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Moral Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028421/medical-student-reflections-on-geriatrics-moral-distress-empathy-ethics-and-end-of-life
#1
Mary E Camp, Haekyung Jeon-Slaughter, Anne E Johnson, John Z Sadler
INTRODUCTION: Medical students' early clinical encounters may influence their perceptions of geriatrics. This study examines reflective essays written by 3rd year medical students on required clinical rotations. METHODS: Using content analysis, the authors analyzed the essays' thematic content. The authors then used chi-square analysis to compare themes with geriatric patients (age 60+) to themes with other age groups. RESULTS: 120 out of 802 essays described a geriatric patient...
October 13, 2017: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028233/ethics-in-public-health-call-for-shared-moral-public-health-literacy
#2
Els L M Maeckelberghe, Peter Schröder-Bäck
Public Health (PH) in Europe has become much more vocal about its moral understandings since 1992. The rising awareness that PH issues were inseparable from issues of human rights and social justice almost self-evidently directed the agenda of EUPHA and the European Public Health (EPH)-conferences. Problems of cultural and behavioural change, and environmental issues on a global scale were also added. The Section Ethics in PH invited the EPH community to join in 'arm chair thinking': coming together at conferences not only to share the 'how' and 'what' of PH research, practices and policies but also the 'why'...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027743/generalized-pustular-psoriasis-triggered-by-zika-virus-infection
#3
A E Paniz Mondolfi, M Hernandez Perez, G Blohm, M Marquez, A Mogollon Mendoza, C E Hernandez-Pereira, M A Escalona, A Lodeiro Colatosti, J Rothe DeArocha, A J Rodriguez Morales
Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus, which is expanding in epidemic proportions through tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although Zika is linked to a number of congenital and neurological complications, there is scarce knowledge on the impact of ZIKV infection in human skin. We report the case of a 68-year old woman who presented with generalized pustular psoriasis after a preceding and otherwise uneventful episode of ZIKV infection. Based on recent experimental data on the biology of ZIKV infection in the cutaneous environment, we speculate that ZIKV may have directly triggered the development of generalized pustular psoriasis by stimulation of keratinocyte-derived mediators of inflammation and a polyfunctional T-cell driven immune reaction in the cutaneous milieu...
October 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023561/expression-patterns-and-promoter-analyses-of-aluminum-responsive-nac-genes-suggest-a-possible-growth-regulation-of-rice-mediated-by-aluminum-hormones-and-nac-transcription-factors
#4
Hugo Fernando Escobar-Sepúlveda, Libia Iris Trejo-Téllez, Soledad García-Morales, Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino
In acid soils, the solubilized form of aluminum, Al+3, decreases root growth and affects the development of most crops. However, like other toxic elements, Al can have hormetic effects on plant metabolism. Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most tolerant species to Al toxicity, and when this element is supplied at low doses, growth stimulation has been observed, which could be due to combined mechanisms that are partly triggered by NAC transcription factors. This protein family can regulate vital processes in plants, including growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli, whether biotic or abiotic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020562/a-question-of-social-justice-how-policies-of-profit-negate-engagement-of-developing-world-bioethicists-and-undermine-global-bioethics
#5
Subrata Chattopadhyay, Catherine Myser, Tiffany Moxham, Raymond De Vries
We identify the ways the policies of leading international bioethics journals limit the participation of researchers working in the resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the development of the field of bioethics. Lack of access to essential scholarly resources makes it extremely difficult, if not impossible, for many LMIC bioethicists to learn from, meaningfully engage in, and further contribute to the global bioethics discourse. Underrepresentation of LMIC perspectives in leading journals sustains the hegemony of Western bioethics, limits the presentation of diverse moral visions of life, health, and medicine, and undermines aspirations to create a truly "global" bioethics...
