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Bismil Ali Ali, Rolf Lefering, Mariano Fortún Moral, Tomás Belzunegui Otano
OBJECTIVES: To validate the Mortality Prediction Model of Navarre (MPMN) to predict death after severe trauma and compare it to the Revised Injury Severity Classification Score II (RISCII). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a cohort of severe trauma patients (New Injury Severity Score >15) who were attended by emergency services in the Spanish autonomous community of Navarre between 2013 and 2015. The outcome variable was 30-day all-cause mortality...
2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Jason M Stephens
There is often a divide between moral judgment and moral action; between what we believe we ought to do (or not do) and what we do. Knowledge of this divide is not new, and numerous theories have attempted to offer more robust accounts of ethical decision-making and moral functioning. Knowledge of widespread academic dishonesty among students is also not new, and several studies have revealed that many students report cheating despite believing it is wrong. The present study, involving cross-sectional survey data from a sample of secondary students ( N = 380) in the United States, contributes to the literature on this important area of theory and research by fulfilling three broad purposes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Hannah Major-Monfried, Anne S Renteria, Attaphol Pawarode, Pavan Reddy, Francis Ayuk, Ernst Holler, Yvonne A Efebera, William J Hogan, Matthias Wölfl, Muna Qayed, Elizabeth O Hexner, Kitsada Wudhikarn, Rainer Ordemann, Rachel Young, Jay Shah, Matthew J Hartwell, Mohammed Chaudhry, Mina Aziz, Aaron Etra, Gregory A Yanik, Nicolaus Kröger, Daniela Weber, Yi-Bin Chen, Ryotaro Nakamura, Wolf Rösler, Carrie L Kitko, Andrew C Harris, Michael Pulsipher, Ran Reshef, Steven Kowalyk, George Morales, Ivan Torres, Umut Özbek, James L M Ferrara, John E Levine
Acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) is treated with systemic corticosteroid immunosuppression. Clinical response after one week of therapy often guides further treatment decisions, but long term outcomes vary widely between centers and more accurate predictive tests are urgently needed. We analyzed clinical data and blood samples taken after one week of systemic treatment for GVHD from 507 patients from 17 centers of the Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium (MAGIC), dividing them into test (n=236) and two validation cohorts separated in time (n = 142 and 129, respectively)...
March 15, 2018: Blood
Edgar Isaac Rojas-Bedolla, Jorge Luis Gutiérrez-Pérez, Mario Iván Arenas-López, Marco Martin González-Chávez, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Claudia Leticia Mendoza-Macías, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, Juan José Maldonado-Miranda, Martha Alicia Deveze-Álvarez, Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Celtis pallida Torr (Cannabaceae) is employed as a folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, skin infections, and diarrhea, among other diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this work was to assess the chemical composition, the in vitro and in vivo toxicity, the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, locomotor, and sedative effects of an ethanolic extract obtained from Celtis pallida aerial parts (CPE)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marjorie da Silva, Fernando Barbosa Noll, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa E Castro
Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P...
2018: PloS One
Stéphanie Gamache, François Routhier, Ernesto Morales, Marie-Hélène Vandersmissen, Normand Boucher
BACKGROUND: Due to the ageing population and higher prevalence of individuals living with physical disabilities, there is a critical need for inclusive practices when designing accessible pedestrian infrastructures for ensuring social participation and equal opportunities. PURPOSE: Summarize the physical characteristics of current pedestrian infrastructure design for individuals with physical disabilities (IPD - motor, visual and hearing) found in the scientific literature and assess its quality...
March 14, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Darika Saitawee, Aroon Teerakapong, Noppawan Phumala Morales, Paiboon Jitprasertwong, Doosadee Hormdee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Curcumin, one of an established curcuminoid substances extracted from Curcuma longa, has been used as a photosensitizer (PS) in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Curcuminoid substances has been reported to have benefits in treating dental chronic infection and inflammation diseases, such as chronic periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to find the optimum concentration of Curcuma longa (CL) extract, containing all curcuminoid substances, and the power density of blue light (BL) in photodynamic therapy against periodontally pathogenic bacteria, A...
