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Morgane Donadel, Gulzira Karimova, Ruslan Nabiev, Kaspar Wyss
BACKGROUND: The Government of Tajikistan is reforming its health system to make access more equitable. Nonetheless, out-of-pocket expenditures (OPE) remain a key modality for purchasing health care. Drugs remain a major driver of household expenditures for health. We conducted a household survey to investigate drug prescribing patterns at primary health care (PHC) level as well as the related OPE. METHODS: Adult patients in eight districts who had visited a PHC facility in the period March to May 2014 were interviewed at home, using a structured questionnaire...
October 6, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Tomáš Scholz, Alain de Chambrier, Takeshi Shimazu, Alexey Ermolenko, Andrea Waeschenbach
The parasite fauna of loaches (Cypriniformes: Cobitoidea), a group of small bottom-dwelling freshwater fishes with a mostly Eurasian distribution, remains a largely unknown quantity. Here we revise the taxonomy of tapeworms of the genus Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) that had been found in loaches from the Palaearctic Region (Central Europe, Japan and Russia [Primorsky Region]). Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on two nuclear (ssr- and lsrDNA) and two mitochondrial genes (cox1 and rrnL) revealed a monophyletic group consisting of four valid species nesting within the Proteocephalus-aggregate: (i) Proteocephalus sagittus (Grimm, 1872) from Barbatula barbatula (Europe, Russia and Tajikistan), (ii) Proteocephalus demshini n...
October 1, 2016: Parasitology International
Bo Xi, Yajun Liang, Yunxia Liu, Yinkun Yan, Min Zhao, Chuanwei Ma, Pascal Bovet
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases worldwide. However, the global extent and prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents is poorly described. Using previously collected survey data, we aimed to assess tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years in 68 low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We used data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2006-13) and the China Global Tobacco Youth Survey (2013), which are school-based surveys of young adolescents aged 12-15 years that assess health behaviours using a standardised, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Elahe RaFiei, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Farhad Towhidi, Behnam Reza Makhsosi, Hamid Salehiniya
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer, and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This ecological study was conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of WHO for Asian countries. We assessed the correlations between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of stomach cancer with HDI and its components using SPSS18...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Stanislav K Korb, Lavr V Bolshakov
A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera)...
2016: Zootaxa
Severina Haugvik, David Beran, Pamela Klassen, Akhtar Hussain, Ane Haaland
AIMS: To explore and describe perceptions and experiences of living with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus among children/youths in Tajikistan. METHODS: Qualitative methods were employed. Participants were recruited through purposive and snowball samplings. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview guide with children/youths having diabetes, their parents as well as health professionals. Data were analyzed according to Malterud's systematic text condensation...
September 10, 2016: Chronic Illness
Umedjon Ibragimov, Frank Y Wong
Gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Tajikistan are an extremely stigmatised group at high risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. However, there is a paucity of research on how and in what way stigma affects their lives. We conducted a qualitative study to examine the impact of stigma on GBM's lives in Tajikistan, focusing on stigma enactors, settings, factors affecting vulnerability of GBM and health consequences. Eight individual in-depth interviews and 3 focus-group discussions with 13 participants (N   =   21) from GBM community were conducted in two cities of Tajikistan...
August 29, 2016: Global Public Health
Abdysalom Kh Kadyrov, Lech Karpiński, Wojciech T Szczepański, Artur Taszakowski, Marcin Walczak
New data on distribution, biology, and ecology of some little-known cerambycid species, collected in the western part of Tajikistan, are presented. Arhopalus rusticus (Linnaeus, 1758) is recorded in Tajikistan for the first time. New localities of species considered pests or invasive species such as Aeolesthes sarta (Solsky, 1871) and Xylotrechus stebbingi Gahan, 1906 are also given. The list of the taxa collected by the first author during many years of field research in Tajikistan as well as photographs of poorly known species from his collection, including some endemics, are additionally provided...
2016: ZooKeys
Didier Bazile, Cataldo Pulvento, Alexis Verniau, Mohammad S Al-Nusairi, Djibi Ba, Joelle Breidy, Layth Hassan, Maarouf I Mohammed, Omurbek Mambetov, Munira Otambekova, Niaz Ali Sepahvand, Amr Shams, Djamel Souici, Khaled Miri, Stefano Padulosi
Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Piotr Henryk Skarzyński, Weronica Świerniak, Adam Piłka, Magdalena B Skarżynska, Andrzej W Włodarczyk, Dzhamol Kholmatov, Abdukholik Makhamadiev, Stavros Hatzopoulos
BACKGROUND According to the guidelines of the European Scientific Consensus on Hearing (European Federation of Audiology Societies 'EFAS' Congress, June 2011, Warsaw, Poland), the detection and treatment of communication disorders in early school-age children is of the highest importance. This objective was adopted by the Polish president of the EFAS Council from the second half of 2011; as a result, pilot programs on children's hearing screening were initiated in various European countries. This paper reports data from a pilot program in Dushanbe, Tajikistan...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Czesław Greń, Marek Przewoźny, Wojciech T Szczepański, Lech Karpiński
The genus Dryops Olivier, 1791 has a worldwide distribution. In the Palaearctic region, it contains 34 species, from Tajikistan only one was recorded so far-Dryops rufipes Krynicki, 1832 (Olmi 1976, Kodada & Jäch 2006). During an expedition of last two authors to the Tajikistan in 2014 a series of new species was found, which is described in this paper.
