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Moral Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822880/children-s-developing-metaethical-judgments
#1
Marco F H Schmidt, Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera, Michael Tomasello
Human adults incline toward moral objectivism but may approach things more relativistically if different cultures are involved. In this study, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children (N=136) witnessed two parties who disagreed about moral matters: a normative judge (e.g., judging that it is wrong to do X) and an antinormative judge (e.g., judging that it is okay to do X). We assessed children's metaethical judgment, that is, whether they judged that only one party (objectivism) or both parties (relativism) could be right...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819069/factors-influencing-career-intentions-on-completion-of-general-practice-vocational-training-in-england-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Jeremy Dale, Rachel Russell, Emma Scott, Katherine Owen
OBJECTIVES: General practice is experiencing a growing crisis with the numbers of doctors who are training and then entering the profession in the UK failing to keep pace with workforce needs. This study investigated the immediate to medium term career intentions of those who are about to become general practitioners (GPs) and the factors that are influencing career plans. DESIGN: Online questionnaire survey, with quantitative answers analysed using descriptive statistics and free text data analysed using a thematic framework approach...
August 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818600/a-reverse-hybridization-test-for-the-identification-of-76-pneumococcal-serotypes-42-individually-and-34-in-pairs
#3
José M Marimón, María Morales, Susana Gamen, Ana Manrique, María Ercibengoa, Gustavo Cilla
The S. PneumoStrip test is a recently developed reverse hybridization strip-based commercial assay that allows for the identification of 76 pneumococcal serotypes, 42 individually and 34 in pairs, according to their specific gene sequences. The test was validated with reference strains of 92 different pneumococcal serotypes and with a selection of 75 clinical isolates representing 55 serotypes, showing 100% sensitivity and specificity. The test was also applied to 64 pneumococcal invasive isolates (23 different serotypes) consecutively collected between June 2016 and March 2017, with 60 (93...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814139/validation-of-a-brazilian-version-of-the-moral-sensitivity-questionnaire
#4
Carlise R Dalla Nora, Elma Lcp Zoboli, Margarida M Vieira
BACKGROUND: Moral sensitivity has been identified as a foundational component of ethical action. Diminished or absent moral sensitivity can result in deficient care. In this context, assessing moral sensitivity is imperative for designing interventions to facilitate ethical practice and ensure that nurses make appropriate decisions. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to validate a scale for examining the moral sensitivity of Brazilian nurses. RESEARCH DESIGN: A pre-existing scale, the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, which was developed by Lützén, was used after the deletion of three items...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813529/natural-and-artificial-feeding-management-before-weaning-promote-different-rumen-microbial-colonization-but-not-differences-in-gene-expression-levels-at-the-rumen-epithelium-of-newborn-goats
#5
Leticia Abecia, Elisabeth Jiménez, Gonzalo Martínez-Fernandez, A Ignacio Martín-García, Eva Ramos-Morales, Eric Pinloche, Stuart E Denman, C Jamie Newbold, David R Yáñez-Ruiz
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810417/outdoor-group-activity-depression-and-subjective-well-being-among-retirees-of-china-the-mediating-role-of-meaning-in-life
#6
Zhen Zhang
This study examined the effect of outdoor group activity on mental health and the potential mediating effect of meaning in life. Participants were 559 retired people. A self-developed questionnaire measured outdoor group activity; the Meaning in Life Scale, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression assessed meaning in life, subjective well-being, and depression, respectively. Results indicated outdoor group activity significantly predicted subjective well-being and depression; meaning in life fully mediated the relationship between outdoor group activity and subjective well-being and partially mediated the relationship between outdoor group activity and depression...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807909/development-and-use-of-personalized-bacteriophage-based-therapeutic-cocktails-to-treat-a-patient-with-a-disseminated-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection
#7
Robert T Schooley, Biswajit Biswas, Jason J Gill, Adriana Hernandez-Morales, Jacob Lancaster, Lauren Lessor, Jeremy J Barr, Sharon L Reed, Forest Rohwer, Sean Benler, Anca M Segall, Randy Taplitz, Davey M Smith, Kim Kerr, Monika Kumaraswamy, Victor Nizet, Leo Lin, Melanie D McCauley, Steffanie A Strathdee, Constance A Benson, Robert K Pope, Brian M Leroux, Andrew C Picel, Alfred J Mateczun, Katherine E Cilwa, James M Regeimbal, Luis A Estrella, David M Wolfe, Matthew S Henry, Javier Quinones, Scott Salka, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, Ry Young, Theron Hamilton
Widespread antibiotic use in clinical medicine and the livestock industry has contributed to the global spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumannii We report on a method used to produce a personalized bacteriophage-based therapeutic treatment for a 68-year old diabetic patient with necrotizing pancreatitis complicated by a MDR A. baumannii infection. Despite multiple antibiotic courses and efforts at percutaneous drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst, the patient deteriorated over a four-month period...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806143/whose-preferences-matter-a-patient-centered-approach-for-eliciting-treatment-goals
#8
Nananda F Col, Andrew J Solomon, Vicky Springmann, Calvin P Garbin, Carolina Ionete, Lori Pbert, Enrique Alvarez, Brenda Tierman, Ashli Hopson, Christen Kutz, Idanis Berrios Morales, Carolyn Griffin, Glenn Phillips, Long H Ngo
BACKGROUND: Patients facing a high-stakes clinical decision are often confronted with an overwhelming array of options. High-quality decisions about treatment should reflect patients' preferences as well as their clinical characteristics. Preference-assessment instruments typically focus on pre-selected clinical outcomes and attributes chosen by the investigator. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a patient-centered approach to elicit and compare the treatment goals of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthcare providers (HCPs)...