October 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018170/temperature-activated-ion-channels-in-neural-crest-cells-confer-maternal-fever-associated-birth-defects
#6
Mary R Hutson, Anna L Keyte, Miriam Hernández-Morales, Eric Gibbs, Zachary A Kupchinsky, Ioannis Argyridis, Kyle N Erwin, Kelly Pegram, Margaret Kneifel, Paul B Rosenberg, Pavle Matak, Luke Xie, Jörg Grandl, Erica E Davis, Nicholas Katsanis, Chunlei Liu, Eric J Benner
Birth defects of the heart and face are common, and most have no known genetic cause, suggesting a role for environmental factors. Maternal fever during the first trimester is an environmental risk factor linked to these defects. Neural crest cells are precursor populations essential to the development of both at-risk tissues. We report that two heat-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, TRPV1 and TRPV4, were present in neural crest cells during critical windows of heart and face development...
October 10, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017623/the-genealogy-of-the-clinical-syndrome-of-mania-signs-and-symptoms-described-in-psychiatric-texts-from-1880-to-1900
#7
K S Kendler
In 1800, mania was conceptualized as an agitated psychotic state. By 1900, it closely resembled its modern form. This paper reviews the descriptions of mania in Western psychiatry from 1880 to 1900, when Kraepelin was training and developing his concept of manic-depressive illness. Psychiatric textbooks published 1900-1960 described 22 characteristic manic symptoms/signs the presence of which were recorded in 25 psychiatric textbooks and three other key documents published 1880-1900. Descriptions of mania in these nineteenth century textbooks closely resembled those in the twentieth century, recording a mean (s...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017278/favipiravir-and-ribavirin-treatment-of-epidemiologically-linked-cases-of-lassa-fever
#8
Vanessa N Raabe, Gerrit Kann, Bruce S Ribner, Andres Morales, Jay B Varkey, Aneesh K Mehta, G Marshall Lyon, Sharon Vanairsdale, Kelly Faber, Stephan Becker, Markus Eickmann, Thomas Strecker, Shelley Brown, Ketan Patel, Philipp De Leuw, Gundolf Schuettfort, Christoph Stephan, Holger Rabenau, John D Klena, Pierre E Rollin, Anita McElroy, Ute Ströher, Stuart Nichol, Colleen S Kraft, Timo Wolf
Two patients with Lassa fever are described who are the first human cases treated with a combination of ribavirin and favipiravir. Both patients survived but developed transaminitis and had prolonged detectable virus RNA in blood and semen, suggesting that the possibility of sexual transmission of Lassa virus should be considered.
September 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016304/hair-mercury-level-is-associated-with-anemia-and-micronutrient-status-in-children-living-near-artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#9
Caren Weinhouse, Ernesto J Ortiz, Axel J Berky, Paige Bullins, John Hare-Grogg, Laura Rogers, Ana-Maria Morales, Heileen Hsu-Kim, William K Pan
Anemia has been widely studied in global health contexts because of severe nutritional deficiency, and more recently, inflammatory status, but chemical exposures are rarely considered. Until recently, "anemia" was used synonymously with "iron deficiency anemia (IDA)" in global health settings. However, only 50% of anemia cases worldwide are IDA. Environmental toxicology studies of anemia risk have generally focused on populations in developed countries, albeit with high exposure to environmental toxicants, such as lead or cadmium...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991830/development-and-validation-of-an-empiric-tool-to-predict-favorable-neurologic-outcomes-among-picu-patients
#10
Punkaj Gupta, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Jeffrey M Gossett, Jennifer Daufeldt, Tom B Rice, Randall C Wetzel
OBJECTIVES: To create a novel tool to predict favorable neurologic outcomes during ICU stay among children with critical illness. DESIGN: Logistic regression models using adaptive lasso methodology were used to identify independent factors associated with favorable neurologic outcomes. A mixed effects logistic regression model was used to create the final prediction model including all predictors selected from the lasso model. Model validation was performed using a 10-fold internal cross-validation approach...
