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Moral Development

Mathias Flume, Marc Bardou, Stefano Capri, Oriol Sola-Morales, David Cunningham, Lars-Ake Levin, Maarten J Postma, Nicolas Touchot
Background:  The launch of hepatitis C (HCV) drugs such as sofosbuvir or ledipasvir has fostered the question of affordability of novel high budget impact therapies even in countries with high domestic product. European countries have developed a variety of mechanisms to improve affordability of such therapies, including 'affordability thresholds', price volume agreements or caps on individual product sales, and special budgets for innovative drugs. While some of these mechanisms may help limit budget impact, there are still significant progresses to be made in the definition and implementation of approaches to ensure affordability, especially in health systems where the growth potential in drug spending and/or in the patient contribution to health insurance are limited...
2018: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
Anum Asif, Maria Del Pilar Morales
The possible role of infectious and inflammatory states in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease has been a matter of debate in the literature. There are case reports of active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection unmasking underlying dormant systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). CMV infection has also been postulated to be associated with atherosclerosis development in the coronaries. We present a unique case where a patient with newly diagnosed SLE and acute myocardial infarction was found to have high anti-CMV titers suggesting concomitant active CMV infection...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Joerg Fingerhut, Jesse J Prinz
Evaluative concepts qualify as abstract because they seem to go beyond what is given in experience. This is especially clear in the case of moral concepts. Justice, for example, has no fixed appearance. Less obviously, aesthetic concepts may also qualify as abstract. The very same sensory input can be regarded as beautiful by one person and ugly by another. Artistic success can also transcend sensory accessible features. Here, we focus on moral badness and aesthetic goodness and argue that both can be grounded in emotional responses...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Lenka Zdrazilova, David M Sidhu, Penny M Pexman
words refer to concepts that cannot be directly experienced through our senses (e.g. truth , morality ). How we ground the meanings of abstract words is one of the deepest problems in cognitive science today. We investigated this question in an experiment in which 62 participants were asked to communicate the meanings of words (20 abstract nouns, e.g. impulse ; 10 concrete nouns, e.g. insect ) to a partner without using the words themselves (the taboo task). We analysed the speech and associated gestures that participants used to communicate the meaning of each word in the taboo task...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Rutvik H Desai, Megan Reilly, Wessel van Dam
concepts play a central role in human behaviour and constitute a critical component of the human conceptual system. Here, we investigate the neural basis of four types of abstract concepts, examining their similarities and differences through neuroimaging meta-analyses. We examine numerical and emotional concepts, and two higher-order abstract processes, morality judgements and theory of mind. Three main findings emerge. First, representation of abstract concepts is more widespread than is often assumed. Second, representations of different types of abstract concepts differ in important respects...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Anna M Borghi, Laura Barca, Ferdinand Binkofski, Luca Tummolini
The capacity for abstract thought is one of the hallmarks of human cognition. However, the mechanisms underlying the ability to form and use abstract concepts like 'fantasy' and 'grace' have not been elucidated yet. This theme issue brings together developmental, social and cognitive psychologists, linguists, anthropologists, cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, philosophers and computer scientists to present theoretical insights and novel evidence on how abstract concepts are acquired, used and represented in the brain...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Stella Reiter-Theil, Charlotte Wetterauer, Irena Anna Frei
In Switzerland, the practice of lay right-to-die societies (RTDS) organizing assisted suicide (AS) is tolerated by the state. Patient counseling and accompaniment into the dying process is overtaken by RTDS lay members, while the role of physicians may be restricted to prescribing the mortal dose after a more or less rigorous exploration of the patient’s decisional capacity. However, Swiss health care facilities and professionals are committed to providing suicide prevention. Despite the liberal attitude in society, the legitimacy of organized AS is ethically questioned...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Simon Fishel
On July 25, 1978, the first human was born following extracorporeal fertilization, an event that opened up a new medical science: expanding our knowledge of and developing novel treatments for infertility, radically changing the opportunities for families with inherited monogenic disorders, generating the new discipline of clinical embryology, and paving the way for studies into stem cell biology. In vitro fertilization (IVF), as it became known in its simplest form, went even further: it engaged the myriad of minds in human society...
June 13, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Ramón Suárez-Medina, Lilia María Morales-Chacón, Silvia Josefina Venero-Fernández, Clarence Liu, Andrew W Fogarty, Aidan Neligan
There are limited epilepsy mortality data from developing countries and Latin America in particular. We examined national epilepsy mortality data from Cuba and contrasted them with comparable data from England and Wales. National epilepsy mortality data for Cuba between the years 1987 and 2010 were obtained from the Medical Records and Health Statistics Bureau of the Cuban Public Health Ministry ( with the corresponding mortality data from England and Wales obtained from the UK Office of National Statistics (ONS, www...
June 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Federica Lucivero, Karin R Jongsma
Mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly being implemented and changing our ways of doing, understanding and organising healthcare. mHealth includes wearable devices as well as apps that track fitness, offer wellness programmes or provide tools to manage chronic conditions. According to industry and policy makers, these systems offer efficient and cost-effective solutions for disease prevention and self-management. While this development raises many ethically relevant questions, so far mHealth has received only little attention in medical ethics...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Katsiaryna Laryionava, Katja Mehlis, Elena Bierwirth, Friederike Mumm, Wolfgang Hiddemann, Pia Heußner, Eva C Winkler
BACKGROUND: Many patients with advanced cancer receive chemotherapy close to death and are referred too late to palliative or hospice care, and therefore die under therapy or in intensive care units. Oncologists still have difficulties in involving patients appropriately in decisions about limiting tumor-specific or life-prolonging treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this Ethics Policy for Advanced Care Planning and Limiting Treatment Study is to develop an ethical guideline for end-of-life decisions and to evaluate the impact of this guideline on clinical practice regarding the following target goals: reduction of decisional conflicts, improvement of documentation transparency and traceability, reduction of distress of the caregiver team, and better knowledge and consideration of patients' preferences...
