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Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in children

Araya Satdhabudha, Kusumawadee Utispan, Paopaga Monthanapisut, Orapan Poachanukoon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of positive pressure nasal irrigation and the incidence of bacterial colonization found in the irrigation device utilized for nasal saline irrigation in children with acute sinusitis. METHODS: We performed a randomized, prospective, controlled study of 80 children with acute sinusitis, aged 3-15 years. Each participant was randomized into one of two groups, one treated with a squeezable bottle and the other group treated with a syringe...
August 16, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Benjamin Luke Duell, Yu-Ching Su, Kristian Riesbeck
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a commensal microbe often isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tract. This bacterial species can cause sinusitis, acute otitis media in preschool children, exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as conjunctivitis and bacteremia. Since the introduction of a vaccine against H. influenzae serotype b in the 1990s, the burden of H. influenzae-related infections has been increasingly dominated by NTHi. Understanding the ability of NTHi to cause infection is currently an expanding area of study...
August 10, 2016: FEBS Letters
A Kamawal, M A Schmidt, O Rompel, G C Gusek-Schneider, C Y Mardin, R Trollmann
Complications of acute bacterial sinusitis mostly occur in children and adolescents. In particular, intracranial spread of the infection can lead to severe even fatal courses of the disease. This article is a case report about a 13-year-old boy suffering from left-sided headache, meningismus and exophthalmos as presenting symptoms. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed merely right-sided sphenoid sinusitis; however, the diffusion-weighted MRI sequence indicated a left-sided cavernous sinus thrombosis, which could be confirmed by computed tomography (CT) angiography...
July 11, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Clark A Santee, Nabeetha A Nagalingam, Ali A Faruqi, Gregory P DeMuri, James E Gern, Ellen R Wald, Susan V Lynch
BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory infections (URI) and their complications are a major healthcare burden for pediatric populations. Although the microbiology of the nasopharynx is an important determinant of the complications of URI, little is known of the nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota of children, the factors that affect its composition, and its precise relationship with URI. RESULTS: Healthy children (n = 47) aged 49-84 months from a prospective cohort study based in Wisconsin, USA, were examined...
2016: Microbiome
Brandon L Hatcher, Joanetha Y Hale, David E Briles
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and neurological sequelae in children worldwide. Acute bacterial meningitis is widely considered to result from bacteremia that leads to blood-brain barrier breakdown and bacterial dissemination throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Previously, we showed that pneumococci can gain access to the CNS through a nonhematogenous route without peripheral blood infection. This access is thought to occur when the pneumococci in the upper sinus follow the olfactory nerves and enter the CNS through the olfactory bulbs...
September 2016: Infection and Immunity
A Bajor, C P Lang, E Bültmann, C Framme, K Hufendiek
Bacterial orbital cellulitis is a life-threatening infection of the postseptal orbital tissue. It can occur in the context of sinusitis, particularly in children and adolescents. Ocular complications include exposure keratopathy, increased intraocular pressure, occlusion of the central retinal artery or vein and optic neuropathy. Rarely, a subperiosteal abscess can occur, and osteomyelitis can lead to spread of the infection to the cerebrum. A rapid diagnosis and targeted therapy are essential for saving the eye as well as the life of the patient...
June 17, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Viraj J Mehta, Jeanie D Ling, Louise A Mawn
Acute bacterial sinusitis is a common disease in the pediatric population that typically resolves without significant complications. Children who do suffer from complications involving the orbit or the brain often experience significant morbidity and potential mortality, typically requiring hospitalization for management. Numerous studies have demonstrated that children from low-income families with public or no insurance are less likely to receive adequate preventative care, are more likely to present with later disease stages, and ultimately endure worse health outcomes...
2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
I Brook
Most sinus infections are viral and only a small percentage develop bacterial infection. Rhino-, influenza, and para-influenza viruses are the most frequent viral causes of sinusitis. The most common bacterial isolates from children and adult patients with community-acquired acute bacterial sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic organisms (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ayşe Kaman, Türkan Aydın-Teke, Fatma Nur Öz, Gülsüm İclal Bayhan, Özge Metin, Zeynep Gökçe Gayretli-Aydın, Gönül Tanır
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children. It is also responsible for bacteremia, sepsis, pneumonia, sinusitis and acute otitis media in young children worldwide. The serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7)-1, 5, 6A, 6B, 14, 19F, 23F-are those most commonly responsible for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally. Unvaccinated children are at greater risk for meningitis. The rate of non-vaccine serotypes as causes of invasive disease has increased...
