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Acute otitis media in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920580/positive-clinical-outcomes-derived-from-using-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-to-prevent-streptococcal-pharyngotonsillitis-in-children-a-pilot-investigation
#1
Francesco Di Pierro, Maria Colombo, Alberto Zanvit, Amilcare S Rottoli
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12(®)) is a probiotic strain producing the bacteriocins salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B, both of which strongly antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. It successfully colonizes and exhibits persistence in the oral cavity and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. Previous observations of a small group of children indicated that the use of BLIS K12 could also reduce the occurrence of viral pharyngitis...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-non-encapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#2
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in carriage of non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms represent a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of high doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918383/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-in-children-less-than-5-years-of-age-a-pooled-analysis-of-10-similarly-designed-observational-studies
#3
Melissa K Van Dyke, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Robert Cohen, Shabir A Madhi, Andrés Rosenblüt, Mercedes Macias Parra, Khalid Al-Mazrou, Gerhard Grevers, Pio Lopez, Laura Naranjo, Felix Pumarola, Nuntigar Sonsuwan, William P Hausdorff
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an important cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. However, the relative importance of the well-known otopathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), remains unclear due to a limited number of tympanocentesis-based studies that vary significantly in populations sampled, case definitions, and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7-CRM) use. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of results from ten AOM etiology studies of similar design the protocols of which were derived from a common protocol and conducted in children 3 months to 5 years of age in different countries...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904919/-seasonal-differences-of-tympanogram-and-middle-ear-findings-in-children-german-version
#4
S Knopke, A Böttcher, P Chadha, H Olze, F Bast
BACKGROUND: It is a known fact that bacterial or viral acute otitis media occurs more frequently in the winter months. Only a few older studies on seasonal differences in middle ear findings are available. These studies are based solely on tympanography, without correlation to intraoperative middle ear findings. This study addresses the question of whether seasonal differences can be found in the preoperative tympanogram and in the corresponding intraoperative findings in children with chronic middle ear problems...
November 30, 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879558/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-selected-head-and-neck-infections-in-hospitalized-israeli-children
#5
Tal Marom, Shiran Bookstein Peretz, Orna Schwartz, Abraham Goldfarb, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), e.g. acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis (AM), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) and meningitis. The aim of the study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during, and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: Children 0-16 years who were hospitalized with HNIs in the Pediatrics Department in a general hospital between 1/1/2007-12/31/2014 were retrospectively identified...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875554/incidence-and-determinants-of-ventilation-tubes-in-denmark
#6
Tine Marie Pedersen, Anna-Rosa Cecilie Mora-Jensen, Johannes Waage, Hans Bisgaard, Jakob Stokholm
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many children are treated for recurrent acute otitis media and middle ear effusion with ventilation tubes (VT). The objectives are to describe the incidence of VT in Denmark during 1997-2011 from national register data, furthermore, to analyze the determinants for VT in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 (COPSAC2010) birth cohort. METHODS: The incidence of VT in all children under 16 years from 1997-2011 were calculated in the Danish national registries...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874935/effect-of-administration-of-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-on-the-occurrence-of-streptococcal-pharyngo-tonsillitis-scarlet-fever-and-acute-otitis-media-in-3-years-old-children
#7
F Di Pierro, M Colombo, M G Giuliani, M L Danza, I Basile, T Bollani, A M Conti, A Zanvit, A S Rottoli
OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12) is a probiotic strain strongly antagonistic to the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. Shown to colonize the oral cavity and to be safe for human use, BLIS K12 has previously been reported to reduce pharyngo-tonsillitis episodes in children or adults known to have experienced recurrent streptococcal infection. The present study was focussed upon evaluating the role of BLIS K12 in the control of streptococcal disease and acute otitis media in children attending the first year of kindergarten...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870813/acute-otitis-media-during-infancy-parent-reported-incidence-and-modifiable-risk-factors
#8
Annemarijn C Prins-van Ginkel, Patricia C J Bruijning-Verhagen, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Cornelis K van der Ent, Henriette A Smit, Marieke L A de Hoog
BACKGROUND: Age at exposure to acute otitis media (AOM) risk factors such as daycare attendance, lack of breastfeeding and tobacco smoke is little studied but important for targeting AOM prevention strategies. Moreover, studies are typically restricted to clinically diagnosed AOM, while a significant subset can occur outside the healthcare system, depending on the country-setting. This study aims to determine risk factor exposure and effect of its timing within the first year of life on parent-reported AOM symptom episodes...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854381/interventions-for-children-with-ear-discharge-occurring-at-least-two-weeks-following-grommet-ventilation-tube-insertion
#9
REVIEW
Roderick P Venekamp, Faisal Javed, Thijs Ma van Dongen, Angus Waddell, Anne Gm Schilder
BACKGROUND: Ear discharge (otorrhoea) is common in children with grommets (ventilation/tympanostomy tubes); the proportion of children developing discharge ranges from 25% to 75%. The most common treatment strategies include oral broad-spectrum antibiotics, antibiotic eardrops or those containing a combination of antibiotic(s) and a corticosteroid, and initial observation. Important drivers for one strategy over the other are concerns over the side effects of oral antibiotics and the potential ototoxicity of antibiotic eardrops...
November 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810315/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-for-infants-in-china
#10
Kristin A Maurer, Huey-Fen Chen, Abram L Wagner, Sonia T Hegde, Tejasi Patel, Matthew L Boulton, David W Hutton
BACKGROUND: Although China has a high burden of pneumococcal disease among young children, the government does not administer publicly-funded pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) through its Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of publicly-funded PCV-7, PCV-10, and PCV-13 vaccination programs for infants in China. METHODS: Using a Markov model, we simulated a cohort of 16 million Chinese infants to estimate the impact of PCV-7, PCV-10, and PCV-13 vaccination programs from a societal perspective...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810126/randomized-controlled-trial-of-juzen-taiho-to-in-children-with-recurrent-acute-otitis-media
#11
Makoto Ito, Yumiko Maruyama, Ken Kitamura, Toshimitsu Kobayashi, Haruo Takahashi, Noboru Yamanaka, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Hideki Origasa, Tomokazu Yoshizaki
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) in young children is rapidly increasing worldwide. Repeated antibiotic use leads to antibiotic-resistant pathogen development. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches have been suggested as a supplemental treatment option to conventional antimicrobial medicine. This randomized, parallel-group, open-label, non-herbal medicine controlled trial assessed the efficacy of a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, juzen-taiho-to (JTT) for AOM prevention in otitis-prone children...
October 31, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798547/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-in-middle-ear-fluid-isolates-during-acute-otitis-media-and-nasopharyngeal-isolates-during-community-acquired-alveolar-pneumonia-in-central-romania
#12
Raluca-Ileana Lixandru, Cristian Falup-Pecurariu, Laura Bleotu, Alice Mercas, Eugene Leibovitz, Ron Dagan, David Greenberg, Oana Falup-Pecurariu
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Romania has high rates of S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) are not being used routinely in this country. The aims of the study were: 1) To compare pneumococcal antibiotic resistance patterns in AOM and CAAP in children from central Romania; and 2) to compare differences in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes isolated from the middle ear fluid (MEF) of children with AOM and from the nasopharynx (NP) of children with CAAP...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780081/human-enterovirus-and-rhinovirus-infections-are-associated-with-otitis-media-in-a-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#13
Elina Seppälä, Saara Sillanpää, Noora Nurminen, Heini Huhtala, Jorma Toppari, Jorma Ilonen, Riitta Veijola, Mikael Knip, Markku Sipilä, Jussi Laranne, Sami Oikarinen, Heikki Hyöty
BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) and rhinoviruses (HRVs) have been linked to acute otitis media (AOM). OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the aforementioned association in a birth cohort setting. STUDY DESIGN: The cohort included 286 healthy infants (191 boys) followed from birth up to the age of 2 years in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. Stool samples were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of HRV and HEV RNA using RT-PCR...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748206/prognostic-effect-of-pre-and-post-admission-antibiotic-treatment-in-paediatric-acute-mastoiditis