October 6, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989821/primers-for-castilleja-and-their-utility-across-orobanchaceae-i-chloroplast-primers
#11
Maribeth Latvis, Sebastian M E Mortimer, Diego F Morales-Briones, Samuel Torpey, Simon Uribe-Convers, Sarah J Jacobs, Sarah Mathews, David C Tank
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Chloroplast primers were developed from genomic data for the taxonomically challenging genus Castilleja. We further tested the broader utility of these primers across Orobanchaceae, identifying a core set of chloroplast primers amplifying across the clade. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a combination of three low-coverage Castilleja genomes and sequence data from 12 Castilleja plastomes, 76 primer combinations were specifically designed and tested for Castilleja...
September 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986505/associations-between-diabetes-and-both-cardiovascular-disease-and-all-cause-mortality-are-modified-by-grip-strength-evidence-from-uk-biobank-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Carlos A Celis-Morales, Fanny Petermann, Li Hui, Donald M Lyall, Stamatina Iliodromiti, James McLaren, Jana Anderson, Paul Welsh, Daniel F Mackay, Jill P Pell, Naveed Sattar, Jason M R Gill, Stuart R Gray
OBJECTIVE: Grip strength and diabetes are predictors of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether these risk factors interact to predispose to adverse health outcomes is unknown. This study determined the interactions between diabetes and grip strength and their association with health outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We undertook a prospective, general population cohort study by using UK Biobank. Cox proportional hazards models were used to explore the associations between both grip strength and diabetes and the outcomes of all-cause mortality and CVD incidence/mortality as well as to test for interactions between diabetes and grip strength...
October 6, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983787/morally-relevant-similarities-and-differences-between-assisted-dying-practices-in-paradigm-and-non-paradigm-circumstances-could-they-inform-regulatory-decisions
#13
Jeffrey Kirby
There has been contentious debate over the years about whether there are morally relevant similarities and differences between the three practices of continuous deep sedation until death, physician-assisted suicide, and voluntary euthanasia. Surprisingly little academic attention has been paid to a comparison of the uses of these practices in the two types of circumstances in which they are typically performed. A comparative domains of ethics analysis methodological approach is used in the paper to compare 1) the use of the three practices in paradigm circumstances, and 2) the use of the practices in paradigm circumstances to their use in non-paradigm circumstances...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982041/-affording-new-approaches-to-couples-who-inject-drugs-a-novel-fitpack-design-for-hepatitis-c-prevention
#14
Suzanne Fraser, Carla Treloar, Sandra Gendera, Jake Rance
BACKGROUND: In the West, hepatitis C is predominantly transmitted via the sharing of contaminated drug-injecting equipment. Although the majority of this sharing occurs between sexual partners, the responsibility for avoiding transmission has long been conceived as an individual responsibility, with prevention measures such as the distribution of sterile injecting equipment such as injecting packs ('fitpacks') aimed at individuals without regard for the social contexts of injecting. In this article we draw on the work of Bruno Latour to reconceptualise the fitpack...
October 2, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977515/active-commuting-is-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-obesity-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-chilean-adults
#15
Lewis Steell, Alex Garrido-Méndez, Fanny Petermann, Ximena Díaz-Martínez, María Adela Martínez, Ana María Leiva, Carlos Salas-Bravo, Cristian Alvarez, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Fernando Rodríguez, Felipe Poblete-Valderrama, Pedro Delgado Floody, Nicolás Aguilar-Farias, Naomi D Willis, Carlos A Celis-Morales
Background: There is limited evidence on how active commuting is associated with health benefits in developing countries. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the associations between active commuting and markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in the Chilean adult population. Methods: In total, 5157 participants from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-10 were included in this cross-sectional study. Active commuting was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ v2)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976244/yorkshire-s-influence-on-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-mental-diseases-in-victorian-britain-the-golden-triad-of-york-wakefield-and-leeds
#16
Henry R Rollin, Edward H Reynolds
In the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a more humane approach to the care of the insane in Britain was catalyzed in part by the illness of King George III. The Reform Movement envisaged "moral" treatment in asylums in pleasant rural environments, but these aspirations were overwhelmed by industrialization, urbanization, and the scale of the need, such that most asylums became gigantic institutions for chronic insanity. Three institutions in Yorkshire remained beacons of enlightenment in the general gloom of Victorian alienism: the Retreat in York founded and developed by the Quaker Tuke family; the West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield led by Sir James Crichton-Browne, which initiated research into brain and mental diseases; and the Leeds Medical School and Wakefield axis associated with Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, which pioneered teaching of mental diseases and, later, the first Chair of Psychiatry...
