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Moral Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235922/dna-methylation-reprogramming-of-human-cancer-cells-by-expression-of-a-plant-5-methylcytosine-dna-glycosylase
#1
Teresa Morales-Ruiz, María Victoria García-Ortiz, Iván Devesa-Guerra, Laura Raya-Ruiz, Juan R Tejedor, Gustavo F Bayón, Marta I Sierra, Mario F Fraga, Rafael R Ariza, Teresa Roldán-Arjona
Patterns of DNA methylation, an important epigenetic modification involved in gene silencing and development, are disrupted in cancer cells. Understanding the functional significance of aberrant methylation in tumors remains challenging, due in part to the lack of suitable tools to actively modify methylation patterns. DNA demethylation caused by mammalian DNA methyltransferase inhibitors is transient and replication-dependent, whereas that induced by TET enzymes involves oxidized 5mC derivatives that perform poorly understood regulatory functions...
December 13, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234993/narrative-identity-in-third-party-reproduction-normative-aspects-and-ethical-challenges
#2
Natacha Salomé Lima
In the last few decades, assisted reproduction has introduced new challenges to the way people conceive and build their families. While the numbers of donor-conceived (DC) individuals have increased worldwide, there are still many controversies concerning access to donor information. Is there a fundamental moral right to know one's genetic background? What does identity in DC families mean? Is there any relationship between identity formation and disclosure of genetic origins? These questions are addressed by analysing core regulatory discourse (ethical recommendations and codes of practice)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234481/in-defense-of-pharmaceutically-enhancing-human-morality
#3
Evangelos D Protopapadakis
Purpose: I will discuss the prospect of pharmaceutically enhancing human morality and decision making in such a way as to eliminate morally unjustifiable choices and promote desirable ones. Background: Our species in the relatively short period since it has emerged has enormously advanced in knowledge, science, and technical progress. When it comes to moral development, the distance it has covered is almost negligible. What if we could medically accelerate our moral development? What if we could once and for all render our species totally immune to certain vices? Methodology: I will examine whether pharmaceutically intervening in human morality would compromise the autonomy of moral agents...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234293/the-construction-of-self-in-relationships-narratives-and-references-to-mental-states-during-picture-book-reading-interactions-between-mothers-and-children
#4
Dolores Rollo, Emiddia Longobardi, Pietro Spataro, Francesco Sulla
Previous studies showed that mothers vary in the way in which they discuss past experiences with their children, since they can exhibit narrative (elaborative) or paradigmatic (repetitive) styles to different extents. Given this background, the aim of the present study was to analyze differences in the mothers' use of narrative styles and mental state language (MSL), as a function of children's age and gender. Thirty dyads consisting of mothers and their 4- to 6-year-old children were observed during a picture-book reading interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233397/assessment-of-student-pharmacists-ethical-decision-making
#5
Jaclyn R Myers, Mary E Kiersma, Kimberly S Plake
INTRODUCTION: In previous research, investigators have expressed concern about the ethical ambivalence of pharmacists in decision-making. The objectives of this study were to examine student pharmacists': 1) attitudes and responses regarding specific common ethical situations and 2) perceived level of difficulty in making ethical decisions. METHODS: A self-administered 38-item survey was given to second and third year student pharmacists at Purdue University. The survey comprised five sections, including: 1) attitudes towards common ethical situations, 2) responses to specific ethical scenarios, 3) emergency lending, 4) perceived level of difficulty in resolving ethical dilemmas, and 5) demographics...
November 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233357/venous-cannulation-for-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-the-case-of-anomaly-of-the-inferior-vena-cava
#6
Javier Fañanás Mastral, Javier André Bellido Morales, María Elisa Ochoa Rea, Marta Matamala Adell, Carlos Ballester Cuenca
Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava and its tributaries are quite uncommon; however, since the development of cross-sectional imaging, they have been described more frequently. Most of them are usually asymptomatic, although they can have clinical implications. We report a case of a rare anomaly of the inferior vena cava in a 54-year-old man admitted to our hospital for complicated native aortic valve endocarditis, requiring urgent surgery, and making necessary an alternative venous cannulation for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass circulation...
January 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232888/a-comparison-of-the-social-adaptive-perspective-and-functionalist-perspective-on-guilt-and-shame
#7
REVIEW
Heidi L Dempsey
Within the field of guilt and shame two competing perspectives have been advanced. The first, the social-adaptive perspective, proposes that guilt is an inherently adaptive emotion and shame is an inherently maladaptive emotion. Thus, those interested in moral character development and psychopathology should work to increase an individual's guilt-proneness and decrease an individual's shame-proneness. The functionalist perspective, in contrast, argues that both guilt and shame can serve a person adaptively or maladaptively-depending on the situational appropriateness, duration, intensity, and so forth...
