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Bicarbonate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813692/enhancing-cell-growth-and-lutein-productivity-of-desmodesmus-sp-f51-by-optimal-utilization-of-inorganic-carbon-sources-and-ammonium-salt
#1
Youping Xie, Xurui Zhao, Jianfeng Chen, Xuqiu Yang, Shih-Hsin Ho, Baobei Wang, Jo-Shu Chang, Ying Shen
The type and concentration of inorganic carbon and nitrogen sources were manipulated to improve cell growth and lutein productivity of Desmodesmus sp. F51. Using nitrate as nitrogen source, the better cell growth and lutein accumulation were obtained under 2.5% CO2 supply when compared to the addition of NaHCO3 or Na2CO3. To solve the pH variation problem of ammonium consumption, the strategy of using dual carbon sources (NaHCO3 and CO2) was explored. A lower bicarbonate-C: ammonium-N ratio led to a lower culture pH as well as lower lutein productivity, but significantly enhanced the auto-flocculation efficiency of the microalgal cells...
August 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808397/genistein-attenuated-gastric-injury-on-indomethacin-induced-gastropathy-in-rats
#2
Sarocha Vivatvakin, Duangporn Werawatganon, Kanjana Somanawat, Naruemon Klaikeaw, Prasong Siriviriyakul
OBJECTIVES: To investigates the mucoprotective effect of genistein on gastric injury in rats with indomethacin (IMN)-induced gastropathy. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control; n = 6) was given distilled water (DW). Group 2 (IMN; n = 6) was given indomethacin (IMN) 150 mg/kg dissolved in 5% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3(-)) 1 mL/rat via intragastric tube at time 0 and 4 h. Group 3 (genistein; n = 6) was given genistein 100 mg/kg dissolved in 0...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806069/oxidation-kinetics-of-bromophenols-by-nonradical-activation-of-peroxydisulfate-in-the-presence-of-carbon-nanotube-and-formation-of-brominated-polymeric-products
#3
Chao-Ting Guan, Jin Jiang, Cong-Wei Luo, Jun Ma, Su-Yan Pang, Yang Zhou, Yi Yang
This work demonstrated that bromophenols (BrPs) could be readily oxidized by peroxydisulfate (PDS) activated by a commercial carbon nanotube (CNT), while furfuryl alcohol (a chemical probe for singlet oxygen (1O2)) was quite refractory. Results obtained by radical quenching experiments, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the involvement of nonradical PDS-CNT complexes rather than 1O2. Bicarbonate and chloride ion exhibited negligible impacts on BrPs degradation by the PDS/CNT system, while a significant inhibitory effect was observed for natural organic matter...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803939/bubble-generating-nano-lipid-carriers-for-ultrasound-ct-imaging-guided-efficient-tumor-therapy
#4
Nan Zhang, Jia Li, Ruirui Hou, Jiangnan Zhang, Pei Wang, Xinyang Liu, Zhenzhong Zhang
Ideal therapeutic effectiveness of chemotherapy is obtained only when tumor cells are exposed to a maximal drug concentration, which is often hindered by dose-limiting toxicity. We designed a bubble-generating liposomal delivery system by introducing ammonium bicarbonate and gold nanorods into folic acid-conjugated liposomes to allow both multimodal imaging and the local release of drug (doxorubicin) with hyperthermia. The key component, ammonium bicarbonate, allows a controlled, rapid release of doxorubicin to provide an effective drug concentration in the tumor microenvironment...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802878/prehospital-sodium-bicarbonate-use-could-worsen-long-term-survival-with-favorable-neurological-recovery-among-patients-with-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#5
Takahisa Kawano, Brian Grunau, Frank X Scheuermeyer, Koichiro Gibo, William Dick, Christopher B Fordyce, Paul Dorian, Robert Stenstrom, Ronald Straight, Jim Christenson
BACKGROUND: Sodium bicarbonate (SB) is widely used for resuscitation in out-of- hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA); however, its effect on long term outcomes is unclear. METHODS: From 2005 to 2016, we prospectively conducted a province-wide population-based observational study including adult non-traumatic OHCA patients managed by paramedics. SB was administered by paramedics based on their clinical assessments. To examine the association of SB administration and survival and favorable neurological outcome to hospital discharge, defined as modified Rankin scale of 3 or less, we performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis: (1) within propensity score matched comparison groups, and; (2) within the full cohort with missing variables addressed by multiple imputation techniques...
August 9, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801177/uses-and-misuses-of-sodium-bicarbonate-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#6
Amélie Collins, Rakesh Sahni
Over the past several decades, bicarbonate therapy continues to be used routinely in the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis in critically ill neonates despite the lack of evidence for its effectiveness in the treatment of acid-base imbalance, and evidence indicating that it may be detrimental. Clinicians often feel compelled to use bicarbonate since acidosis implies a need for such therapy and thus the justification for its use is based on hearsay rather than science. This review summarizes the evidence and refutes the clinical practice of administering sodium bicarbonate to treat metabolic acidosis associated with several specific clinical syndromes in neonates...