2016: Zootaxa
Khakima Karim-Zade, Christopher Leak, Bakhtovar Karim-Zade
PURPOSE: Pediatric eye injury (PEI) is the leading cause of preventable monocular vision loss in children, with an estimated prevalence of 5.7 million cases. Epidemiological information on PEI is rare, skewed towards high-income countries, and commonly overlooked by non-governmental ophthalmological organizations. This study aims to quantitatively and qualitatively determine incidence of PEI in the Republic of Tajikistan. METHODS: Data were collected from all pediatric eye injury records (N = 454) admitted to three pediatric ophthalmology hospitals in two regions of Tajikistan between 2010 and 2012...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Kiromiddin Gulov, Robert W S Coulter, Derrick D Matthews, Mudia Uzzi, Ron Stall
Little is known about the prevalence and associations of HIV/STI diagnoses and testing behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Tajikistan. A non-governmental organization conducted a cross-sectional study of MSM (n = 502) assessing laboratory-confirmed HIV/STI diagnoses, HIV/STI testing behavior in the past 6 months, sociodemographics, HIV/STI risk factors, and victimization/discrimination. Overall, 2.6 % were diagnosed with HIV, 2.2 % with syphilis, 17.6 % with chlamydia, and 56.0 % with herpes...
June 15, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Hakim Zainiddinov, Nazim Habibov
BACKGROUND: Prior research on HIV infections in Tajikistan and other Central Asian countries has focused primarily on injection drug users. Given the recent rise of heterosexual transmission, especially among women, there is a need to assess women's knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its methods of prevention and transmission across two time periods to examine cross-time changes and identify areas that need improvements. METHODS: Logistic regression and simulation of predicted probability analyses were based on data from Tajik women ranging in age from 15 to 49 who participated in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) study in 2000 and 2005...
June 3, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
David Otiashvili, Alisher Latypov, Irma Kirtadze, Umedjon Ibragimov, William Zule
BACKGROUND: Sharing injection equipment remains an important rout of transmission of HIV and HCV infections in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Tajikistan is one of the most affected countries with high rates of injection drug use and related epidemics.The aim of this qualitative study was to describe drug use practices and related behaviors in two Tajik cities - Kulob and Khorog. METHODS: Twelve focus group discussions (6 per city) with 100 people who inject drugs recruited through needle and syringe program (NSP) outreach in May 2014...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Zohray Talib, Irina Shukurbekova, Guldarbogh Sadonshoeva, Alibek Alibekov, Nekruz Jamshedov, Zahir Moloo, Almas Welji, Farin Amersi, Aliya Amin Muhammad, Aliya Jiwani, Sheliza Rais, Akoyat Nazrishoeva, Surayo Ilnazarova, Shifo Nuridinova, Hafiza Ukani, Shireen Alwani, Mansoor Saleh
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and causes of death in females in Tajikistan; yet less than half of the adult women in Tajikistan have heard of breast cancer. Limited access to health care contributes to late stage presentation. We developed a public-private partnership to implement a breast cancer awareness intervention in a low-resource community in Khorog, Tajikistan. We trained local health professionals in clinical breast care and conducted a breast cancer screening and treatment program...
May 2016: Breast Journal
Ghafur Khodjamurodov, Dilorom Sodiqova, Baktygul Akkazieva, Bernd Rechel
The pace of health reforms in Tajikistan has been slow and in many aspects the health system is still shaped by the countrys Soviet legacy. The country has the lowest total health expenditure per capita in the WHO European Region, much of it financed privately through out-of-pocket payments. Public financing depends principally on regional and local authorities, thus compounding regional inequalities across the country. The high share of private out-of-pocket payments undermines a range of health system goals, including financial protection, equity, efficiency and quality...
January 2016: Health Systems in Transition
A Swaminathan, P du Cros, J A Seddon, S Quinnell, O I Bobokhojaev, Z Dusmatova, J Achar
BACKGROUND: Management of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and pre-XDR-TB is challenging, as effective drugs are lacking. Group 5 anti-tuberculosis drugs have an unclear role in the treatment of drug-resistant TB, and in children the efficacy, safety and effects of long-term use are not well described. We present clinical outcomes and adverse effects of a cohort of children with XDR-TB or pre-XDR-TB treated with Group 5 drugs in Tajikistan. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of eight children treated with one or more of the Group 5 drugs available under the Tajikistan National TB Programme-linezolid, amoxicillin-clavulanate, clofazimine and clarithromycin-given in combination with first- and second-line drugs...
April 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Nabila El-Bassel, Louisa Gilbert, Stacey A Shaw, Gaukhar Mergenova, Assel Terlikbayeva, Sholpan Primbetova, Xin Ma, Mingway Chang, Leyla Ismayilova, Tim Hunt, Brooke West, Elwin Wu, Chris Beyrer
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex). METHODS: We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics...
2016: PloS One
Miroslav Valan, Oldrich Sychra, Ivan Literak
We revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia. We studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus Ricinus (De Geer, 1778). The collection includes lectotype specimens of Ricinus ivanovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of Ricinus tugarinovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951. We registered Ricinus elongatus Olfers, 1816 ex Turdus ruficollis, R. ivanovi ex Leucosticte tephrocotis and Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Calandrella acutirostris and Calandrella cheleensis which were not included in Price's world checklist...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
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