October 4, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975473/why-are-there-so-few-ethics-consults-in-children-s-hospitals
#17
Brian Carter, Manuel Brockman, Jeremy Garrett, Angie Knackstedt, John Lantos
In most children's hospitals, there are very few ethics consultations, even though there are many ethically complex cases. We hypothesize that the reason for this may be that hospitals develop different mechanisms to address ethical issues and that many of these mechanisms are closer in spirit to the goals of the pioneers of clinical ethics than is the mechanism of a formal ethics consultation. To show how this is true, we first review the history of collaboration between philosophers and physicians about clinical dilemmas...
October 3, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974434/graft-immunologic-events-in-deceased-donor-kidney-transplant-recipients-with-preformed-hla-donor-specific-antibodies
#18
Xicohténcatl Ixtlapale-Carmona, Adriana Arvizu, Adrian De-Santiago, Norma González-Tableros, Mayra López, Natalia Castelán, Lluvia A Marino, Norma O Uribe-Uribe, Alan G Contreras, Mario Vilatobá, Luis E Morales-Buenrostro, Josefina Alberú
INTRODUCTION: Pretransplant donor-specific HLA alloantibodies detected with the Single Antigen Bead (SAB) assay reflect an increased risk for acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). We herein report the incidence of both acute AMR and acute cellular rejection (ACR) during the first year posttransplantation, in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (KTR) of deceased donor (DD) grafts, according to their DSA status. Pretransplant DSA do not preclude DD-KT in negative CDC-XM recipients at our center...
September 30, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974154/-your-brain-matters-issues-of-risk-and-responsibility-in-online-dementia-prevention-information
#19
Michael Lawless, Martha Augoustinos, Amanda LeCouteur
The Internet has been argued to provide diverse sites for health communication and promotion, including issues that constitute major public health priorities such as the prevention of dementia. In this study, discursive psychology is used to examine how information about dementia risk prevention was presented on the websites of the most prominent English-language, nonprofit dementia organizations. We demonstrate how information about dementia risk and its prevention positions audiences as at-risk of developing dementia and constructs preventive behavior as a matter of individual responsibility...
October 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973407/gli1-inactivation-is-associated-with-developmental-phenotypes-overlapping-with-ellis-van-creveld-syndrome
#20
Adrian Palencia-Campos, Asmat Ullah, Julian Nevado, Ruken Yildirim, Edip Unal, Maria Ciorraga, Pilar Barruz, Lucia Chico, Francesca Piceci-Sparascio, Valentina Guida, Alessandro De Luca, Hülya Kayserili, Irfan Ullah, Margit Burmeister, Pablo Lapunzina, Wasim Ahmad, Aixa Morales, Victor L Ruiz-Perez
GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3 form a family of transcription factors which regulate development by mediating the action of Hedgehog (Hh) morphogens. Accordingly, inactivating variants in GLI2 and GLI3 are found in several developmental disorders. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in GLI1 have remained elusive, maintaining enigmatic the role of this gene in the human embryo. We describe eight patients from three independent families having biallelic truncating variants in GLI1 and developmental defects overlapping with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC), a disease caused by diminished Hh signalling...
August 26, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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