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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793073/bubble-generating-polymersomes-loaded-with-both-indocyanine-green-and-doxorubicin-for-effective-chemotherapy-combined-with-photothermal-therapy
#1
Dunwan Zhu, Fan Fan, Chenlu Huang, Zhiming Zhang, Yu Qin, Li Lu, Hai Wang, Xu Jin, Hanxue Zhao, Hu Yang, Chao Zhang, Jun Yang, Zhipeng Liu, Hongfan Sun, Xigang Leng, Deling Kong, Linhua Zhang
The combination of chemotherapy and photothermaltherapy (PTT) via stimuli-responsive nanovesicles has great potential in tumor treatment. In the present study, bubble-generating polymersomes, which can generate bubbles in response to low pH or hyperthermia, were fabricated to simultaneously encapsulate chemotherapeutic drug and photosensitizing agent for the synergistic chemo-photothermal tumor therapy. Photosensitizer indocyanine green (ICG) was encapsulated into the bilayer of polymersomes formed by amphiphilic triblock copolymer PCL8000 -PEG8000 -PCL8000 through thin film re-hydration method, while chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into the hydrophilic lumen using a transmembrane ammonium bicarbonate gradient loading procedure...
May 21, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793069/a-2d-tank-test-on-remediation-of-nitrobenzene-contaminated-aquifer-using-in-situ-reactive-zone-with-emulsified-nanoscale-zero-valent-iron
#2
Jun Dong, Yang Dong, Chunyu Wen, Song Gao, Liming Ren, Qiburi Bao
Nitrobenzene (NB) is one of the most challenging pollutants for groundwater remediation due to its great harm and recalcitrance. Emulsified nanoscale zero-valent iron (EZVI) is considered as a promising agent for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater for its high reactivity, good durability and low cost. In this paper, 2D tank experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of enhanced remediation of NB-contaminated groundwater with EZVI. 9 L of EZVI solution was injected into aquifer to establish in-situ reactive zone (IRZ) before 40 d of NB contamination...
May 15, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789614/augmenting-the-calvin-benson-bassham-cycle-by-a-synthetic-malyl-coa-glycerate-carbon-fixation-pathway
#3
Hong Yu, Xiaoqian Li, Fabienne Duchoud, Derrick S Chuang, James C Liao
The Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle is presumably evolved for optimal synthesis of C3 sugars, but not for the production of C2 metabolite acetyl-CoA. The carbon loss in producing acetyl-CoA from decarboxylation of C3 sugar limits the maximum carbon yield of photosynthesis. Here we design a synthetic malyl-CoA-glycerate (MCG) pathway to augment the CBB cycle for efficient acetyl-CoA synthesis. This pathway converts a C3 metabolite to two acetyl-CoA by fixation of one additional CO2 equivalent, or assimilates glyoxylate, a photorespiration intermediate, to produce acetyl-CoA without net carbon loss...
May 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786913/new-insights-into-the-anion-transport-selectivity-and-mechanism-of-tren-based-tris-thio-ureas
#4
Laura Jowett, Ethan Howe, Xin Wu, Nathalie Busschaert, Philip Alan Gale
The anion transport properties of a series of previously reported tren-based anionophores have been revisited using new assays designed to measure anion uniport. This study provides new insights into the transport mechanism and selectivity of this important class of transporters. Specifically, we report the chloride and nitrate transport selectivity of these systems and quantify sulfate transport to determine EC50 values for sulfate transport for the first time. Two new assays were developed to study bicarbonate transport allowing accurate quantification of chloride/bicarbonate exchange...
