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Moral Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732010/biofilm-imaging-in-porous-media-by-laboratory-x-ray-tomography-combining-a-non-destructive-contrast-agent-with-propagation-based-phase-contrast-imaging-tools
#1
Maxence Carrel, Mario A Beltran, Verónica L Morales, Nicolas Derlon, Eberhard Morgenroth, Rolf Kaufmann, Markus Holzner
X-ray tomography is a powerful tool giving access to the morphology of biofilms, in 3D porous media, at the mesoscale. Due to the high water content of biofilms, the attenuation coefficient of biofilms and water are very close, hindering the distinction between biofilms and water without the use of contrast agents. Until now, the use of contrast agents such as barium sulfate, silver-coated micro-particles or 1-chloronaphtalene added to the liquid phase allowed imaging the biofilm 3D morphology. However, these contrast agents are not passive and potentially interact with the biofilm when injected into the sample...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728110/development-of-a-bioanalytical-test-battery-for-water-quality-monitoring-fingerprinting-identified-micropollutants-and-their-contribution-to-effects-in-surface-water
#2
Peta A Neale, Rolf Altenburger, Selim Aït-Aïssa, François Brion, Wibke Busch, Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Michael S Denison, David Du Pasquier, Klára Hilscherová, Henner Hollert, Daniel A Morales, Jiří Novák, Rita Schlichting, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Helene Serra, Ying Shao, Andrew J Tindall, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Timothy D Williams, Beate I Escher
Surface waters can contain a diverse range of organic pollutants, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds. While bioassays have been used for water quality monitoring, there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of individual micropollutants and their relationship to the overall mixture effect in water samples. In this study, a battery of in vitro bioassays based on human and fish cell lines and whole organism assays using bacteria, algae, daphnids and fish embryos was assembled for use in water quality monitoring...
July 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727757/development-of-organic-fertilizers-from-food-market-waste-and-urban-gardening-by-composting-in-ecuador
#3
J Jara-Samaniego, M D Pérez-Murcia, M A Bustamante, C Paredes, A Pérez-Espinosa, I Gavilanes-Terán, M López, F C Marhuenda-Egea, H Brito, R Moral
Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727732/incidence-of-thromboembolic-events-in-asymptomatic-carriers-of-iga-anti-%C3%A3-2-glycoprotein-i-antibodies
#4
Carlos Tortosa, Oscar Cabrera-Marante, Manuel Serrano, José A Martínez-Flores, Dolores Pérez, David Lora, Luis Morillas, Estela Paz-Artal, José M Morales, Daniel Pleguezuelo, Antonio Serrano
BACKGROUND: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by simultaneous presence of vascular clinical events and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). The aPL considered as diagnostics are lupus anticoagulant and antibodies anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-ß2 glycoprotein-I (aB2GP1). During recent years, IgA aB2GP1 antibodies have been associated with thrombotic events both in patients positive, and mainly negative for other aPL, however its value as a pro-thrombotic risk-factor in asymptomatic patients has not been well defined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726026/euthanasia-global-scenario-and-its-status-in-india
#5
REVIEW
Raghvendra Singh Shekhawat, Tanuj Kanchan, Puneet Setia, Alok Atreya, Kewal Krishan
The legal and moral validity of euthanasia has been questioned in different situations. In India, the status of euthanasia is no different. It was the Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug case that got significant public attention and led the Supreme Court of India to initiate detailed deliberations on the long ignored issue of euthanasia. Realising the importance of this issue and considering the ongoing and pending litigation before the different courts in this regard, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India issued a public notice on May 2016 that invited opinions from the citizens and the concerned stakeholders on the proposed draft bill entitled The Medical Treatment of Terminally Ill Patients (Protection of Patients and Medical Practitioners) Bill...