March 10, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Sara Andrés-Lasheras, Inma Martín-Burriel, Raúl Carlos Mainar-Jaime, Mariano Morales, Ed Kuijper, José L Blanco, Manuel Chirino-Trejo, Rosa Bolea
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is recognised as an emerging disease in both humans and some animal species. During the past few years, insights into human CDI epidemiology changed and C. difficile is also considered as an emerging community-acquired pathogen. Certain ribotypes (RT) are possibly associated with zoonotic transmission. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of C. difficile in a population of pets and to characterise the isolates. RESULTS: Faecal samples from a total of 90 diarrhoeic dogs and 24 from exotic animal species (both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic) were analysed...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Neil H Riordan, Isabela Morales, Giselle Fernández, Nicole Allen, Neal E Fearnot, Michael E Leckrone, Dedra Jones Markovich, Darla Mansfield, Dorita Avila, Amit N Patel, Santosh Kesari, Jorge Paz Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressively debilitating neurological condition in which the immune system abnormally erodes the myelin sheath insulating the nerves. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used in the last decade to safely treat certain immune and inflammatory conditions. METHODS: A safety and feasibility study was completed on the use of umbilical cord MSC (UCMSC) as a treatment for MS. In this 1-year study, consenting subjects received seven intravenous infusions of 20 × 106 UCMSC over 7 days...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Lucius Caviola, Jim A C Everett, Nadira S Faber
We introduce and investigate the philosophical concept of 'speciesism' -the assignment of different moral worth based on species membership -as a psychological construct. In five studies, using both general population samples online and student samples, we show that speciesism is a measurable, stable construct with high interpersonal differences, that goes along with a cluster of other forms of prejudice, and is able to predict real-world decision-making and behavior. In Study 1 we present the development and empirical validation of a theoretically driven Speciesism Scale, which captures individual differences in speciesist attitudes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Daniel M Blonigen, Michael A Cucciare, Christine Timko, Jennifer S Smith, Autumn Harnish, Lakiesha Kemp, Joel Rosenthal, David Smelson
BACKGROUND: Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT) is a cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at reducing risk for criminal recidivism by restructuring antisocial attitudes and cognitions (i.e., "criminogenic thinking"). MRT has empirical support for reducing risk for criminal recidivism among civilian offenders. Recently, a version of MRT was developed for military veterans; however, no randomized controlled trials (RCT) have been conducted with the veteran-specific protocol, and the effectiveness and implementation potential of MRT outside of correctional settings has not been established...
March 7, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Benjamin Grant Purzycki, Cody T Ross, Coren Apicella, Quentin D Atkinson, Emma Cohen, Rita Anne McNamara, Aiyana K Willard, Dimitris Xygalatas, Ara Norenzayan, Joseph Henrich
Researchers have recently proposed that "moralistic" religions-those with moral doctrines, moralistic supernatural punishment, and lower emphasis on ritual-emerged as an effect of greater wealth and material security. One interpretation appeals to life history theory, predicting that individuals with "slow life history" strategies will be more attracted to moralistic traditions as a means to judge those with "fast life history" strategies. As we had reservations about the validity of this application of life history theory, we tested these predictions with a data set consisting of 592 individuals from eight diverse societies...
2018: PloS One
Dasha Fuentes, Nidia Fernández, Yenela García, Teidy García, Ana Ruth Morales, Roberto Menéndez
The knockout mouse model, B6.129P2-Apoetm1Unc is homozygotic for the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deletion; thus, it is capable of developing hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis but ApoE is also a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system, so these animals could also be models of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to determine age-related changes in spontaneous behavior and in learning and memory of Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Spontaneous behavioral measurements included sleeping pattern, motor coordination and balance by rotarod and open field activity, whereas learning and memory tests included forced alternation in Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance conditioning...