August 8, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800090/the-effect-of-buffering-high-acid-load-meal-with-sodium-bicarbonate-on-postprandial-glucose-metabolism-in-humans-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#7
Pinar Kozan, Jackson C Blythe, Jerry R Greenfield, Dorit Samocha-Bonet
Background: High dietary acid load relates to increased risk of type 2 diabetes in epidemiological studies. We aimed to investigate whether buffering a high acid load meal with an alkalizing treatment changes glucose metabolism post meal. Methods: Non-diabetic participants (n = 32) were randomized to receive either 1680 mg NaHCO₃ or placebo, followed by a high acid load meal in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover (1-4 weeks apart) study. Thirty (20 men) participants completed the study. Venous blood pH, serum bicarbonate, blood glucose, serum insulin, C-peptide, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured at baseline (fasting) and at 15-30 min intervals for 3 h post meal...
August 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798146/bloody-stools-in-a-3-day-old-term-infant
#8
Amelia Bray-Aschenbrenner, L Richard Feldenberg, Amelia Kirby, Colleen M Fitzpatrick, Justin B Josephsen
A 3-day-old term, male infant presented to the emergency department for evaluation of bloody stools. The infant was born after an uncomplicated pregnancy followed by a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. The mother was group B Streptococcus colonized, and received antenatal penicillin prophylaxis. The infant received routine delivery room care, and was given ophthalmic erythromycin and intramuscular vitamin K. Circumcision was performed without bleeding and he was discharged from the newborn nursery and the hospital after 48 hours...
August 10, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797049/effect-of-sodium-bicarbonate-on-prolonged-running-performance-a-randomized-double-blind-cross-over-study
#9
Tanja Freis, Anne Hecksteden, Ulf Such, Tim Meyer
BACKGROUND: The ability to sustain intense exercise seems to be partially limited by the body's capability to counteract decreases in both intra- and extracellular pH. While the influence of an enhanced buffering capacity via sodium bicarbonate (BICA) on short-term, high-intensity exercise performance has been repeatedly investigated, studies on prolonged endurance performances are comparatively rare, especially for running. The aim of the following study was to assess the ergogenic effects of an oral BICA substitution upon exhaustive intensive endurance running performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795814/anion-exchange-membrane-fuel-cells-with-improved-co2-tolerance-impact-of-chemically-induced-bicarbonate-ion-consumption
#10
Yu Katayama, Kosuke Yamauchi, Kohei Hayashi, Takeou Okanishi, Hiroki Muroyama, Toshiaki Matsui, Yuuki Kikkawa, Takayuki Negishi, Shin Watanabe, Takenori Isomura, Koichi Eguchi
Over the last few decades, owing to the significant development of anion exchange membranes, increasing efforts have been devoted the realization of anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) that operate with the supply of hydrogen generated on-site. In this paper, ammonia was selected as a hydrogen source, following which the effect of conceivable impurities, unreacted NH3 and atmospheric CO2, on the performance of AEMFCs was established. As expected, we show that these impurities worsen the performance of AEMFCs significantly...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795233/bicarbonate-transport-during-enamel-maturation
#11
REVIEW
Kaifeng Yin, Michael L Paine
Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways...
August 9, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794836/comparing-epidural-surgical-anesthesia-and-spinal-anesthesia-following-epidural-labor-analgesia-for-intrapartum-cesarean-section-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Hea-Jo Yoon, Sang-Hwan Do, Yeo Jin Yun
BACKGROUND: The conversion of epidural labor analgesia (ELA) to epidural surgical anesthesia (ESA) for intrapartum cesarean section (CS) often fails, resulting in intraoperative pain. Spinal anesthesia (SA) can provide a denser sensory block than ESA. The purpose of this prospective, non-blinded, parallel-arm, randomized trial was to compare the rate of pain-free surgery between ESA and SA following ELA for intrapartum CS. METHODS: Both groups received continuous epidural infusions for labor pain at a rate of 10 ml/h...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794087/euglycaemic-ketoacidosis-a-potential-new-hazard-to-plastic-surgery-day-case-and-inpatient-procedures
#13
Aseel Sleiwah, Michael McBride, Claire E Black
A woman aged 44 underwent elective standard abdominoplasty and bilateral mastopexy (superiorly based pedicle with vertical scar) following weight loss of 8.5 stone (53.9 kg) over a 5-year period. She had type 2 diabetes and her antidiabetic medications included metformin, liraglutide and empagliflozin. Towards the end of the first postoperative day, she reported gradual onset of nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Her condition continued to deteriorate overnight, becoming tachycardic and tachypnoeic. Urgent investigations showed severe diabetic ketoacidosis with euglycaemia...
