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Amy M Cole, Sean Cox, Choongwon Jeong, Nayia Petousi, Dhana R Aryal, Yunden Droma, Masayuki Hanaoka, Masao Ota, Nobumitsu Kobayashi, Paolo Gasparini, Hugh Montgomery, Peter Robbins, Anna Di Rienzo, Gianpiero L Cavalleri
BACKGROUND: We set out to describe the fine-scale population structure across the Eastern region of Nepal. To date there is relatively little known about the genetic structure of the Sherpa residing in Nepal and their genetic relationship with the Nepalese. We assembled dense genotype data from a total of 1245 individuals representing Nepal and a variety of different populations resident across the greater Himalayan region including Tibet, China, India, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kirghizstan...
January 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
Andre V Bochkov
Mites of the family Myocoptidae (Acariformes: Sarcoptoidea) of the former USSR are revised based on the collection of the Zoological Institute RAS (St. Petersburg, Russia). Seventeen described species are recorded. Four species are described as new for science: Trichoecius dubininae sp. nov. from Lasiopodomys gregalis (Pallas) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from Russia (Chelyabinsk Prov., type locality), Kazakhstan and Kirghizia, T. lemmus sp. nov. from Lemmus sibiricus (Kerr) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from Russia (Taymyr peninsula), T...
November 17, 2016: Zootaxa
Benjamin Dubois, Pierre Bertin, Dominique Mingeot
The gluten proteins of cereals such as bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum) and spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta) are responsible for celiac disease (CD). The α-gliadins constitute the most immunogenic class of gluten proteins as they include four main T-cell stimulatory epitopes that affect CD patients. Spelt has been less studied than bread wheat and could constitute a source of valuable diversity. The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of spelt α-gliadin transcripts and to compare it with those of bread wheat...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Ved P Kumar, Mukesh Thakur, Ankita Rajpoot, Bhim Dutt Joshi, Parag Nigam, Khursheed Ahmad, Dhyanendra Kumar, Surendra P Goyal
The Hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is a "Least Concern" deer species, and it is the only survivor of the Red Deer group in the Indian subcontinent. The phylogenetic status of the Hangul relative to the other members of the family Cervidae is not known because sequence data are not available in public databases. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the phylogenetic status and delineate the genetic boundaries of the Hangul with respect to the other Red Deer subspecies on the basis of cytochrome b gene sequence data (ca 421 bp)...
December 10, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Xiaoqing Zhang, Yuri M Marusik
Five new species of Pireneitega species from Tajikistan are described: Pireneitega zonsteinisp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega muratovisp. n. (♀), Pireneitega tyuraisp. n. (♀), Pireneitega ramitensissp. n. (♀) and Pireneitega kovblyukisp. n. (♂). Pireneitega major (Kroneberg, 1875) is redescribed for the first time based on the lectotype designated here. DNA barcodes for the five new species are documented for future use and as proof of molecular differences between these species.
2016: ZooKeys
Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Sam Harper, Linda Ernstsen
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic differentials of tobacco smoking in high-income countries are well described. However, studies to support health policies and place monitoring systems to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smokeless tobacco use common in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are seldom reported. We aimed to describe, sex-wise, educational and wealth-related inequalities in tobacco use in LMICs. METHODS: We analysed Demographic and Health Survey data on tobacco use collected from large nationally representative samples of men and women in 54 LMICs...
November 24, 2016: Tobacco Control
Linnea A Qvirist, Carlotta De Filippo, Francesco Strati, Irene Stefanini, Maddalena Sordo, Thomas Andlid, Giovanna E Felis, Paola Mattarelli, Duccio Cavalieri
The geographically isolated region of the Yaghnob Valley, Tajikistan, has allowed its inhabitants to maintain a unique culture and lifestyle. Their fermented goat milk constitutes one of the staple foods for the Yaghnob population, and is produced by backslopping, i.e., using the previous fermentation batch to inoculate the new one. This study addresses the yeast composition of the fermented milk, assessing genotypic, and phenotypic properties. The 52 isolates included in this study revealed small species diversity, belonging to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia fermentans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and one Kazachstania unispora...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuri M Marusik, Alexander A Fomichev
Four new species of Synaphosus are described from Central Asia: S. shmakovi sp. n. (♀, Western Mongolia), S. ovtsharenkoi sp. n. (♂♀, Central Mongolia), S. mongolicus sp. n. (♀, South-Western Mongolia) and S. saidovi sp. n. (♀, Tajikistan). New faunistic records and illustrations of S. palearcticus Ovtsharenko, Levy & Platnick, 1994 and S. turanicus Ovtsharenko, Levy & Platnick, 1994 are provided. Synaphosus with three named species is recorded for the first time from Mongolia, and S. palearcticus is reported for the first time from Tajikistan...