March 3, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Minggui Pan, Maqdooda Merchant
Synovial sarcoma is a high-grade soft tissue sarcoma that inflicts mostly children and young adults with high mortality rate; however, the risk factors that impact the outcomes remain incompletely understood. We have identified the synovial sarcoma cases from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California cancer registry between 1981 and 2014. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to display disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS); log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the impact of clinical factors on DFS, OS, and disease-specific survival...
March 6, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Linda Rosenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
Jiyoun Yeo, Diego A Morales, Tian Chen, Erin L Crawford, Xiaolu Zhang, Thomas M Blomquist, Albert M Levin, Pierre P Massion, Douglas A Arenberg, David E Midthun, Peter J Mazzone, Steven D Nathan, Ronald J Wainz, Patrick Nana-Sinkam, Paige F S Willey, Taylor J Arend, Karanbir Padda, Shuhao Qiu, Alexei Federov, Dawn-Alita R Hernandez, Jeffrey R Hammersley, Youngsook Yoon, Fadi Safi, Sadik A Khuder, James C Willey
BACKGROUND: There is a need for more powerful methods to identify low-effect SNPs that contribute to hereditary COPD pathogenesis. We hypothesized that SNPs contributing to COPD risk through cis-regulatory effects are enriched in genes comprised by bronchial epithelial cell (BEC) expression patterns associated with COPD. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, normal BEC specimens were obtained by bronchoscopy from 60 subjects: 30 subjects with COPD defined by spirometry (FEV1/FVC < 0...
March 5, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Veronica E Aponte-Morales, Karl A Payne, Jeffrey A Cunningham, Sarina J Ergas
Nitrification of high total ammonia nitrogen-strength wastewaters is challenging due to free ammonia (FA) inhibition of nitrification. FA inhibition can potentially be alleviated by temporarily adsorbing ammonium (NH4+) to natural zeolite, such as chabazite, followed by direct zeolite bioregeneration via nitrification. In this research, the effectiveness of chabazite addition for reducing nitrification inhibition during treatment of centrate from anaerobic digestion of swine waste was quantified. A mathematical model was developed that accounts for ion exchange of NH4+ and sodium at the chabazite surface, surface diffusion of adsorbed NH4+ within the chabazite grains, sequential nitrification of aqueous NH4+ to nitrite and nitrate, and inhibition of nitritation and nitratation rates by NH4+...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
J C Gutiérrez, S Merino, P de la Calle, C Perrino, M Represa, P Moral
OBJECTIVES: To establish a correlation between 4 measurements made on preoperative computed axial tomography and the presence of difficult airway, as well as its clinical prediction in patients undergoing otorhinolaryngological surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was carried out using the information gathered from the clinical notes of 104 patients undergoing general anaesthesia and endotracheal intubation for oncological otorhinolaryngological surgery over a period of 36 months...
March 1, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Antonios K Travlos, Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis, Vassilis Barkoukis, Irene Douma
Bullying is a subset of aggressive behavior that has severe consequences in children's psychosocial development. Bullying behaviors can be influenced by personal and social factors, such as gender, age, school type, and sport participation, as well as psychological constructs, such as moral disengagement. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of moral disengagement on bullying behaviors and the moderating role of personal and social factors. In this study, 2,252 students ( M = 13.57, SD = 1...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Shiri Shkedi-Rafid, Yael Hashiloni-Dolev
Advanced genomic tests in pregnancy, such as chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), provide higher detection rates yet often produce probabilistic and uncertain information. This study aimed to understand how the most knowledgeable patients, i.e., pregnant genetic counselors, act in their own pregnancies, thereby gaining insight into the impact of patients' knowledge on the diagnostic process. Seventeen interviews were conducted with Israeli genetic counselors, either pregnant or up to 2 years post-pregnancy...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
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