#14
E Carmel, J H Curotta, A T Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pre- and post-admission antibiotic treatment in paediatric acute mastoiditis. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHOD: Eighty-eight children with acute mastoiditis, from 2003 to 2012, were studied to investigate the effect of antibiotic therapy on short and long-term sequelae. RESULTS: The median period of antibiotic therapy immediately following hospital discharge was 10 days (range, 5-49 days; standard deviation = 7...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738052/clinical-and-socioeconomic-burden-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children
#15
Terho Heikkinen, Emilia Ojala, Matti Waris
BACKGROUND:  Vaccines and antivirals against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are being developed, but there are scarce data on the full impact of RSV infection on outpatient children. METHODS:  We analyzed the burden of RSV illness in a prospective cohort study of children aged ≤13 years during 2 consecutive respiratory seasons in Turku, Finland (2231 child-seasons of follow-up). We examined the children and obtained nasal swabs for the detection of RSV during each respiratory illness...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737977/fusobacterium-infections-in-children
#16
Karen Arane, Ran D Goldman
QUESTION: A 2-year-old patient in my practice with acute otitis media that has progressed to mastoiditis with a high fever returns with positive culture results for Fusobacterium What should I do next? ANSWER: Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Although Fusobacterium infections are rare, they can become severe if not treated promptly. Appropriate treatment is combination antibiotic therapy consisting of a β-lactam (penicillin, cephalosporin) and an anaerobic antimicrobial agent (metronidazole, clindamycin)...
October 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729143/myringoplasty-in-children
#17
Noa Rozendorn, Michael Wolf, Arkadi Yakirevich, Yisgav Shapira, Eldar Carmel
BACKGROUND: Tympanic membrane perforation (TMP) may be caused by acute and chronic otitis media, trauma and iatrogenic reasons. The goal of myringoplasty is to achieve a dry, self-cleansing ear with intact TM while preserving hearing. Literature review of myringoplasty outcome demonstrates results with different success rates and affecting factors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate TMP closure (TMPC) rate and hearing improvement and to assess the effect of clinical and surgical parameters on residual and recurrent perforation...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729132/what-are-the-leading-causative-pathogens-in-acute-otitis-media-with-tympanic-membrane-perforation
#18
Nuntigar Sonsuwan, Patcharin Watcharinyanon, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
OBJECTIVES: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common infectious disease in children. Data regarding the distribution of causative pathogens are not universal. Tympanic perforation due to AOM may occur in 5-30% of AOM patients. The causative pathogens for AOM with tympanic perforation are limited. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at the Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. All consecutive children diagnosed as having AOM with tympanic perforation were enrolled...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703821/external-otitis-an-unusual-presentation-in-neonates
#19
Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri, Shima Rostami, Manelie Sadeghi
Acute otitis externa (AOE) is an infection of the external auditory canal, the auricle, and the outer surface of the tympanic membrane. Although AOE is one of the most common otologic conditions encountered in pediatric population, it is known to primarily affect children older than 2 years. We report a case of AOE caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a 23-day-old neonate. A 23-day-old female infant presented to our neonatology clinic with irritability and discharge from the right ear. There were yellow otorrhea, mild erythema, and edema of right external ear canal...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701784/infectious-morbidity-and-resource-use-in-children-under-2%C3%A2-years-old-at-childcare-centres
#20
Guadalupe Del Castillo-Aguas, Ana Gallego-Iborra, Mario Gutiérrez-Olid, Olga Pérez-González, Ginesa Moreno-Muñoz, Juana M Ledesma-Albarrán
AIM: To analyse the associations between childcare centres and infectious morbidity and resource consumption. METHODS: Cohort study from birth to 2 years. OUTCOME VARIABLE: number and types of infections, drug consumption and medical visits. Exposure variable: attending or not attending a childcare centre. School age: 6-12, >12-18, >18-24 months. RESULTS: The initial cohort comprised 445 children, and the final cohort comprised 419 children...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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