October 25, 2016: Zootaxa
Hiroaki Hayashi, Shinya Tamura, Ren Chiba, Isao Fujii, Nobuji Yoshikawa, Inoyat Fattokhov, Madibron Saidov
The characteristics of 2 Glycyrrhiza plants, G. glabra and G. bucharica (=Meristotropis bucharica), were investigated in Tajikistan. The glycyrrhizin content in the underground parts of G. glabra varied from 2.56 to 9.29% of the dry weight, and the content of glabridin, a species-specific flavonoid of G. glabra, varied from 0.09 to 0.92% of the dry weight. Seeds of G. glabra plants from Tajikistan were cultivated for 3 years in Japan, and the glycyrrhizin content of the harvested roots ranged from 0.75 to 1...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Ana Isabel Fernandes Guerreiro, Aigul Kuttumuratova, Kubanychbek Monolbaev, Larisa Boderscova, Zulfiya Pirova, Martin W Weber
There is a recognized need to raise evidence on how to adopt human rights-based approaches (HRBAs) to health and to assess their impact. In 2013 and 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe used a set of tools to assess and improve the situation of children's rights in 11 hospitals in Kyrgyzstan, 10 hospitals in Tajikistan, and 21 hospitals in Moldova, by applying a HRBA to health, taking as a reference the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The assessment results show a similar situation across countries in some areas, and more or less significant variation in others...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Morgane Donadel, Gulzira Karimova, Ruslan Nabiev, Kaspar Wyss
BACKGROUND: The Government of Tajikistan is reforming its health system to make access more equitable. Nonetheless, out-of-pocket expenditures (OPE) remain a key modality for purchasing health care. Drugs remain a major driver of household expenditures for health. We conducted a household survey to investigate drug prescribing patterns at primary health care (PHC) level as well as the related OPE. METHODS: Adult patients in eight districts who had visited a PHC facility in the period March to May 2014 were interviewed at home, using a structured questionnaire...
October 6, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Tomáš Scholz, Alain de Chambrier, Takeshi Shimazu, Alexey Ermolenko, Andrea Waeschenbach
The parasite fauna of loaches (Cypriniformes: Cobitoidea), a group of small bottom-dwelling freshwater fishes with a mostly Eurasian distribution, remains a largely unknown quantity. Here we revise the taxonomy of tapeworms of the genus Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) that had been found in loaches from the Palaearctic Region (Central Europe, Japan and Russia [Primorsky Region]). Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on two nuclear (ssr- and lsrDNA) and two mitochondrial genes (cox1 and rrnL) revealed a monophyletic group consisting of four valid species nesting within the Proteocephalus-aggregate: (i) Proteocephalus sagittus (Grimm, 1872) from Barbatula barbatula (Europe, Russia and Tajikistan), (ii) Proteocephalus demshini n...
February 2017: Parasitology International
Bo Xi, Yajun Liang, Yunxia Liu, Yinkun Yan, Min Zhao, Chuanwei Ma, Pascal Bovet
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases worldwide. However, the global extent and prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents is poorly described. Using previously collected survey data, we aimed to assess tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years in 68 low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We used data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2006-13) and the China Global Tobacco Youth Survey (2013), which are school-based surveys of young adolescents aged 12-15 years that assess health behaviours using a standardised, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Elahe RaFiei, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Farhad Towhidi, Behnam Reza Makhsosi, Hamid Salehiniya
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer, and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This ecological study was conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of WHO for Asian countries. We assessed the correlations between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of stomach cancer with HDI and its components using SPSS18...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Stanislav K Korb, Lavr V Bolshakov
A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera)...
September 1, 2016: Zootaxa
Severina Haugvik, David Beran, Pamela Klassen, Akhtar Hussain, Ane Haaland
AIMS: To explore and describe perceptions and experiences of living with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus among children/youths in Tajikistan. METHODS: Qualitative methods were employed. Participants were recruited through purposive and snowball samplings. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview guide with children/youths having diabetes, their parents as well as health professionals. Data were analyzed according to Malterud's systematic text condensation...
September 10, 2016: Chronic Illness
Umedjon Ibragimov, Frank Y Wong
Gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Tajikistan are an extremely stigmatised group at high risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. However, there is a paucity of research on how and in what way stigma affects their lives. We conducted a qualitative study to examine the impact of stigma on GBM's lives in Tajikistan, focusing on stigma enactors, settings, factors affecting vulnerability of GBM and health consequences. Eight individual in-depth interviews and 3 focus-group discussions with 13 participants (N   =   21) from GBM community were conducted in two cities of Tajikistan...
August 29, 2016: Global Public Health
Abdysalom Kh Kadyrov, Lech Karpiński, Wojciech T Szczepański, Artur Taszakowski, Marcin Walczak
New data on distribution, biology, and ecology of some little-known cerambycid species, collected in the western part of Tajikistan, are presented. Arhopalus rusticus (Linnaeus, 1758) is recorded in Tajikistan for the first time. New localities of species considered pests or invasive species such as Aeolesthes sarta (Solsky, 1871) and Xylotrechus stebbingi Gahan, 1906 are also given. The list of the taxa collected by the first author during many years of field research in Tajikistan as well as photographs of poorly known species from his collection, including some endemics, are additionally provided...
2016: ZooKeys
Didier Bazile, Cataldo Pulvento, Alexis Verniau, Mohammad S Al-Nusairi, Djibi Ba, Joelle Breidy, Layth Hassan, Maarouf I Mohammed, Omurbek Mambetov, Munira Otambekova, Niaz Ali Sepahvand, Amr Shams, Djamel Souici, Khaled Miri, Stefano Padulosi
Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Piotr Henryk Skarzyński, Weronica Świerniak, Adam Piłka, Magdalena B Skarżynska, Andrzej W Włodarczyk, Dzhamol Kholmatov, Abdukholik Makhamadiev, Stavros Hatzopoulos
BACKGROUND According to the guidelines of the European Scientific Consensus on Hearing (European Federation of Audiology Societies 'EFAS' Congress, June 2011, Warsaw, Poland), the detection and treatment of communication disorders in early school-age children is of the highest importance. This objective was adopted by the Polish president of the EFAS Council from the second half of 2011; as a result, pilot programs on children's hearing screening were initiated in various European countries. This paper reports data from a pilot program in Dushanbe, Tajikistan...
July 12, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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