June 15, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Benjamin Courchia, Waleed Kurtom, Alyssa Pensirikul, Teresa Del-Moral, Maria Buch
Neonatal seizures represent a significant health burden on the term and preterm neonatal population and are linked to poor long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Currently, there are no US Food and Drug Administration-approved antiepileptic drugs for neonates, and authors of the medical literature have yet to reach a consensus on the most adequate approach to neonatal seizures. Topiramate is readily used in the adult and older pediatric population for the management of migraines and partial-onset seizures. Topiramate continues to gain favor among pediatric neurologists who often recommend this medication as a third-line treatment of neonatal seizures...
June 14, 2018: Pediatrics
David A Diamond, Jonathan Swartz, Amy Tishelman, Judith Johnson, Yee-Ming Chan
INTRODUCTION: A central ethical dilemma in management of the patient with a disorder of sex development (DSD) is the potential conflict between respect for the fundamental right of the child for physical and emotional integrity and self-determination, and the right of parents to serve as surrogate decision-makers and act in their child's best interest. METHODS: Over the past 2 years we have encountered three complex DSD cases on the spectrum of mixed gonadal dysgenesis to ovotesticular DSD in which gender assignment and therefore optimal surgical management was uncertain...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Mariusz Kuglarz, Merlin Alvarado-Morales, Katarzyna Dąbkowska, Irini Angelidaki
The aim of this study was to develop an integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production process from rapeseed straw after dilute-acid pretreatment. Rapeseed straw pretreatment at 20% (w/v) solid loading and subsequent hydrolysis with Cellic® CTec2 resulted in high glucose yield (80%) and ethanol output (122-125 kg of EtOH/Mg of rapeseed straw). Supplementation the enzymatic process with 10% dosage of endoxylanases (Cellic® HTec2) reduced the hydrolysis time required to achieve the maximum glucan conversion by 44-46% and increased the xylose yield by 10% compared to the process with Cellic® CTec2...
May 29, 2018: Bioresource Technology
B Salamanca-Zarzuela, F Morales-Luego, C Alcalde-Martin, F Centeno-Malfaz
AIM: Retrospective analysis of the neurodevelopment in the first two years of life in patients with severe congenital heart disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Out of 89 patients with severe congenital heart disease 19 were excluded due to a history of prematurity and/or chromosomopathy, four due to a history of ischemic stroke and two due to lack of medical history. Denver Test (DT) results at 2, 6, 12, 15 and 18 months, and results in motor, language and social interaction fields were achieved...
June 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Bernhard A Sabel, Jiaqi Wang, Lizbeth Cárdenas-Morales, Muneeb Faiq, Christine Heim
The loss of vision after damage to the retina, optic nerve, or brain has often grave consequences in everyday life such as problems with recognizing faces, reading, or mobility. Because vision loss is considered to be irreversible and often progressive, patients experience continuous mental stress due to worries, anxiety, or fear with secondary consequences such as depression and social isolation. While prolonged mental stress is clearly a consequence of vision loss, it may also aggravate the situation. In fact, continuous stress and elevated cortisol levels negatively impact the eye and brain due to autonomous nervous system (sympathetic) imbalance and vascular dysregulation; hence stress may also be one of the major causes of visual system diseases such as glaucoma and optic neuropathy...
June 2018: EPMA Journal
Colin M E Halverson, Megan Crowley-Matoka, Lainie Friedman Ross
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, living kidney donors were first-degree relatives due to both greater biological compatibility and concerns about extrafamilial motivation. Because familial relationships often entail distinctive experiences of moral obligation, health-care providers must be attentive to potential undue influences on intrafamilial donor decision-making processes to ensure that decisions are voluntary. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 individuals who donated kidneys to first-degree relatives and subsequently developed end-stage renal disease themselves...
January 1, 2018: Progress in Transplantation
O Del Moral-Hernández, C Santiago-Olivares, E Rivera-Toledo, J Gaona, E Castillo-Villanueva, B Gómez
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a highly prevalent infectious agent that causes severe respiratory tract illnesses in infants and children worldwide. Children who have suffered severe RSV infections during infancy are prone to develop recurrent episodes of wheezing and asthma that may be associated with viral persistence. RSV infections in humans and animal models are characterized by extensive inflammatory responses. Epithelial cell lines acutely infected by RSV have shown activation of the NF-κB signaling through two independent pathways: the canonical pathway, mediated by RelA and p50 subunits, and the non-canonical pathway, mediated by the subunits RelB and p52...
2018: Acta Virologica
Wan Ding, Yanhong Shao, Binghai Sun, Ruibo Xie, Weijian Li, Xiaozhen Wang
Prior research has shown that moral judgment, moral elevation, and moral identity contribute to prosocial behavior. However, how these three motivating factors interact in predicting prosocial behaviors is not yet clear. The current study proposed and examined a moderated mediation model to illustrate the specific process of how prosocial behavior is motivated by these factors. A total of 264 Chinese undergraduate and graduate students participated in the present study (140 females; age range 17-26, M = 20...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Matilde Celma-Vicente, Manuel López-Morales, María Dolores Cano Caballero-Gálvez
OBJECTIVE: To discover the opinions of the tutors and students of the Degree in Nursing on clinical practices and identify strategies and improvement proposals for teacher performance. METHOD: A qualitative study with a phenomenological perspective through focus groups with clinical nurse tutors and nursing students. The participants were divided into 3 groups: students, tutors from the medical area and tutors from the surgical area. The number of groups was determined by saturation of the information...
June 8, 2018: Enfermería Clínica
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