May 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785608/reuse-of-organobentonites-with-a-carbon-dioxide-responsive-solvent
#5
Ling-Yu Luan, Li Zhang, Li-Hong Wang
Synthesized organobentonite (SOB), montmorillonite (MMT), and commercial organobentonite (COB) were used as adsorbents for paraffin oil, a model pollutant in land-based oil spills and oil pipeline rupture. The characterization of clays was carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After adsorption, oil was separated from adsorbents with a carbon dioxide responsive solvent N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), and DMCHA was subsequently separated from paraffin oil upon CO2 bubbling instead of distillation with high energy cost...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783955/prediction-of-mortality-in-severe-dengue-cases
#6
Saiful Safuan Md-Sani, Julina Md-Noor, Winn-Hui Han, Syang-Pyang Gan, Nor-Salina Rani, Hui-Loo Tan, Kanimoli Rathakrishnan, Mohd Azizuddin A-Shariffuddin, Marzilawati Abd-Rahman
BACKGROUND: Increasing incidence of dengue cases in Malaysia over the last few years has been paralleled by increased deaths. Mortality prediction models will therefore be useful in clinical management. The aim of this study is to identify factors at diagnosis of severe dengue that predicts mortality and assess predictive models based on these identified factors. METHOD: This is a retrospective cohort study of confirmed severe dengue patients that were admitted in 2014 to Hospital Kuala Lumpur...
May 21, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780355/therapeutic-interference-with-vascular-calcification-lessons-from-klotho-hypomorphic-mice-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Florian Lang, Christina Leibrock, Lisann Pelzl, Meinrad Gawaz, Burkert Pieske, Ioana Alesutan, Jakob Voelkl
Medial vascular calcification, a major pathophysiological process associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality, involves osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In chronic kidney disease (CKD), osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs and, thus, vascular calcification is mainly driven by hyperphosphatemia, resulting from impaired elimination of phosphate by the diseased kidneys. Hyperphosphatemia with subsequent vascular calcification is a hallmark of klotho-hypomorphic mice, which are characterized by rapid development of multiple age-related disorders and early death...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780282/pressurized-co-2-as-a-carboxylating-agent-for-the-biocatalytic-ortho-carboxylation-of-resorcinol
#8
Katharina Plasch, Gerhard Hofer, Walter Keller, Sam Hay, Derren J Heyes, Alexander Dennig, Silvia M Glueck, Kurt Faber
The utilization of gaseous carbon dioxide instead of bicarbonate would greatly facilitate process development for enzyme catalyzed carboxylations on a large scale. As a proof-of-concept, 1,3-dihydroxybenzene (resorcinol) was carboxylated in the ortho -position using pressurized CO2 (∼30-40 bar) catalyzed by ortho -benzoic acid decarboxylases with up to 68% conversion. Optimization studies revealed tight pH-control and enzyme stability as the most important determinants.
April 21, 2018: Green Chemistry: An International Journal and Green Chemistry Resource: GC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779931/the-bicarbonate-transporter-slc4a7-plays-a-key-role-in-macrophage-phagosome-acidification
#9
Vitaly Sedlyarov, Ruth Eichner, Enrico Girardi, Patrick Essletzbichler, Ulrich Goldmann, Paula Nunes-Hasler, Ismet Srndic, Anna Moskovskich, Leonhard X Heinz, Felix Kartnig, Johannes W Bigenzahn, Manuele Rebsamen, Pavel Kovarik, Nicolas Demaurex, Giulio Superti-Furga
Macrophages represent the first line of immune defense against pathogens, and phagosome acidification is a necessary step in pathogen clearance. Here, we identified the bicarbonate transporter SLC4A7, which is strongly induced upon macrophage differentiation, as critical for phagosome acidification. Loss of SLC4A7 reduced acidification of phagocytosed beads or bacteria and impaired the intracellular microbicidal capacity in human macrophage cell lines. The phenotype was rescued by wild-type SLC4A7, but not by SLC4A7 mutants, affecting transport capacity or cell surface localization...