December 11, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232168/high-throughput-screening-approach-for-identifying-compounds-that-inhibit-nonhomologous-end-joining
#8
Andrea L Bredemeyer, Bruce S Edwards, Mark K Haynes, Abigail J Morales, Yinan Wang, Oleg Ursu, Anna Waller, Larry A Sklar, Barry P Sleckman
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired primarily by homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Compounds that modulate HR have shown promise as cancer therapeutics. The V(D)J recombination reaction, which assembles antigen receptor genes in lymphocytes, is initiated by the introduction of DNA DSBs at two recombining gene segments by the RAG endonuclease, followed by the NHEJ-mediated repair of these DSBs. Here, using HyperCyt automated flow cytometry, we develop a robust high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for NHEJ that utilizes engineered pre-B-cell lines where the V(D)J recombination reaction can be induced and monitored at a single-cell level...
December 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229644/narrative-approach-in-understanding-the-drivers-for-resilience-of-military-combat-medics
#9
Cristel Antonia Russell, S W Gibbons, P A Abraham, E R Howe, P Deuster, D W Russell
INTRODUCTION: Qualitative insights may demonstrate how combat medics (CM) deal with stressors and identify how resilience can potentially develop. Yet, qualitative research is scant in comparison to the many quantitative studies of health outcomes associated with military service. METHOD: Semistructured qualitative interviews were used to collect personal narratives of US Army CMs who had previously served in Iraq or Afghanistan. RESULTS: Thematic analysis revealed three key driving forces for how resilience develops in the context of combat and war...
December 10, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229401/regular-use-of-aspirin-or-non-aspirin-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-is-not-associated-with-risk-of-incident-pancreatic-cancer-in-two-large-cohort-studies
#10
Natalia Khalaf, Chen Yuan, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Yin Cao, Ana Babic, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Peter Kraft, Kimmie Ng, Edward Giovannucci, Shuji Ogino, Meir Stampfer, Barbara B Cochrane, JoAnn E Manson, Clary B Clish, Andrew T Chan, Charles Fuchs, Brian M Wolpin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Use of aspirin and/or non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduces the risk of several cancers, but it is not clear if use of these drugs is associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We evaluated aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use and risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in 141,940 participants from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses' Health Study using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression...
December 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224119/effects-of-diurnal-temperature-range-on-mortality-in-hefei-city-china
#11
Jing Tang, Chang-Chun Xiao, Yu-Rong Li, Jun-Qing Zhang, Hao-Yuan Zhai, Xi-Ya Geng, Rui Ding, Jin-Xia Zhai
Although several studies indicated an association between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and mortality, the results about modifiers are inconsistent, and few studies were conducted in developing inland country. This study aims to evaluate the effects of DTR on cause-specific mortality and whether season, gender, or age might modify any association in Hefei city, China, during 2007-2016. Quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression models combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) were applied to evaluate the relationships between DTR and non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222449/detection-of-prions-in-blood-of-cervids-at-the-asymptomatic-stage-of-chronic-wasting-disease
#12
Carlos Kramm, Sandra Pritzkow, Adam Lyon, Tracy Nichols, Rodrigo Morales, Claudio Soto
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a rapidly spreading prion disorder affecting captive and free-ranging cervids. The zoonotic potential of CWD is unknown, as well as the mechanism for its highly efficient transmission. A top priority to minimize further spreading of this disease and its potential impact on environmental prion contamination is the development of a non-invasive, sensitive, and specific test for ante-mortem detection of infected animals. Here, we optimized the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay for highly efficient detection of CWD prions in blood samples...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221454/must-we-remain-blind-to-undergraduate-medical-ethics-education-in-africa-a-cross-sectional-study-of-nigerian-medical-students
#13
Onochie Okoye, Daniel Nwachukwu, Ferdinand C Maduka-Okafor
BACKGROUND: As the practice of medicine inevitably raises both ethical and legal issues, it had been recommended since 1999 that medical ethics and human rights be taught at every medical school. Most Nigerian medical schools still lack a formal undergraduate medical ethics curriculum. Medical education remains largely focused on traditional medical science components, leaving the medical students to develop medical ethical decision-making skills and moral attitudes passively within institutions noted for relatively strong paternalistic traditions...
