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Acute otitis media in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780750/the-luxs-ai-2-quorum-sensing-system-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-is-required-to-cause-disease-and-to-regulate-virulence-and-metabolism-related-genes-in-a-rat-model-of-middle-ear-infection
#1
Mukesh K Yadav, Jorge E Vidal, Yoon Y Go, Shin H Kim, Sung-Won Chae, Jae-Jun Song
Objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of children, and from nasopharynx it could migrate to the middle ear and causes acute otitis media (AOM). During colonization and AOM, the pneumococcus forms biofilms. In vitro biofilm formation requires a functional LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing system. We investigated the role of LuxS/AI-2 signaling in pneumococcal middle ear infection, and identified the genes that are regulated by LuxS/AI-2 during pneumococcal biofilm formation. Methods: Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and an isogenic D39Δ luxS strain were utilized to evaluate in vitro biofilm formation, and in vivo colonization and epithelial damage using a microtiter plate assay and a rat model of pneumococcal middle ear infection, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741289/grommets-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#2
REVIEW
Roderick P Venekamp, Paul Mick, Anne Gm Schilder, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood illnesses. While many children experience sporadic AOM episodes, an important group suffer from recurrent AOM (rAOM), defined as three or more episodes in six months, or four or more in one year. In this subset of children AOM poses a true burden through frequent episodes of ear pain, general illness, sleepless nights and time lost from nursery or school. Grommets, also called ventilation or tympanostomy tubes, can be offered for rAOM...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737504/inadequate-harms-reporting-in-randomized-control-trials-of-antibiotics-for-pediatric-acute-otitis-media-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie W Hum, Su Golder, Nader Shaikh
INTRODUCTION: Reporting of harms in randomized control trials is often inconsistent and inadequate. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of harms reporting in randomized control trials evaluating the efficacy of antibiotics used to treat pediatric acute otitis media and to investigate whether connections to pharmaceutical companies or the publication of the CONSORT-Harms extension influenced the quality of harms reporting. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We considered randomized control trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated acute otitis media in children aged 0-19...
May 8, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720156/trends-in-healthcare-utilization-and-costs-associated-with-acute-otitis-media-in-the-united-states-during-2008-2014
#4
Sabine Tong, Caroline Amand, Alexia Kieffer, Moe H Kyaw
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common cause of pediatric medical visits and antibiotic prescriptions worldwide, but its current impact on the US healthcare system is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the incidence of AOM from 2008, just before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced, to 2014 using US insurance records in the Truven MarketScan® database. The study also examined the costs associated with index AOM events during the two most recent years for which data were available (2013-2014)...
May 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691919/impact-of-different-assumptions-on-estimates-of-childhood-diseases-obtained-from-health-care-data-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Osemeke U Osokogu, Alexandra Pacurariu, Mees Mosseveld, Peter Rijnbeek, Daniel Weibel, Katia Verhamme, Miriam C J M Sturkenboom
PURPOSE: Accurate estimates of disease incidence in children are required to support pediatric drug development. Analysis of electronic health care records (EHR) may yield such estimates but pediatric-specific methods are lacking. We aimed to understand the impact of assumptions regarding duration of disease episode and length of run-in period on incidence estimates from EHRs. METHODS: Children aged 0 to 17 years (5-17 years for asthma) registered in the Integrated Primary Care Information database between 2002 and 2014 were studied...
April 24, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688138/antibody-responses-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-and-moraxella-catarrhalis-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-infection-with-or-without-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-carriage
#6
Dafne C Andrade, Igor C Borges, Maiara L Bouzas, Juliana R Oliveira, Helena Käyhty, Olli Ruuskanen, Cristiana Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: We studied Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in young children with acute viral type respiratory infection and analyzed the findings in a multivariate model including age, nasopharyngeal carriage of the tested bacteria and pneumococcal vaccination. METHODS: We included 227 children aged 6-23 months with acute respiratory infection. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for bacterial carriage through detection of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript with nCounter analysis...
April 24, 2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676868/-how-i-treat-%C3%A2-an-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#7
V Heinrichs, J Frère
Acute otitis media (AOM) is very common in early childhood (inferior to 2 years). As a spontaneous recovery occurs in superior to 80 % of cases, antibiotics use should not be systematic. The aim of this review is to discuss AOM diagnostic criteria based on the latest recommendations, aiming a wiser use of antibiotics. Antibiotics use in a child with AOM should take into account the age, the severity of the disease, uni- or bilateral otitis, the presence or absence of otorrhea, and the presence of possible risk factors...
