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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732066/inhibition-of-pulmonary-%C3%AE-carotene-15-15-oxygenase-expression-by-glucocorticoid-involves-ppar%C3%AE
#1
Xiaoming Gong, Raju Marisiddaiah, Lewis P Rubin
β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A. This enzyme is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues, suggesting that its activity may regulate local retinoid synthesis. Vitamin A and related compounds (retinoids) are critical regulators of lung epithelial development, integrity, and injury repair. A balance between the actions of retinoids and glucocorticoids (GCs) promotes normal lung development and, in particular, alveolarization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729825/dexmedetomidine-protects-mouse-brain-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy-through-up-regulating-hif-1%C3%AE
#2
Cong Luo, Ming-Wen Ouyang, Ying-Ying Fang, Shu-Ji Li, Quan Zhou, Jun Fan, Zai-Sheng Qin, Tao Tao
Stroke is the leading cause of death in China and produces a heavy socio-economic burden in the past decades. Previous studies have shown that dexmedetomidine (DEX) is neuroprotective after cerebral ischemia. However, the role of autophagy during DEX-mediated neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia is still unknown. In this study, we found that post-conditioning with DEX and DEX+3-methyladenine (3-MA) (autophagy inhibitor) reduced brain infarct size and improved neurological deficits compared with DEX+RAPA (autophagy inducer) 24 h after transient middle cerebral artery artery occlusion (tMCAO) model in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724622/transcription-factor-myb26-is-key-to-spatial-specificity-in-anther-secondary-thickening-formation
#3
Caiyun Yang, Jie Song, Alison Ferguson, Doris Klisch, Kim Simpson, Rui Mo, Benjamin Taylor, Zoe A Wilson
Successful fertilisation relies on the production and effective release of viable pollen. Failure of anther opening (dehiscence), results in male sterility although the pollen may be fully functional. MYB26 regulates the formation of secondary thickening in the anther endothecium, which is critical for anther dehiscence and fertility. Here we show that the although the MYB26 transcript shows expression in multiple floral organs the MYB26 protein is localised specifically to the anther endothecium nuclei and that it directly regulates two NAC domain genes, NST1 and NST2, which are critical for the induction of secondary thickening biosynthesis genes...
July 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711783/%C3%AE-patchoulene-from-patchouli-oil-protects-against-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-via-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-activating-nrf2-pathways
#4
Xiao-Ying Chen, Yao-Xing Dou, Dan-Dan Luo, Zhen-Biao Zhang, Cai-Lan Li, Hui-Fang Zeng, Zi-Ren Su, Jian-Hui Xie, Xiao-Ping Lai, Yu-Cui Li
β-Patchoulene (β-PAE), a tricyclic sesquiterpene isolated from the essential oil of the leaves and stems of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth., has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of β-PAE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and to illuminate the underlying mechanisms. ALI was induced by intracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone (DEX) was used as a positive control...
July 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711658/betulinic-acid-isolated-from-the-leaves-of-syzygium-cumini-l-skeels-ameliorates-the-proteinuria-in-experimental-membranous-nephropathy-through-regulating-nrf2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#5
Brijesh Sutariya, Neetika Taneja, Madhusudan Saraf
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in the kidney. Betulinic acid (BA) is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound isolated from the leaves of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BA on experimental MN in rats and explored the mechanisms by which it enhances antioxidant activities and resolves inflammatory condition in experimental MN. Passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single tail vein injection of anti- Fx1A antiserum...
July 13, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709158/dexmedetomidine-protects-against-multi-organ-dysfunction-induced-by-heatstroke-via-sustaining-the-intestinal-integrity
#6
Zhen-Na Xia, Ying Zong, Zi-Teng Zhang, Ji-Kuai Chen, Xiu-Juan Ma, Yan-Gang Liu, Li-Jun Zhao, Guo-Cai Lu
Previous studies have indicated that gut-derived endotoxin played a pivotal role for aggravating systemic inflammatory response to multi-organ dysfunction under heatstroke. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) could protect against inflammation and multi-organ injury in various scenarios. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of DEX on heatstroke and the mechanism involved. Male C57BL/6 mice were placed in a controlled climate chamber (40 ± 1°C) until the maximum core temperature (Tc, Max) of 42...
August 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708221/rapid-response-to-dexamethasone-intravitreal-implant-in-diabetic-macular-edema
#7
Giuseppe Lo Giudice, Antonio Avarello, Gianluca Campana, Alessandro Galan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the early effects of dexamethasone (DEX) intravitreal implants in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: This was a prospective, single-arm, interventional clinical series. Eighteen patients (18 eyes) with chronic/recalcitrant or naive DME were included. Patients underwent single DEX intravitreal implant. Clinical assessments, including ophthalmologic examination, central retinal thickness (CRT) measurement by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scan, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure (IOP) were carried out at baseline, 1-3 hours, and then 3, 7, and 30 days after treatment...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707738/prenatal-exposure-to-dexamethasone-in-the-mouse-induces-sex-specific-differences-in-placental-gene-expression
#8
Ji-Yeon Lee, Hyo Jung Yun, Clara Yuri Kim, Yong Woo Cho, Yongmin Lee, Myoung Hee Kim
Prenatal stress during pregnancy leads to sex-specific effects on fetal development and disease susceptibility over the life span; however, the origin of sex differences has not been identified. The placenta not only plays a key role in fetal growth and development throughout pregnancy, but also affects the fetal programming underlying subsequent adult health and accounts. Therefore, sex-specific adaptation of the placenta may be central to the sex differences in fetal growth and survival. Here, we analyzed the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (Dex) on sex-specific changes in placental gene expression using RNA-Seq...