August 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805438/situational-and-structural-variation-in-youth-perceptions-of-maternal-guilt-induction
#9
Wendy M Rote, Judith G Smetana
Parental induction of empathy-related guilt plays an important role in children's moral development. However, guilt induction can also be psychologically controlling and detrimental for youth adjustment. This study provided a more nuanced view of parental guilt induction by examining how the nature of a child's misdeed and the structure and content of the parental guilt inductive statement impact children's perceptions of it. Using hypothetical vignettes, this study experimentally examined the impact of the type (domain) of child behavior, highlighted victim, and focus of parental criticism on 156 children's and early and middle adolescents' (age: Ms = 8...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801467/minors-moral-psychology-and-the-harm-reduction-debate-the-case-of-tobacco-and-nicotine
#10
Lynn T Kozlowski
Harm reduction debates are important in health policy. Although it has been established that morality affects policy, this article proposes that perspectives from moral psychology help to explain the challenges of developing evidence-based policy on prohibition-only versus tobacco/nicotine harm reduction for minors. Protecting youth from tobacco is critical, especially since tobacco/nicotine products are legal for adults, who usually begin using when young. Although cigarettes and other combustibles are the deadliest tobacco products, other products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, though unsafe, are upward of 90 percent less harmful than cigarettes...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801311/ethical-issues-when-modelling-brain-disorders-in-non-human-primates
#11
Carolyn P Neuhaus
Non-human animal models of human diseases advance our knowledge of the genetic underpinnings of disease and lead to the development of novel therapies for humans. While mice are the most common model organisms, their usefulness is limited. Larger animals may provide more accurate and valuable disease models, but it has, until recently, been challenging to create large animal disease models. Genome editors, such as Clustered Randomised Interspersed Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR), meet some of these challenges and bring routine genome engineering of larger animals and non-human primates (NHPs) well within reach...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800288/population-based-study-of-the-national-implementation-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-infants-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#12
Juan Arnaez, Alfredo García-Alix, Gemma Arca, Sonia Caserío, Eva Valverde, M Teresa Moral, Isabel Benavente-Fernández, Simón Lubián-López
Data on the incidence of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the first 6 hours of life together with the implementation of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) are relevant to delineate actions to achieve the lowest rates of neonatal mortality, morbidity, and long-term impact on health associated with HIE. This is population-based national survey study, including newborns ≥35 weeks of gestation with moderate-to-severe HIE from all level III neonatal care units, to provide the incidence of HIE for the period 2012-2013, and the implementation of TH up to June 2015 in Spain...