April 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624209/withdrawn-grommets-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Loretta Lau, Paul Mick, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2008 and previously updated in 2011.Acute suppurative otitis media is one of the most common infectious diseases in childhood. Recurrent acute otitis media is defined for the purposes of this review as either three or more acute infections of the middle ear cleft in a six-month period, or at least four episodes in a year. Strategies for managing the condition include the assessment and modification of risk factors where possible, repeated courses of antibiotics for each new infection, antibiotic prophylaxis and the insertion of ventilation tubes (grommets)...
April 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621281/evidence-of-functional-cell-mediated-immune-responses-to-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-in-otitis-prone-children
#9
Elke Seppanen, Dino Tan, Karli J Corscadden, Andrew J Currie, Peter C Richmond, Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann S Kirkham
Otitis media (OM) remains a common paediatric disease, despite advances in vaccinology. Susceptibility to recurrent acute OM (rAOM) has been postulated to involve defective cell-mediated immune responses to common otopathogenic bacteria. We compared the composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 20 children with a history of rAOM (otitis-prone) and 20 healthy non-otitis-prone controls, and assessed innate and cell-mediated immune responses to the major otopathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617959/reduction-in-all-cause-acute-otitis-media-in-children-less-than-three-years-of-age-in-primary-care-following-pneumococcal-vaccination-with-phid-cv10-a-whole-population-study
#10
Samúel Sigurðsson, Elias Eythorsson, Birgir Hrafnkelsson, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Karl G Kristinsson, Ásgeir Haraldsson
Background: The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) was introduced in Iceland in 2011, without catch-up. The aim of this study was to estimate vaccine impact on acute otitis media (AOM). Methods: In this whole-population study, all primary care visits due to AOM from 2005-2015 in children less than three years of age were included. Birth-cohorts were grouped as vaccine non-eligible (VNEC, 2005-2010) or vaccine eligible (VEC, 2011-2015). Crude incidence rates (IR) were compared between VNEC and VEC...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603797/reductions-in-otitis-and-other-respiratory-tract-infections-following-childhood-pneumococcal-vaccination
#11
Urban Johansson Kostenniemi, Jessica Palm, Sven-Arne Silfverdal
AIM: Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes respiratory tract infections including acute otitis media and pneumonia. In this study, we evaluated the impact of general infant pneumococcal vaccination, introduced in Sweden in 2009, on respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We studied the incidence of respiratory tract infections and antibiotic consumption in Västerbotten County, Sweden, during 2005-2014 by using the County Council's diagnosis register. RESULTS: Comparing the pre-vaccination period of 2005-2008 to 2014, the incidences of all-cause acute otitis media decreased significantly in children aged 0-4 and 5-17 years, by 41...
March 30, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593875/long-term-low-dose-of-clarithromycin-as-a-cause-of-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-5-year-old-boy
#12
Hirofumi Namiki, Tadashi Kobayashi
Clostridium difficile is one of the most common causes of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Despite C. difficile infection (CDI) has increased in all ages worldwide, episodes of CDI are often misdiagnosed due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Macrolides are also associated with CDI. Additionally, exposure to macrolides in the 12 weeks preceding infection is reported to be a significant risk factor of CDI in a child. We report here a 5-year-old Japanese boy who presented with acute onset of watery diarrhoea...