May 8, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776838/hot-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-lasianthera-africana-icacinaceae-attenuates-rifampicin-isoniazid-induced-hepatotoxicity
#10
Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Raphael Ellis Teme
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Lasianthera africana (Icacinaceae) against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF)-induced liver damage in rats. METHODS: The hepatoprotective effects of hot aqueous L. africana (HALA) leaf extract (0.1-1 g/kg) and silymarin (50 mg/kg) were assessed in a model of oxidative liver damage induced by RIF and INH (100 mg/kg each) in Wistar rats for 28 days. Biochemical markers of hepatic damage such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774167/complete-hypokalemic-quadriparesis-as-a-first-presentation-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#11
Jason An, Branko Braam
Rationale: We hope to increase awareness that hypokalemic paralysis may be the first presentation of Sjögren syndrome, for which potassium-sparing diuretics can be an effective adjunct to potassium replenishment. Presenting concerns: A 73-year-old female presented to a peripheral hospital with quadriparesis and a critically low serum potassium of 1.6 mmol/L with U waves on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The initial arterial blood gas showed a pH of 7.19, bicarbonate of 13 mEq/L, and a CO2 of 35 mm Hg...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773709/growth-of-sedimentary-bathyarchaeota-on-lignin-as-an-energy-source
#12
Tiantian Yu, Weichao Wu, Wenyue Liang, Mark Alexander Lever, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Fengping Wang
Members of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota are among the most abundant microorganisms on Earth. Although versatile metabolic capabilities such as acetogenesis, methanogenesis, and fermentation have been suggested for bathyarchaeotal members, no direct confirmation of these metabolic functions has been achieved through growth of Bathyarchaeota in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate, on the basis of gene-copy numbers and probing of archaeal lipids, the growth of Bathyarchaeota subgroup Bathy-8 in enrichments of estuarine sediments with the biopolymer lignin...
May 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772642/pilot-study-examining-the-influence-of-potassium-bicarbonate-supplementation-on-nitrogen-balance-and-whole-body-ammonia-and-urea-turnover-following-short-term-energy-restriction-in-older-men
#13
Lee M Margolis, Lisa Ceglia, Donato A Rivas, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Roger A Fielding
With aging there is a chronic low-grade metabolic-acidosis that may exacerbate negative protein balance during weight loss. The objective of this randomized pilot study was to assess the impact of 90 mmol∙day-1 potassium bicarbonate (KHCO₃) versus a placebo (PLA) on 24-h urinary net acid excretion (NAE), nitrogen balance (NBAL), and whole-body ammonia and urea turnover following short-term diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen (KHCO₃; n = 8, PLA; n = 8) older (64 ± 4 years) overweight (BMI: 28.5 ± 2.1 kg∙day-1 ) men completed a 35-day controlled feeding study, with a 7-day weight-maintenance phase followed by a 28-day 30% energy-restriction phase...
May 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772182/oxidation-of-cr-iii-fe-iii-mixed-phase-hydroxides-by-chlorine-implications-on-the-control-of-hexavalent-chromium-in-drinking-water
#14
Michelle Chebeir, Haizhou Liu
The occurrence of chromium (Cr) as an inorganic contaminant in drinking water is widely reported. One source of Cr is its accumulation in iron-containing corrosion scales of drinking water distribution systems as Cr(III)-Fe(III) hydroxide, i.e., FexCr(1-x)(OH)3(s), where x represents the Fe(III) molar content and typically varies between 0.25 and 0.75. This study investigated the kinetics of inadvertent hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) formation via the oxidation of FexCr(1-x)(OH)3(s) by chlorine as a residual disinfectant in drinking water, and examined the impacts of Fe(III) content and drinking water chemical parameters including pH, bromide and bicarbonate on the rate of Cr(VI) formation...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771966/the-effect-of-chronic-progressive-dose-sodium-bicarbonate-ingestion-on-crossfit-like-performance-a-double-blind-randomized-cross-over-trial
#15
Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski, Emilia E Zawieja, Tomasz Podgórski, Igor Łoniewski, Bogna E Zawieja, Marta Warzybok, Jan Jeszka