July 14, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705835/transendothelial-movement-of-adiponectin-is-restricted-by-glucocorticoids
#9
Thanh Q Dang, Nanyoung Yoon, Helen Chasiotis, Emily C Dunford, Qilong Feng, Pingnian He, Michael C Riddell, Scott P Kelly, Gary Sweeney
Altered permeability of the endothelial barrier in a variety of tissues has implications both in disease pathogenesis and treatment. Glucocorticoids are potent mediators of endothelial permeability, and this forms the basis for their heavily prescribed use as medications to treat ocular disease. However, the effect of glucocorticoids on endothelial barriers elsewhere in the body is less well studied. Here, we investigated glucocorticoid-mediated changes in endothelial flux of Adiponectin (Ad), a hormone with a critical role in diabetes...
August 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704825/dexamethasone-implants-in-diabetic-macular-edema-patients-with-high-visual-acuity
#10
Riccardo Sacconi, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Stefano Casati, Rosangela Lattanzio, Giorgio Marchini, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX) implants in patients affected by diabetic macular edema (DME) with high best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and contraindications to therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor over a 12-month follow-up. METHODS: In this interventional nonrandomized clinical study, 14 consecutive patients (14 eyes) affected by DME with a BCVA of 0.3 LogMAR or better were prospectively enrolled. All patients were treated with a sustained-release 700-μg DEX implant at baseline, revaluated every 6 weeks, and retreated on a pro re nata basis...
July 14, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704069/potent-synchronization-of-peripheral-circadian-clocks-by-glucocorticoid-injections-in-per2-luc-clock-clock-mice
#11
Mayo Kamagata, Yuko Ikeda, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Yuta Hattori, Shinnosuke Yasuda, Shiho Iwami, Miku Tsubosaka, Ryosuke Ishikawa, Ai Todoh, Konomi Tamura, Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
In mammals, the central clock (the suprachiasmatic nuclei, SCN) is entrained mainly by the light-dark cycle, whereas peripheral clocks in the peripheral tissues are entrained/synchronized by multiple factors, including feeding patterns and endocrine hormones such as glucocorticoids. Clock-mutant mice (Clock/Clock), which have a mutation in a core clock gene, show potent phase resetting in response to light pulses compared with wild-type (WT) mice, owing to the damped and flexible oscillator in the SCN. However, the phase resetting of the peripheral clocks in Clock/Clock mice has not been elucidated...
July 13, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704028/oppositely-charged-polyurethane-microspheres-with-tunable-zeta-potentials-as-an-injectable-dual-loaded-system-for-bone-repair
#12
Yi Hou, Nan Jiang, Li Zhang, Yubao Li, Yuezhong Meng, Dongmei Han, Chen Chen, Yuan Yang, Song Zhu
To effectively repair irregular shaped bone defects by minimally invasive procedure, exploring an injectable gel to fill the defect is desirable. Herein, positively and negatively charged polyurethane microspheres (PU-A and PU-B) with adjustable zeta potentials as well as the hydroxyapatite-loaded PU microsphere (PU-A/HA) and the dexamethasone-loaded PU microsphere (PU-B/Dex) were successfully prepared, and the oppositely charged microspheres could self-assemble into injectable gels with 3D structures by muturally electrostatic attraction...
July 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702823/etoposide-and-doxorubicin-enhance-the-sensitivity-of-triple-negative-breast-cancers-through-modulation-of-trail-dr5-axis
#13
Sarita Das, Neha Tripathi, Sumit Siddharth, Anmada Nayak, Deepika Nayak, Chinmayee Sethy, Prasad V Bharatam, Chanakya Nath Kundu
Death receptor 5 (DR5) is an important target for development of anticancer agents against triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Recently, we reported the molecular level details for the modulation of TRAIL-DR5 axis by quinacrine (QC) in breast cancer cells. In this work, the DR5 mediated anticancer potential of topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide (ET) and doxorubicin (DOX) against TNBC has been evaluated. ET and DOX enhanced the DR5 expression in TNBC cells, whereas non-topoisomerase inhibitors pifithrin-α (PIF) and dexamethasone (DEX) failed to do so...
