this often stressful and time-consuming treatment. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging from adults with OCD before and after 4 weeks of intensive daily CBT. We leveraged machine learning with cross-validation to assess the power of functional connectivity (FC) patterns to predict individual posttreatment OCD symptom severity...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435695/assessing-acute-secondary-treatment-outcomes-in-early-onset-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Mary Kathryn Cancilliere, Jennifer Freeman, Abbe Garcia, Kristen Benito, Jeffrey Sapyta, Martin Franklin
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children under 8 years of age, referred to as early-onset OCD, has similar features to OCD in older children, including moderate to severe symptoms, impairment, and significant comorbidity. Family-based cognitive behavioral therapy (FB-CBT) has been found efficacious in reducing OCD symptoms and functional impairment in children ages 5-8 years with OCD; however, its effectiveness on reducing comorbid psychiatric symptoms in this same population has yet to be demonstrated...
February 13, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431884/successes-and-optimism-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-neurological-disorders-ripe-for-a-surgical-time-out
#7
Alexander I Tröster
In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), dystonia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). DBS has been approved for these same conditions in Europe, but, additionally the European Commission (EC) has granted the Conformité Européenne (CE) Mark for DBS as adjunctive treatment for partial-onset seizures in adults with medically refractory epilepsy. In this issue of EJN Budman and colleagues [1] briefly review the range of neurologic conditions that might constitute promising new indications for DBS...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426573/intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-youth-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-generalized-anxiety-disorder-a-transdiagnostic-construct-with-implications-for-phenomenology-and-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Carrie B Gillett, Emily L Bilek, Gregory L Hanna, Kate D Fitzgerald
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are early-onset disorders with significant overlapping phenomenology, especially in young patients who, due to developmental stage, may have difficulty recognizing obsessions and worries as unrealistic or excessive. Shared phenomenology and high rates of comorbidity between OCD and GAD raise the possibility of common underlying processes, and recent work has focused on intolerance of uncertainty (IU) as a reasonable candidate. With an emphasis on the youth literature, we review the phenomenological overlap between OCD and GAD, how symptoms may relate to IU, and how IU may be measured...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426262/the-relationship-between-theory-of-mind-and-insight-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Rıza Gökçer Tulacı, Eylem Şahin Cankurtaran, Kadir Özdel, Nefise Öztürk, Erkan Kuru, İlker Özdemir
BACKGROUND: It is known that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with poor insight display more severe neuropsychological impairments than other patients with OCD. There are limited studies of OCD and theory of mind (ToM). AIM: To investigate ToM skills in patients with OCD and the relationship between insight and ToM skills by comparing OCD patients with good and poor insight. METHODS: Eighty patients with OCD and 80 healthy controls completed the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders, the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Beck Anxiety and Beck Depression Inventories, and the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale...
February 9, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425951/a-novel-approach-to-challenging-ocd-related-beliefs-using-a-mobile-app-an-exploratory-study
#10
María Roncero, Amparo Belloch, Guy Doron
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to cognitive models, obsessive compulsive symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and the use of counterproductive strategies to manage them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) related beliefs such as inflated responsibility, importance of thoughts and perfectionism increases the likelihood of such misinterpretations. Consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the usefulness of mobile delivered technologies in fostering cognitive behavior change, the present study assessed the effectiveness of a novel cognitive training exercise designed to challenge OCD-related beliefs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423665/a-meta-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-different-cortical-targets-used-in-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-for-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd
#11
REVIEW
Simone Rehn, Guy D Eslick, Vlasios Brakoulias
Randomised and sham-controlled trials (RCTs) of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results, which may be due to the variability in rTMS parameters used. We performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of OCD and aimed to determine whether certain rTMS parameters, such as cortical target, may be associated with higher treatment effectiveness. After conducting a systematic literature review for RCTs on rTMS for OCD through to 1 December 2016 using MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google, and Google Scholar, we performed a random-effects meta-analysis with the outcome measure as pre-post changes in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores...