July 19, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725284/addiction-and-moralization-the-role-of-the-underlying-model-of-addiction
#6
Lily E Frank, Saskia K Nagel
Addiction appears to be a deeply moralized concept. To understand the entwinement of addiction and morality, we briefly discuss the disease model and its alternatives in order to address the following questions: Is the disease model the only path towards a 'de-moralized' discourse of addiction? While it is tempting to think that medical language surrounding addiction provides liberation from the moralized language, evidence suggests that this is not necessarily the case. On the other hand non-disease models of addiction may seem to resuscitate problematic forms of the moralization of addiction, including, invoking blame, shame, and the wholesale rejection of addicts as people who have deep character flaws, while ignoring the complex biological and social context of addiction...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725283/q-is-addiction-a-brain-disease-or-a-moral-failing-a-neither
#7
Nick Heather
This article uses Marc Lewis' work as a springboard to discuss the socio-political context of the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA). The claim that promotion of the BDMA is the only way the general public can be persuaded to withhold blame and punishment from addicts is critically examined. After a discussion of public understandings of the disease concept of addiction, it is pointed out that it is possible to develop a scientific account of addiction which is neither a disease nor a moral model but which the public could understand...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725034/common-shared-genetic-variation-behind-decreased-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-celiac-disease
#8
Emilio Ugalde-Morales, Jingmei Li, Keith Humphreys, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Haomin Yang, Per Hall, Kamila Czene
There is epidemiologic evidence showing that women with celiac disease have reduced risk of later developing breast cancer, however, the etiology of this association is unclear. Here, we assess the extent of genetic overlap between the two diseases. Through analyses of summary statistics on densely genotyped immunogenic regions, we show a significant genetic correlation (r = -0.17, s.e. 0.05, P < 0.001) and overlap (P permuted < 0.001) between celiac disease and breast cancer. Using individual-level genotype data from a Swedish cohort, we find higher genetic susceptibility to celiac disease summarized by polygenic risk scores to be associated with lower breast cancer risk (ORper-SD, 0...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723810/let-s-get-real-about-health-care-reform
#9
Michael Karpf
In light of the ongoing debate about health care policy in the United States, including efforts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, it will be critically important for the academic community to engage in the dialogue. Developing a viable approach to health care reform requires an understanding of the interaction and interdependence between choice, cost, and coverage in a competitive and functional market-based system. Some institutions have implemented models that indicate the feasibility of providing high-quality, efficient patient care while working within fixed budgets...
July 18, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721644/understanding-engineers-responsibilities-a-prerequisite-to-designing-engineering-education-commentary-on-educating-engineers-for-the-public-good-through-international-internships-evidence-from-a-case-study-at-universitat-polit%C3%A3-cnica-de-val%C3%A3-ncia
#10
Colleen Murphy, Paolo Gardoni
The development of the curriculum for engineering education (course requirements as well as extra-curricular activities like study abroad and internships) should be based on a comprehensive understanding of engineers' responsibilities. The responsibilities that are constitutive of being an engineer include striving to fulfill the standards of excellence set by technical codes; to improve the idealized models that engineers use to predict, for example, the behavior of alternative designs; and to achieve the internal goods such as safety and sustainability as they are reflected in the design codes...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721052/study-of-the-combinatorial-impact-of-empathy-and-emotion-on-the-processing-of-conflicts-of-interest-with-the-event-related-potential-technique
#11
Xiaoli He, Ni Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Studies have found that empathy is important in moral development and violence suppression, and emotion also affects empathy. However, the combinatorial effect of emotion and empathy on the processing of conflicts is not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 44 undergraduate students (23 in low-empathy group and 21 in high-empathy group) were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to positive, negative, and neutral emotion evoking, as well as conflicting or nonconflicting proposals...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720957/bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity-in-scalded-jalape%C3%A3-o-pepper-industrial-byproduct-capsicum-annuum
#12
Claudia Jaqueline Sandoval-Castro, Maribel Valdez-Morales, B Dave Oomah, Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado, Sergio Medina-Godoy, L Gabriela Espinosa-Alonso
Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated from industrial Jalapeño pepper byproducts and simulated non processed byproducts from two Mexican states (Chihuahua and Sinaloa) to determine their value added potential as commercial food ingredients. Aqueous 80% ethanol produced about 13% of dry extract of polar compounds. Total phenolic content increased and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin decreased on scalding samples (80 °C, 2 min) without affecting ascorbic acid. The major phenolic compounds, rutin, epicatechin and catechin comprised 90% of the total compounds detected by HPLC of each Jalapeño pepper byproducts...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716452/the-proliferation-of-sexual-health-diverse-social-problems-and-the-legitimation-of-sexuality
#13
Steven Epstein, Laura Mamo
Especially since the 1990s, the term sexual health has flourished in professional, commercial, and lay domains. Yet the more the phrase has become visible, the greater the mutability in its meanings. These developments matter for an understanding of healthism-the idea that modern individuals are enjoined to recognize a moral obligation to maximize their health. Theorists of healthism have paid relatively little attention to sexuality and its frequent rendering as controversial, illegitimate, or stigmatizing...