BACKGROUND: Sodium bicarbonate (SB) has been proposed as an ergogenic aid, as it improves high-intensity and resistance exercise performance. However, no studies have yet investigated SB application in CrossFit. This study examined the effects of chronic, progressive-dose SB ingestion on CrossFit-like performance and aerobic capacity. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial, 21 CrossFit-trained participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups and underwent 2 trials separated by a 14-day washout period...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770841/arsenic-in-playground-soils-from-kindergartens-and-green-recreational-areas-of-bratislava-city-slovakia-occurrence-and-gastric-bioaccessibility
#16
Edgar Hiller, Lenka Filová, Ľubomír Jurkovič, Lucia Lachká, Tatsiana Kulikova, Mária Šimurková
In this study, playground soils of kindergartens and green recreational zones in Bratislava were investigated for the occurrence and gastric bioaccessibility of arsenic (As) in the < 150 μm soil size fraction. Eighty topsoil (0-10 cm) samples were collected from playgrounds in kindergartens and green recreational zones throughout the urban area. Bioaccessibility measurements of As were performed using the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test that mimics the human gastric environment, and resulting extracts were analyzed by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry to assess bioaccessible As concentrations in the collected playground soils...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770709/lessons-learned-from-the-preserve-trial
#17
Sasan Partovi, Thomas Trischman, Preet S Kang
The recently published PRESERVE trial is presently the largest and most comprehensive clinical trial comparing commonly applied strategies for prevention of iodinated contrast-induced acute kidney injury in high-risk patients. The fundamental conclusion of the PRESERVE trial is that oral acetylcysteine and intravenous sodium bicarbonate are not superior to simple intravenous hydration with isotonic saline for the prevention of contrast-induced renal sequelae. In this commentary, we discuss the results in the context of selected past major trials, and provide insights into the strengths and potential weaknesses of the PRESERVE trial...
May 17, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769002/defense-mechanisms-against-acid-exposure-by-dental-enamel-formation-saliva-and-pancreatic-juice-production
#18
Robert Racz, Akos Nagy, Zoltan Rakonczay, Erika Katalin Dunavari, Gabor Gerber, Gabor Varga
The pancreas, the salivary glands and the dental enamel producing ameloblasts have marked developmental, structural and functional similarities. One of the most striking similarities is their bicarbonate-rich secretory product serving acid neutralization. An important difference between them is that while pancreatic juice and saliva are delivered into a lumen where they can be collected and analyzed, ameloblasts produce locally precipitating hydroxyapatite which cannot be easily studied. Interestingly, the ion and protein secretion by the pancreas, the salivary glands, and maturation ameloblasts are all two-step processes, of course with significant differences too...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768710/improving-the-safety-of-high-dose-methotrexate-for-children-with-hematologic-cancers-in-settings-without-access-to-mtx-levels-using-extended-hydration-and-additional-leucovorin
#19
Kalthi Vaishnavi, Deepak Bansal, Amita Trehan, Richa Jain, Savita Verma Attri
BACKGROUND: A lack of access to methotrexate levels is common in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), relevant for 80% of children with cancer worldwide. We evaluated whether high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) can be administered safely with extended hydration and leucovorin rescue, with monitoring of serum creatinine and urine pH. METHODS: The prospective study was conducted at a single centre in Chandigarh, India in 2015. Patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or with T-cell ALL or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL) were administered 3 and 5 gm/m2 of MTX (24 hr infusion), respectively...
May 16, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767103/comparative-methane-estimation-from-cattle-based-on-total-co-2-production-using-different-techniques
#20
Md N Haque, Hanne H Hansen, Ida M L D Storm, Jørgen Madsen
The objective of this study was to compare the precision of CH4 estimates using calculated CO2 (HP) by the CO2 method (CO2 T) and measured CO2 in the respiration chamber (CO2 R). The CO2 R and CO2 T study was conducted as a 3 × 3 Latin square design where 3 Dexter heifers were allocated to metabolic cages for 3 periods. Each period consisted of 2 weeks of adaptation followed by 1 week of measurement with the CO2 R and CO2 T. The average body weight of the heifer was 226 ± 11 kg (means ± SD). They were fed a total mixed ration, twice daily, with 1 of 3 supplements: wheat (W), molasses (M), or molasses mixed with sodium bicarbonate (Mbic)...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
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