February 9, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421371/changing-disgust-through-imagery-rescripting-and-cognitive-reappraisal-in-contamination-based-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Jakob Fink, Elisa Pflugradt, Christian Stierle, Cornelia Exner
Contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (C-OCD) is characterized by strongly experienced disgust and fear, in response to potentially contaminating stimuli. Both emotions differ in their susceptibility for change by habituation and extinction, which are important processes for the success of exposure therapy. Even though the response rates for exposure therapy for C-OCD are very good, it seems promising to test additional therapeutic techniques which target disgust more directly. Therefore, imagery rescripting and cognitive reappraisal were evaluated for their potential to change levels of disgust (within-subject), in the two-session laboratory study with 30 participants, with diagnosed C-OCD, and 30 matched, healthy controls (between-subject), presented...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419948/treatment-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-adults-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-treatment-strategies
#13
Sean T Gregory, Brian Kay, Joseph Smith, Kristin Hall, Alessandro S De Nadai, Troy Quast, Bradley C Riemann, Eric A Storch
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of 7 treatment strategies for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. METHODS: A model was developed to evaluate treatment alternatives for adults (18-64 years old) that consisted of 2 parts: a decision analytic model and a Markov model. The decision analytic model stratified 7 outpatient treatment strategies, and the Markov model accumulated benefits and costs across the life expectancy of a simulated cohort of individuals...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415552/eveningness-is-associated-with-poor-sleep-quality-and-negative-affect-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
Péter Simor, András Harsányi, Kata Csigó, Gergely Miklós, Alpár Sándor Lázár, Gyula Demeter
Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive behaviors that severely encumber daily functioning. OCD patients seem to exhibit sleep disturbances, especially delayed bedtimes that reflect disrupted circadian rhythmicity. Morningness-eveningness is a fundamental factor reflecting individual variations in diurnal preferences related to sleep and waking activities. Eveningness reflecting a delayed sleep-wake timing has repeatedly been associated with sleep problems and negative affect (NA)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412526/-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-deep-brain-stimulation-a-future-so-close
#15
João Flores Alves Dos Santos, Paul Krack, Shahan Momjian, Guido Bondolfi, Luc Mallet
The obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder with a high prevalence (2‑3 %), frequently causing a disabling condition. Drug and psychotherapeutic treatment is generally effective. However about 1/3 of the patients are treatment-resistant, suffering from chronic psychological distress with important sociofunctional repercussions. The identification of dysfunctional neural networks in this disease opens the door to the use of neuromodulation techniques, as deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
February 7, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410103/frontoparietal-areas-link-impairments-of-large-scale-intrinsic-brain-networks-with-aberrant-fronto-striatal-interactions-in-ocd-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#16
REVIEW
Deniz A Gürsel, Mihai Avram, Christian Sorg, Felix Brandl, Kathrin Koch
Neuroimaging studies report evidence for two distinct pathophysiological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): disrupted fronto-striatal circuits and impaired large-scale fronto-parietal-limbic intrinsic brain networks, defined by functionally connected (FC) infra-slow oscillations in ongoing brain activity. To synthesize this literature and overcome inconsistencies, we conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 18 whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies (541 patients, 572 healthy controls) comparing seed-based FC between OCD patients and healthy controls...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410078/a-common-brain-network-among-state-trait-and-pathological-anxiety-from-whole-brain-functional-connectivity
#17
Yu Takagi, Yuki Sakai, Yoshinari Abe, Seiji Nishida, Ben J Harrison, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Carles Soriano-Mas, Jin Narumoto, Saori C Tanaka
Anxiety is one of the most common mental states of humans. Although it drives us to avoid frightening situations and to achieve our goals, it may also impose significant suffering and burden if it becomes extreme. Because we experience anxiety in a variety of forms, previous studies investigated neural substrates of anxiety in a variety of ways. These studies revealed that individuals with high state, trait, or pathological anxiety showed altered neural substrates. However, no studies have directly investigated whether the different dimensions of anxiety share a common neural substrate, despite its theoretical and practical importance...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408159/a-naturalistic-exploratory-study-of-obsessive-compulsive-bipolar-comorbidity-in-youth
#18
Gabriele Masi, Stefano Berloffa, Maria Mucci, Chiara Pfanner, Giulia D'Acunto, Francesca Lenzi, Francesca Liboni, Azzurra Manfredi, Annarita Milone
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence supports the comorbidity between bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents. Our aim is to further explore clinical and treatment implications of this comorbidity, as it appears in clinical practice. METHOD: The sample included 429 consecutive patients with BD and/or OCD as primary diagnoses, followed for a mean period of 6 months (range 4-9 months), 172 with BD (102 males, mean age 13.7±2...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408052/a-computerized-neuropsychological-evaluation-of-cognitive-functions-in-a-subclinical-obsessive-compulsive-sample
#19
Naama Hamo, Amitai Abramovitch, Ada Zohar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ample research in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reveals a moderate degree of underperformance on various neuropsychological tasks. Less is known about neuropsychological function in subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) samples. Most analogue OCD studies did not use a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and none utilized a fully computerized battery. To fill this gap in the literature, the present study aimed at assessing cognitive functions in a subclinical OC sample using a validated computerized neuropsychological battery...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407570/the-temporal-relationship-between-premonitory-urges-and-covert-compulsions-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Valerie C Brandt, Johanna Hermanns, Christian Beck, Tobias Bäumer, Bartosz Zurowski, Alexander Münchau
Recent studies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have shown that many compulsions are associated with urges rather than obsessions. Premonitory urges are uncomfortable sensory feelings or a rising inner tension, often likened to the urge to scratch, yawn or blink. We studied premonitory urges preceding mental compulsions in 19 patients with OCD and preceding eye blinks in 16 healthy controls. Urge intensity was assessed continuously over 20 min using a real-time urge intensity monitor; compulsions and blinks were measured as discrete events in a free compulsion/blinking and a compulsion/blink suppression condition...
January 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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