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Ona McCarthy, Irrfan Ahamed, Firuza Kulaeva, Ravshan Tokhirov, Salokhiddin Saibov, Marieka Vandewiele, Sarah Standaert, Baptiste Leurent, Phil Edwards, Melissa Palmer, Caroline Free
BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy is associated with poorer health outcomes for women and their families. In Tajikistan, around 26% of married 15-24 year old women have an unmet need for contraception. There is some evidence that interventions delivered by mobile phone can affect contraceptive-related behaviour and knowledge. We developed an intervention delivered by mobile phone app instant messaging to improve acceptability of effective contraceptive methods among young people in Tajikistan...
February 13, 2018: Reproductive Health
Anvar B Nazurdinov, Zafarjon A Azizov, Farida Tishkova, Sohibnazar M Turkov, Danni S Daniels, Eyal Leshem
BACKGROUND: In January 2015, Tajikistan introduced the monovalent rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization program. Our objective was to estimate pre-vaccine burden of rotavirus-associated hospitalizations in children <5 years of age in Tajikistan. METHODS: During January 2013-December 2014, active surveillance for acute gastroenteritis (AGE)-associated hospitalizations in children <5 years of age was conducted by sentinel surveillance site staff...
January 20, 2018: Vaccine
Ajoy Mandal, Maireyee Bhattacharya, Denis V Kuznetsov, Tapas Ghosh, Sudeshna Das Chakraborty, Biswarup Satpati, Vsevolod Mazov, Dulal Senapati
Decoupling of different plasmon resonance modes (in-plane, and out-of-plane dipole and quadrupole resonances) by tuning nanoparticle's size and shape offers a new field of plasmonics as colorimetric assay-based optical-ruler for ultra-trace sensing. Driven by its low cost, easy to perform and efficient way to measure trace level (up to 30 ppt in presence of common mining elements in natural gold ore) abundance, this study develops a highly selective and ultrasensitive turn-on colorimetric sensor to detect gold-ion from environmental samples...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Inês Lança de Morais, Nuno Lunet, Gabriela Albuquerque, Marcello Gelormini, Susana Casal, Albertino Damasceno, Olívia Pinho, Pedro Moreira, Jo Jewell, João Breda, Patrícia Padrão
This cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing sodium (Na) and potassium (K) content and the molar Na:K ratios of the most commonly available ready-to-eat street foods in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Four different samples of each of these foods were collected and 62 food categories were evaluated through bromatological analysis. Flame photometry was used to quantify sodium and potassium concentrations. The results show that home-made foods can be important sources of sodium. In particular, main dishes and sandwiches, respectively, contain more than 1400 and nearly 1000 mg Na in an average serving and provide approximately 70% and 50% of the maximum daily recommended values...
January 16, 2018: Nutrients
Yakov N Kovalenko
The genus Jelinekius Majer, 1990, previously known only from Iran, is reported from Tajikistan for the first time. A new species, J. prisniyi sp. nov., is described as new to science.
October 26, 2017: Zootaxa
Elisabeth Lindahl Rajala, Nosirjon Sattorov, Sofia Boqvist, Ulf Magnusson
Global trends in urbanization are increasing the spread of neglected zoonotic infections such as leptospirosis, and reducing the number of human cases of leptospirosis is best accomplished by controlling the infection in the animal reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and L. interrogans serovar Hardjo (L. Hardjo) exposure and to assess the associated risk factors for infection in small-scale dairy farming in the urban and peri-urban area of Dushanbe, Tajikistan...
December 12, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Deirdre P Walshe, Paul Garner, Ahmed A Adeel, Graham H Pyke, Thomas R Burkot
BACKGROUND: Adult female Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. Some fish species eat mosquito larvae and pupae. In disease control policy documents, the World Health Organization (WHO) includes biological control of malaria vectors by stocking ponds, rivers, and water collections near where people live with larvivorous fish to reduce Plasmodium parasite transmission. In the past, the Global Fund has financed larvivorous fish programmes in some countries, and, with increasing efforts in eradication of malaria, policymakers may return to this option...
December 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
D S Alfred-Ugbenbo, A H Valiev, O A Zdoryk, V A Georgiyants
Despite the deep assortment of finished pharmaceutical products and the reduction in the number of compounding and hospital pharmacies in the Republic of Tajikistan, the need for extemporal medicinal products is still preserved and remains relevant. This article discusses the practice of compounding in the Republic of Tajikistan. History, laws, limits, regulatory institutions, protocols for compounding pharmacy set up, challenges, equipment, extemporaneous formulations, quality control, and storage within regulatory framework are discussed...
November 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Eric Ariel L Salas, Raul Valdez, Stefan Michel
We modeled summer and winter habitat suitability of Marco Polo argali in the Pamir Mountains in southeastern Tajikistan using these statistical algorithms: Generalized Linear Model, Random Forest, Boosted Regression Tree, Maxent, and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines. Using sheep occurrence data collected from 2009 to 2015 and a set of selected habitat predictors, we produced summer and winter habitat suitability maps and determined the important habitat suitability predictors for both seasons. Our results demonstrated that argali selected proximity to riparian areas and greenness as the two most relevant variables for summer, and the degree of slope (gentler slopes between 0° to 20°) and Landsat temperature band for winter...