August 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791907/a-one-step-procedure-for-immobilising-the-thermostable-carbonic-anhydrase-sspca-on-the-surface-membrane-of-escherichia-coli
#14
Sonia Del Prete, Rosa Perfetto, Mosè Rossi, Fatmah A S Alasmary, Sameh M Osman, Zeid AlOthman, Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
The carbonic anhydrase superfamily (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) of metalloenzymes is present in all three domains of life (Eubacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya), being an interesting example of convergent/divergent evolution, with its seven families (α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ-, η-, and θ-CAs) described so far. CAs catalyse the simple, but physiologically crucial reaction of carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and protons. Recently, our groups characterised the α-CA from the thermophilic bacterium, Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense finding a very high catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction (kcat = 9...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790067/sodium-bicarbonate-shortage-found-to-affect-hospitals-daily-operations
#15
Cheryl A Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775283/structural-basis-for-the-mechanism-of-atp-dependent-acetone-carboxylation
#16
Florence Mus, Brian J Eilers, Alexander B Alleman, Burak V Kabasakal, Jennifer N Wells, James W Murray, Boguslaw P Nocek, Jennifer L DuBois, John W Peters
Microorganisms use carboxylase enzymes to form new carbon-carbon bonds by introducing carbon dioxide gas (CO2) or its hydrated form, bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), into target molecules. Acetone carboxylases (ACs) catalyze the conversion of substrates acetone and HCO3(-) to form the product acetoacetate. Many bicarbonate-incorporating carboxylases rely on the organic cofactor biotin for the activation of bicarbonate. ACs contain metal ions but not organic cofactors, and use ATP to activate substrates through phosphorylation...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775098/influenza-virus-infection-alters-ion-channel-function-of-airway-and-alveolar-cells-mechanisms-and-physiological-sequelae
#17
James D Londino, Ahmed Lazrak, James F Collawn, Zsuzsanna Bebok, Kevin S Harrod, Sadis Matalon
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are located in the apical membranes of airway and alveolar epithelial cells. These transporters play an important role in the regulation of lung fluid balance across airway and alveolar epithelia by being the conduits for chloride (Cl(-)) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) secretion and sodium (Na(+)) ion absorption, respectively. The functional role of these channels in the respiratory tract is to maintain the optimum volume and ionic composition of the bronchial pericilary fluid (PCL) and alveolar lining fluid (ALF) layers...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774999/sexual-dimorphic-pattern-of-renal-transporters-and-electrolyte-homeostasis
#18
Luciana C Veiras, Adriana C C Girardi, Joshua Curry, Lei Pei, Donna L Ralph, An Tran, Regiane C Castelo-Branco, Nuria Pastor-Soler, Cristina T Arranz, Alan S L Yu, Alicia A McDonough
Compared with males, females have lower BP before age 60, blunted hypertensive response to angiotensin II, and a leftward shift in pressure natriuresis. This study tested the concept that this female advantage associates with a distinct sexual dimorphic pattern of transporters along the nephron. We applied quantitative immunoblotting to generate profiles of transporters, channels, claudins, and selected regulators in both sexes and assessed the physiologic consequences of the differences. In rats, females excreted a saline load more rapidly than males did...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773991/the-synergistic-effect-of-iodide-and-sodium-nitrite-on-the-corrosion-inhibition-of-mild-steel-in-bicarbonate-chloride-solution
#19
Gaius Debi Eyu, Geoffrey Will, Willem Dekkers, Jennifer MacLeod
The effect of potassium iodide (KI) and sodium nitrite (NaNO₂ inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO₂ function together to inhibit reactions at both the anode and the cathode, but predominantly anodic. KI/NO₂(-) concentration ratios varied from 2:1 to 2:5; inhibition efficiency was optimized for a ratio of 1:1. The surface morphology and corrosion products were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD)...
October 26, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773870/effect-of-dissolved-oxygen-and-immersion-time-on-the-corrosion-behaviour-of-mild-steel-in-bicarbonate-chloride-solution
#20
Gaius Debi Eyu, Geoffrey Will, Willem Dekkers, Jennifer MacLeod
The electrochemical behavior of mild steel in bicarbonate solution at different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and immersion times has been studied under dynamic conditions using electrochemical techniques. The results show that both DO and immersion times influence the morphology of the corrosion products. In comparative tests, the corrosion rate was systematically found to be lower in solutions with lower DO, lower HCO₃(-) concentrations and longer immersion time. The SEM analyses reveal that the iron dissolution rate was more severe in solutions containing higher DO...
September 1, 2016: Materials
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