August 11, 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795594/the-battle-of-worldviews-a-case-study-of-liver-fluke-infection-in-khon-kaen-thailand
#13
Sara Samiphak, S Leonard Syme
Control efforts to reduce infection from the parasitic flatworm Opisthorchis viverrini have progressed through understanding the epidemiology of Opisthorchis viverrini, antiparasitic drug developments, technological innovations, health education promoting cooking of fish, and improved hygienic defecation. Yet the problem persists. The case study method was used to examine the fundamental cause of the liver fluke infection problem. Evidence shows that the liver fluke-infected population does not care about living a long life...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791143/moral-judgement-by-the-disconnected-left-and-right-cerebral-hemispheres-a-split-brain-investigation
#14
Conor M Steckler, J Kiley Hamlin, Michael B Miller, Danielle King, Alan Kingstone
Owing to the hemispheric isolation resulting from a severed corpus callosum, research on split-brain patients can help elucidate the brain regions necessary and sufficient for moral judgement. Notably, typically developing adults heavily weight the intentions underlying others' moral actions, placing greater importance on valenced intentions versus outcomes when assigning praise and blame. Prioritization of intent in moral judgements may depend on neural activity in the right hemisphere's temporoparietal junction, an area implicated in reasoning about mental states...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789522/a-new-architecture-for-reagentless-protein-based-electro-chemical-biosensors
#15
Di Kang, Sheng Sun, Martin Kurnik, Demosthenes P Morales, Frederick Willis Dahlquist, Kevin W Plaxco
Here we demonstrate a new class of reagentless, single-step sensors for the detection of proteins and peptides that is the electro-chemical analog of fluorescence polarization (fluorescence anisotropy), a versatile optical approach widely employed to this same end. Our electrochemical sensors consist of a redox-reporter-modified protein (the "receptor") site-specifically anchored to an electrode via a short, flexible polypeptide linker. Interaction of the receptor with its binding partner alters the efficiency with which the reporter approaches the electrode surface, thus causing a change in redox current upon voltammetric interrogation...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783169/glioblastoma-stem-cells-exploit-the-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-8-integrin-tgf%C3%AE-1-signaling-axis-to-drive-tumor-initiation-and-progression
#16
P A Guerrero, J H Tchaicha, Z Chen, J E Morales, N McCarty, Q Wang, E P Sulman, G Fuller, F F Lang, G Rao, J H McCarty
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a primary brain cancer that contains populations of stem-like cancer cells (GSCs) that home to specialized perivascular niches. GSC interactions with their niche influence self-renewal, differentiation and drug resistance, although the pathways underlying these events remain largely unknown. Here, we report that the integrin αvβ8 and its latent transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) protein ligand have central roles in promoting niche co-option and GBM initiation. αvβ8 integrin is highly expressed in GSCs and is essential for self-renewal and lineage commitment in vitro...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776902/why-animal-de-liberation-survives-early-criticism-and-is-pivotal-to-public-health
#17
Jan Deckers
In 2016, the book Animal (De)liberation: Should the Consumption of Animal Products Be Banned? was published. This article aims to engage with the critique that this book has received and to clarify and reinforce its importance for human health. It is argued that the ideas developed in the book withstand critical scrutiny. As qualified moral veganism avoids the pitfalls of other moral positions on human diets, public health policies must be altered accordingly, subject to adequate political support for its associated vegan project...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776840/pro-environmental-behavior-and-adolescent-moral-development
#18
Tobias Krettenauer
Previous research has demonstrated that children take a strong moral stance toward protecting the natural environment. However, the question of how this moralization of pro-environmental behavior develops in adolescence has been rarely investigated. This study investigated age-related differences in adolescents' pro-environmental behavior as it relates to moral judgments about environmental issues and emotions. The study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 325 Canadian adolescents from early, middle, and late adolescence...
September 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772455/biocompatibility-and-corrosion-protection-behaviour-of-hydroxyapatite-sol-gel-derived-coatings-on-ti6al4v-alloy
#19
Amir A El Hadad, Eduardo Peón, Federico R García-Galván, Violeta Barranco, Juan Parra, Antonia Jiménez-Morales, Juan Carlos Galván
The aim of this work was to prepare hydroxyapatite coatings (HAp) by a sol-gel method on Ti6Al4V alloy and to study the bioactivity, biocompatibility and corrosion protection behaviour of these coatings in presence of simulated body fluids (SBFs). Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analyses (TG/DTA) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) have been applied to obtain information about the phase transformations, mass loss, identification of the phases developed, crystallite size and degree of crystallinity of the obtained HAp powders...
January 24, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771909/inter-professionals-definitions-of-moral-resilience
#20
Heidi Holtz, Katherine Heinze, Cynda Rushton
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe common characteristics and themes of the concept of moral resilience as reported by inter-professional clinicians in healthcare. BACKGROUND: Research has provided an abundance of data on moral distress with limited research to resolve and help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress. This calls for much needed research on how to mitigate the negative consequences of moral distress that plague nurses and other healthcare providers...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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