July 12, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700244/targeted-yttrium-89-doxorubicin-drug-eluting-bead-a-safety-and-feasibility-pilot-study-in-a-rabbit-liver-cancer-model
#14
Johannes M Ludwig, Minzhi Xing, Yongkang Gai, Lingyi Sun, Dexing Zeng, Hyun S Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate feasibility and safety of the cancer targeting (Radio)-Chemoembolization drug eluting bead (TRCE-DEB) concept drug SW43-DOX-L-NETA(89Y) DEB for the intra-arterial treatment of VX2 rabbit liver tumors. The treatment compound comprises of the Sigma-2 receptor ligand SW43 for cancer targeting, Doxorubicin (DOX), and 89Yttrium (89Y) as non-radioactive surrogate for therapeutic (Yttrium-90, Lutetium-177) and imaging (Yttrium-86) radioisotopes via the chelator L-NETA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten New Zealand white rabbits with VX2 tumor allografts were used...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700007/impact-of-dexmedetomidine-on-amino-acid-contents-and-the-cerebral-ultrastructure-of-rats-with-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
Sheng Lin, Guangli Zhou, Wei Shao, Zhijian Fu
Purpose: To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on amino acid contents and the cerebral ultrastructure of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). Methods: Thirty-six, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham operation group (group C), the ischemia-reperfusion group (group I/R), and the DEX group (group D). The middle cerebral artery occlusion model was prepared by the modified Longa method. The time of ischemia was 180 min, and 120 min after reperfusion, the amount of glutamate (Glu), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain were measured, and the ultrastructure-level changes in the cerebral cortex were examined using electron microscopy...
June 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700004/dexmedetomidine-protects-against-renal-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury-by-inhibiting-the-p38-mapk-txnip-signaling-activation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#16
Xiao Yeda, Lei Shaoqing, Huang Yayi, Zhao Bo, Wang Huaxin, Cao Hong, Xia Zhongyuan
Purpose: To determine whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) could attenuate acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Four groups each containing six rats were created (sham control(S), diabetes-sham (DS), diabetes I/R (DI/R), and diabetes-I/R-dexmedetomidine (DI/R-DEX). In diabetes groups, single-dose (65 mg/kg) STZ was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). In Group DI/R, ischemia reperfusion was produced via 25 min of bilateral renal pedicle clamping followed by 48 h of reperfusion...
June 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697507/-on-the-assessment-of-spontaneous-respiratory-changes-in-respiration-olfactometry
#17
Hilmar Gudziol, Doreen Thielscher, Holger Lehnich, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Thomas Bitter
Introduction Alterations of breathing pattern evoked by odors are used to proof the integrity of the olfactory system in the sense of respiratory olfactometry. Spontaneous breathing changes normally cannot be distinguished from evoked changes. It is therefore necessary to repeatedly apply stimuli with a pure odorant during tidal breathing, randomized with neutral air, to detect a majority of olfactory-evoked respiratory changes. Methods In 26 adult normosmics, 15 H2S and 15 neutral air stimuli (duration: 2 sec) were randomly applied with an interstimulus interval of at least 1 minute, using a flow olfactometer...
July 11, 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690001/synergistic-interaction-between-dexmedetomidine-and-ulinastatin-against-vincristine-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#18
Bilin Nie, Subo Zhang, Zhuxi Huang, Jingxiu Huang, Xiaodi Chen, Yaochao Zheng, Xiaohui Bai, Weian Zeng, Handong Ouyang
Anti-microtubulin chemotherapeutic agents such as vincristine (VCR), often induce peripheral neuropathic pain. It is usually permanent and seriously harmful to cancer patients' quality of life quality and can result in the hampering of clinical treatments. Currently, there is no definitive therapy, and many of the drugs approved for the treatment of other neuropathic pain have shown little or no analgesic effect. It is therefore vital to find new and novel therapeutic strategies for patients suffering from chemotherapeutic agent-induced neuropathic pain in order to improve patients' quality of life...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686704/chemosensitizing-indomethacin-conjugated-dextran-based-micelles-for-effective-delivery-of-paclitaxel-in-resistant-breast-cancer-therapy
#19
Weiping Ji, Bo Wang, Qiuping Fan, Chao Xu, Youwu He, Youfen Chen
Multidrug resistance (MDR) against chemotherapeutic agents has become the major obstacle to successful cancer therapy and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) mediated drug efflux is the key factor for MDR. Indomethacin (IND), one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, has been demonstrated to increase cytotoxic effects of anti-tumor agents as MRP substrates. In this study, dextran-g-indomethacin (DEX-IND) polymeric micelles were designed to delivery paclitaxel (PTX) for the treatment of MDR tumors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686666/the-nature-of-the-gre-influences-the-screening-for-gr-activity-enhancing-modulators
#20
Karen Dendoncker, Steven Timmermans, Kelly Van Looveren, Lode De Cauwer, Karolien De Bosscher, Claude Libert
Glucocorticoid resistance (GCR), i.e. unresponsiveness to the beneficial anti-inflammatory activities of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), poses a serious problem in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. One possible solution to try and overcome GCR, is to identify molecules that prevent or revert GCR by hyper-stimulating the biological activity of the GR. To this purpose, we screened for compounds that potentiate the dexamethasone (Dex)-induced transcriptional activity of GR. To monitor GR transcriptional activity, the screen was performed using the lung epithelial cell line A549 in which a glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) coupled to a luciferase reporter gene construct was stably integrated...
2017: PloS One
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