November 2017: Heliyon
P Zoriy, M Schläger, K Murtazaev, J Pillath, M Zoriy, B Heuel-Fabianek
The water contamination near ecologically problematic objects was investigated between 2009 and 2014 in North-West Tajikistan as a part of a joint project between Forschungszentrum Jülich and Khujand State University. The main part of this work was the determination of uranium in water samples collected near the Degmay tailings dump, the Taboshar pit lake and the Syr Darya river. More than 130 water samples were collected and analyzed to monitor the uranium concentration near the investigated areas. Two different mass spectrometers and an ion chromatograph were used for element concentration measurements...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Recep Sulhi Özkütük, Yuri M Marusik, Kadir Boğaç Kunt, Mert Elverici
Two sibling species, Metellina orientalis (Spassky, 1932) and M. kirgisica (Bakhvalov, 1974), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are redescribed and their distributions mapped. The previously unknown male of M. kirgisica is described for the first time. Stridulatory files on male chelicera of Metellina are also documented for the first time. The occurrence of M. kirgisica in Azerbaijan and Tajikistan and the presence of M. orientalis in Turkey are confirmed.
2017: ZooKeys
Victor Agadjanian, Cecilia Menjívar, Natalya Zotova
Using data from a structured survey and in-depth interviews in three Russian cities, our study engages the scholarship on immigration legal regimes and racialization practices to examine the experiences of ethnoracially motivated harassment among working migrant women from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in Russia. The results of statistical analyses show that regularized legal status is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing harassment at the hands of law enforcement agents and other actors alike...
November 1, 2017: Social Problems
Sebastian Bauhoff, Lila Rabinovich, Lauren A Mayer
Citizen report cards on health care providers have been identified as a potential means to increase citizen engagement, provider accountability and health systems performance. Research in high-income settings indicates that the wording, presentation and display of performance information are critical to achieve these goals. However, there are limited insights on developing effective report card designs for middle- and low-income settings. We conducted cognitive interviews to assess consumers' understanding, interpretation of and preferences for displaying information for a health care report card in rural Tajikistan...
2017: PloS One
Laura C Bonney, Robert J Watson, Babak Afrough, Manija Mullojonova, Viktoriya Dzhuraeva, Farida Tishkova, Roger Hewson
BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus (CCHFV) is a rapidly emerging vector-borne pathogen and the cause of a virulent haemorrhagic fever affecting large parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: An isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was successfully developed for molecular detection of CCHFV. The assay showed rapid (under 10 minutes) detection of viral extracts/synthetic virus RNA of all 7 S-segment clades of CCHFV, with high target specificity...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mallikarjuna Aradhya, Dianne Velasco, Zakir Ibrahimov, Biimyrza Toktoraliev, David Maghradze, Mirza Musayev, Zviadi Bobokashvili, John E Preece
The distribution and survival of trees during the last glacial maximum (LGM) has been of interest to paleoecologists, biogeographers, and geneticists. Ecological niche models that associate species occurrence and abundance with climatic variables are widely used to gain ecological and evolutionary insights and to predict species distributions over space and time. The present study deals with the glacial history of walnut to address questions related to past distributions through genetic analysis and ecological modeling of the present, LGM and Last Interglacial (LIG) periods...
2017: PloS One
M Gulzoda, F Khalimova, F Shukurov, A Gulin
The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of using a population approach to assessing the risk of reproductive health disorders in women of childbearing age. We observed 240 clinically healthy women aged 20 to 43 years, half of them lived in the Middle Black Earth region of Russia, and 120 women lived in Tajikistan. The study identified population differences in women with different ethnic backgrounds and regions of residence according to a set of genetic, hormonal, and immune signs. All women underwent venous blood sampling for the purpose of HLA typing by molecular genetic analysis and determining the range of normative values ​​of hormonal and immune status parameters...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
John W Peabody, Lisa DeMaria, Owen Smith, Angela Hoth, Edmond Dragoti, Jeff Luck
BACKGROUND: A significant determinant of population health outcomes is the quality of care provided for noncommunicable diseases, obstetric, and pediatric care. We present results on clinical practice quality in these areas as measured among nearly 4,000 providers working at more than 1,000 facilities in 6 Eastern European and Central Asian countries. METHODS: This study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2013 in Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirov Province in Russia, and Tajikistan...
September 27, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Ona McCarthy, Baptiste Leurent, Phil Edwards, Ravshan Tokhirov, Caroline Free
INTRODUCTION: Women in lower income countries experience unintended pregnancies at a higher rate compared with women in higher income countries. Unintended pregnancy is associated with numerous poorer health outcomes for both women and their children. In Tajikistan, an estimated 26% of married individuals aged 15-24 years have an unmet need for contraception. The strong cultural value placed on childbearing and oppositional attitudes towards contraception are major barriers to contraceptive uptake in the country...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
Umedjon Ibragimov, Hannah L Cooper, Regine Haardörfer, Kristin L Dunkle, William A Zule, Frank Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Pharmacies are an important source of sterile syringes for people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tajikistan who are under high risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus. Accessibility of sterile syringes at pharmacies without prescription may depend on pharmacists' attitudes towards PWID. This qualitative inquiry examines meanings and processes of stigmatization of PWID among pharmacists and pharmacy students in Tajikistan. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 pharmacists and 9 students (N = 28) in the cities of Dushanbe and Kulob, Tajikistan...
September 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Farukh Sharopov, Abdujabbor Valiev, Prabodh Satyal, Isomiddin Gulmurodov, Salomudin Yusufi, William N Setzer, Michael Wink
The essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is rich in lipophilic secondary metabolites, which can easily cross cell membranes by free diffusion. Several constituents of the oil carry reactive carbonyl groups in their ring structures. Carbonyl groups can react with amino groups of amino acid residues in proteins or in nucleotides of DNA to form Schiff's bases. Fennel essential oil is rich in anise aldehyde, which should interfere with molecular targets in cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of fennel growing in Tajikistan...
August 28, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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