March 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588912/changes-over-time-in-nasopharyngeal-colonization-in-children-under-2-years-of-age-at-the-time-of-diagnosis-of-acute-otitis-media-1999-2014
#13
Judith M Martin, Alejandro Hoberman, Nader Shaikh, Timothy Shope, S Onika Bhatnagar, Stan L Block, Mary Ann Haralam, Marcia Kurs-Lasky, Michael Green
Background: In children with acute otitis media (AOM), a decrease in nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization with vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been noted since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). The purpose of this study is to describe corresponding changes in colonization with Haemophilus influenzae. Methods: In 4 separate studies, we obtained NP cultures from children aged 6-23 months presenting with AOM. Cohort 1 was recruited before routine use of PCV7 (1999-2000); 93% of children in cohort 2 (2003-2005) and 100% in cohort 3 (2006-2009) received ≥2 doses of PCV7...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573766/-quality-of-life-of-children-with-otitis-media-and-impact-of-insertion-of-transtympanic-ventilation-tubes-in-a-portuguese-population
#14
Ana Rita Lameiras, Deodato Silva, Assunção O Neill, Pedro Escada
INTRODUCTION: Quality of life is an important measure for health-outcome evaluation. Although otitis media is one of the most common childhood diseases, its impact on Portuguese children's quality of life is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the quality of life of Portuguese children with chronic otitis media with effusion and/or recurrent acute otitis media and the short-term impact of transtympanic ventilation tubes, using the Portuguese version of the OM-6 questionnaire, a valid, reliable and sensitive instrument to evaluate the health-related quality of life in children with otitis media...
January 31, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570583/antibiotic-recommendations-for-acute-otitis-media-and-acute-bacterial-sinusitis-conundrum-no-more
#15
Ellen R Wald, Gregory P DeMuri
There has been a substantial change in the prevalence and microbiologic characteristics of cases of acute otitis media secondary to the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Current trends in nasopharyngeal colonization and the microbiology of acute otitis media support a change in the recommendation for antibiotic management of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis in children.
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557599/effect-of-breastfeeding-on-common-pediatric-infections-a-5-year-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Cüneyt Ardiç, Erdinç Yavuz
INTRODUCTION: The studies conducted revealed that breastfeeding duration has a reducing effect on common infectious diseases in the children during breastfeeding period. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to address the association between breastfeeding duration and common infectious diseases in the children until 5 years of age to show long-term protective effects of the breast milk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 411 infants who were born in Rize (Turkey) between January 2011 and December 2011...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544905/diagnosing-acute-otitis-media-using-a-smartphone-otoscope-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Sarah Mousseau, Annie Lapointe, Jocelyn Gravel
BACKGROUND: The CellScope Oto® is a smartphone otoscope attachment allowing physicians to share diagnostic-quality images of the ears. Our primary objective was to evaluate the residents' accuracy in diagnosing acute otitis media in children using the CellScope Oto® attachment compared to traditional otoscope. METHODS: A randomized crossover controlled trial was performed at a single, tertiary care, pediatric emergency department. Participants were a convenience sample of preschool children, consulting for fever and respiratory symptoms...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543327/systemic-corticosteroids-for-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Respati W Ranakusuma, Yupitri Pitoyo, Eka D Safitri, Sarah Thorning, Elaine M Beller, Sudigdo Sastroasmoro, Chris B Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common acute infection in children. Pain is its most prominent and distressing symptom. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for AOM, although they have only a modest effect in reducing pain at two to three days. There is insufficient evidence for benefits of other treatment options, including systemic corticosteroids. However, systemic corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, and so theoretically could be effective, either alone or as an addition to antibiotics...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530427/the-association-between-otogenic-lateral-sinus-thrombosis-and-thrombophilia-a-long-term-follow-up
#19
Shay Schneider, Joseph Kapelushnik, Mordechai Kraus, Sabri El Saied, Itai Levi, Daniel Michael Kaplan
PURPOSE: Otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis (OLST) is an intracranial, potentially life-threatening complication of acute and chronic otitis media. Since congenital thrombophilic disorders are risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis, OLST may be related to thrombophilia. The aim of our study was twofold: to evaluate whether patients who suffered from OLST in childhood also have thrombophilia, and whether these patients experienced thromboembolic episodes in future years. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
May 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502073/impact-of-acute-otitis-media-clinical-practice-guidelines-on-antibiotic-and-analgesic-prescriptions-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Yelin Deniz, Rick T van Uum, Marieke L A de Hoog, Anne G M Schilder, Roger A M J Damoiseaux, Roderick P Venekamp
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines focusing on judicious use of antibiotics for childhood acute otitis media (AOM) have been introduced in many countries around the world. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effects of these guidelines on the prescription of antibiotics and analgesics for children with AOM. METHODS: Systematic searches of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library from inception to 6 June 2017 using broad search terms. Studies specifically aimed at evaluating the effects of introduction of national AOM practice guidelines on type of antibiotic and/or analgesic prescriptions were included, irrespective of design, setting or language...
June 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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