December 8, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219328/determination-of-hydrogen-density-by-swift-heavy-ions
#14
Ge Xu, M D Barriga-Carrasco, A Blazevic, B Borovkov, D Casas, K Cistakov, R Gavrilin, M Iberler, J Jacoby, G Loisch, R Morales, R Mäder, S-X Qin, T Rienecker, O Rosmej, S Savin, A Schönlein, K Weyrich, J Wiechula, J Wieser, G Q Xiao, Y T Zhao
A novel method to determine the total hydrogen density and, accordingly, a precise plasma temperature in a lowly ionized hydrogen plasma is described. The key to the method is to analyze the energy loss of swift heavy ions interacting with the respective bound and free electrons of the plasma. A slowly developing and lowly ionized hydrogen theta-pinch plasma is prepared. A Boltzmann plot of the hydrogen Balmer series and the Stark broadening of the H_{β} line preliminarily defines the plasma with a free electron density of (1...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218543/does-studying-ethics-improve-engineering-students-meta-moral-cognitive-skills
#15
Reena Cheruvalath
This study examines the assumption that training in professional ethics is a predictor of the meta-moral cognitive ability of engineering students. The main purpose of the study was to check the difference in the meta-moral cognitive abilities between those students who studied a course on professional ethics, as part of the engineering curriculum, and those who did not undertake such a course. Using the survey method, the author conducted a pilot study amongst 243 engineering undergraduates. The meta-moral cognitive awareness inventory developed on the basis of the meta-cognitive awareness inventory prepared by Schraw Gregory and Dennison Rayne Sperling was used to measure the meta-moral cognitive level of the respondents...
December 7, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216450/endocannabinoid-actions-on-cortical-terminals-orchestrate-local-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#16
Yolanda Mateo, Kari A Johnson, Dan P Covey, Brady K Atwood, Hui-Ling Wang, Shiliang Zhang, Iness Gildish, Roger Cachope, Luigi Bellocchio, Manuel Guzmán, Marisela Morales, Joseph F Cheer, David M Lovinger
Dopamine (DA) transmission mediates numerous aspects of behavior. Although DA release is strongly linked to firing of DA neurons, recent developments indicate the importance of presynaptic modulation at striatal dopaminergic terminals. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates DA release and is a canonical gatekeeper of goal-directed behavior. Here we report that extracellular DA increases induced by selective optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are inhibited by CB1 agonists and eCBs...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214875/genetic-polymorphisms-of-arylamine-n-acetyltransferases-1-and-2-and-the-likelihood-of-developing-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#17
Oswaldo Hernández-González, Juan José Ortiz-Zamudio, Cristian Jazmín Rodríguez-Pinal, Ildemar Alvarado-Morales, Verónica Del Carmen Martínez-Jiménez, Raúl Alejandro Salazar-González, Lourdes Cecilia Correa-González, Rocío Gómez, Diana Patricia Portales-Pérez, Rosa Del Carmen Milán-Segovia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the main causes of death in children and is associated with both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Genes encoding the arylamine N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) isoenzymes are highly polymorphic among populations. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction from the genomic DNA of 225 healthy subjects and 57 children with ALL diagnoses. Significant associations were found between the development of ALL and the presence of the haplotypes NAT1*3 (Odds ratio [OR], 2...
December 7, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211230/psychic-and-moral-exhaustion-in-primary-care-workers
#18
Priscilla Brandão Bacci Pegoraro, Rafaela Schaefer, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone Zoboli
OBJECTIVE To report the experience of developing a workshop proposal to assist local managers with the identification, management and prevention of primary care workers' psychic and moral exhaustion. METHOD The workshop was developed through a literature review performed between November 2014 and June 2015. The temporal cut considered studies of the ten previous years. The selection included studies describing collective interventions for situations generating psychic and moral exhaustion, preferably in primary care services...
2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209622/exploration-of-the-association-between-nurses-moral-distress-and-secondary-traumatic-stress-syndrome-implications-for-patient-safety-in-mental-health-services
#19
Maria Christodoulou-Fella, Nicos Middleton, Elizabeth D E Papathanassoglou, Maria N K Karanikola
Work-related moral distress (MD) and secondary traumatic stress syndrome (STSS) may be associated with compromised health status among health professionals, reduced productivity, and inadequate safety of care. We explored the association of MD with the severity of STSS symptoms, along with the mediating role of mental distress symptoms. Associations with emotional exhaustion and professional satisfaction were also assessed. This cross-sectional survey conducted in 206 mental health nurses (MHNs) was employed across public sector community and hospital settings in Cyprus...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208492/resting-state-connectivity-mediates-the-relationship-between-collectivism-and-social-cognition
#20
Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander N Savostyanov, Andrey V Bocharov, Ekaterina A Merkulova
Humans are intrinsically social beings and it is natural that self-processing is associated with social cognition. The degree to which the self is perceived as a part of social environment is modulated by cultural stereotypes, such as collectivism and individualism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that individuals who endorse collectivist values would spontaneously think more about their relationships with other people and this association would be mediated by connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the rest of the brain...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
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