June 29, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715847/language-sampling-with-adolescents-building-a-normative-database-with-fables
#14
Marilyn A Nippold, Laura M Vigeland, Megan W Frantz-Kaspar, Jeannene M Ward-Lonergan
Purpose: The goal of the study was to create a language sampling task appropriate for adolescents and to contribute normative data from speakers with typical language development. Method: Thirty adolescents (mean age = 14 years, 1 month) participated in an interview that involved the retelling and interpretation of 4 Greek fables. Each speaker's performance on the task was audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and entered into the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts computer program (Miller & Iglesias, 2015)...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714040/perspectives-of-pharmacy-staff-on-dispensing-subtherapeutic-doses-of-antibiotics-a-theory-informed-qualitative-study
#15
Mohamed Ezzat Khamis Amin, Amira Amine, Mohammad Shoukry Newegy
Background Injudicious dispensing of antibiotics in subtherapeutic doses is common in many developing countries. In Egypt, as in many developing countries, a few pills of common cold products are offered under the name cold group (CG). A cold group may contain one or more pills of antibiotics. A pharmacy client may obtain subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics upon direct request or as part of a CG. Objective To examine factors associated with the unwarranted dispensing of subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics in community pharmacies as part of a CG or upon direct request from patients among community pharmacy staff...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710622/intra-and-extra-cellular-proteome-analyses-of-steroid-producer-mycobacteria
#16
Carlos Barreiro, Alejandro Morales, Inés Vázquez-Iglesias, Alberto Sola-Landa
The importance of the pathogenic mycobacteria has mainly focused the omic analyses on different aspects of their clinical significance. In contrast, those industrially relevant mycobacteria have received less attention, even though the steroids market sales in 2011, in example, were estimated in $8 billion.The extra-cellular proteome, due to its relevance in the sterols processing and uptake; as well as the intra-cellular proteome, because of its role in steroids bioconversion, are the core of the present chapter...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708399/development-and-validation-of-a-computational-model-ensemble-for-the-early-detection-of-bcrp-abcg2-substrates-during-the-drug-design-stage
#17
Melisa Edith Gantner, Roxana Noemí Peroni, Juan Francisco Morales, María Luisa Villalba, María Esperanza Ruiz, Alan Talevi
Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) is an ATP-dependent efflux transporter linked to the multidrug resistance phenomenon in many diseases such as epilepsy and cancer, and a potential source of drug interactions. For those reasons, the early identification of substrates and non-substrates of this transporter during the drug discovery stage is of great interest. We have developed a computational non-linear model ensemble based on conformational independent molecular descriptors using a combined strategy of genetic algorithms, J48 decision tree classifiers and data fusion...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707850/the-virtues-of-scientific-practice-macintyre-virtue-ethics-and-the-historiography-of-science
#18
Daniel J Hicks, Thomas A Stapleford
“Practice” has become a ubiquitous term in the history of science, and yet historians have not always reflected on its philosophical import and in particular on its potential connections with ethics. This essay draws on the work of the virtue ethicist Alasdair MacIntyre to develop a theory of “communal practices” and explore how such an approach can inform the history of science, including allegations about the corruption of science by wealth or power, consideration of scientific ethics or “moral economies,” the role of values in science, the ethical distinctiveness (or not) of scientific vocations, and the relationship between history of science and the practice of science itself...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699557/-where-we-put-little-fish-in-the-water-there-are-no-mosquitoes-a-cross-sectional-study-on-biological-control-of-the-aedes-aegypti-vector-in-90-coastal-region-communities-of-guerrero-mexico
#19
Arcadio Morales-Pérez, Elizabeth Nava-Aguilera, José Legorreta-Soberanis, Antonio Juan Cortés-Guzmán, Alejandro Balanzar-Martínez, Eva Harris, Josefina Coloma, Víctor M Alvarado-Castro, Mónica Violeta Bonilla-Leon, Liliana Morales-Nava, Robert J Ledogar, Anne Cockcroft, Neil Andersson
BACKGROUND: In the Mexican state of Guerrero, some households place fish in water storage containers to prevent the development of mosquito larvae. Studies have shown that larvivorous fish reduce larva count in household water containers, but there is a lack of evidence about whether the use of fish is associated with a reduction in dengue virus infection. We used data from the follow up survey of the Camino Verde cluster randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation to reduce dengue risk to study this association...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697663/the-point-mutation-g461s-in-the-mfcyp51-gene-is-associated-with-tebuconazole-resistance-in-monilinia-fructicola-populations-in-brazil
#20
Paulo Santos Faria Lichtemberg, Yong Luo, Rafael G Morales, Juliana Marta Muehlmann Fischer, Themis J Michailides, Louise Larissa May De Mio
The ascomycete Monilinia fructicola is the causal agent of brown rot of stone fruits in Brazil, causing major pre- and post-harvest losses. For many years, the demethylation inhibitor fungicide tebuconazole has been used as the most effective active ingredient for controlling brown rot, and as a result, strains of M. fructicola resistant to this ingredient have emerged in many Brazilian States producing stone fruits. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism(s) associated with the resistance of M...
July 11, 2017: Phytopathology
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