May 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Gail Hayward, Matthew J Thompson, Rafael Perera, Chris B Del Mar, Paul P Glasziou, Carl J Heneghan
BACKGROUND: The common cold is a frequent illness, which, although benign and self limiting, results in many consultations to primary care and considerable loss of school or work days. Current symptomatic treatments have limited benefit. Corticosteroids are an effective treatment in other upper respiratory tract infections and their anti-inflammatory effects may also be beneficial in the common cold. This updated review has included one additional study. OBJECTIVES: To compare corticosteroids versus usual care for the common cold on measures of symptom resolution and improvement in children and adults...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Adam Janicki, Geoffry Capraro
The prompt identification of sepsis in children is challenging, but once sepsis is identified, initiation of care and determination of proper disposition may be insufficient to ensure optimal outcomes. The best opportunity for full recovery also requires rapid identification and treatment of the infectious source. Acute bacterial sinusitis is common in the pediatric population, and although intracranial complications of sinusitis are rare, they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. History and physical examination may be imperfectly sensitive for the presence of acute bacterial sinusitis and its intracranial complications...
August 2015: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Orapan Poachanukoon, Auchara Tangsathapornpong, Sermkiat Tanuchit
OBJECTIVES: Cefditoren pivoxil (CDT) has been used in the treatment of rhinosinusitis. However, little is known about the efficacy of this drug at low and high doses. This study was to compare the efficacy and safety of low dose (8-12 mg/kg/day) and high dose (16-20 mg/kg/day) CDT in the treatment of children with uncomplicated acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). METHODS: This investigation was a randomized, investigator-blinded, and parallel study, conducted in patients (aged 1-15 years) with a clinical diagnosis of uncomplicated ARS...
June 2015: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
Matthew P Kronman, Chuan Zhou, Rita Mangione-Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Antimicrobials are frequently prescribed for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI), although many are viral. We aimed to determine bacterial prevalence rates for 5 common childhood ARTI - acute otitis media (AOM), sinusitis, bronchitis, upper respiratory tract infection, and pharyngitis- and to compare these rates to nationally representative antimicrobial prescription rates for these ARTI. METHODS: We performed (1) a meta-analysis of English language pediatric studies published between 2000 and 2011 in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library to determine ARTI bacterial prevalence rates; and (2) a retrospective cohort analysis of children age <18 years evaluated in ambulatory clinics sampled by the 2000-2010 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) to determine estimated US ARTI antimicrobial prescribing rates...
October 2014: Pediatrics
Iulia Ioan, Mathias Poussel, Laurianne Coutier, Jana Plevkova, Ivan Poliacek, Donald C Bolser, Paul W Davenport, Jocelyne Derelle, Jan Hanacek, Milos Tatar, François Marchal, Cyril Schweitzer, Giovanni Fontana, Silvia Varechova
The cough reflex is modulated throughout growth and development. Cough-but not expiration reflex-appears to be absent at birth, but increases with maturation. Thus, acute cough is the most frequent respiratory symptom during the first few years of life. Later on, the pubertal development seems to play a significant role in changing of the cough threshold during childhood and adolescence resulting in sex-related differences in cough reflex sensitivity in adulthood. Asthma is the major cause of chronic cough in children...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
Janalee Stokken, Amar Gupta, Paul Krakovitz, Samantha Anne
BACKGROUND: Patient characteristics, risk factors, and microbiology are important to consider in the management of complications of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) in pediatric patients. This study evaluates this subset of patients and compares them to patients that undergo surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). METHODS: This study is a retrospective review of all pediatric patients from 2002 to 2011, who underwent sinus surgery at a tertiary hospital. Patients who underwent surgery for ABS complication were compared to patients who underwent surgery for CRS...
September 2014: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Lisa Hauk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2014: American Family Physician
Tal Marom, Pedro E Alvarez-Fernandez, Kristofer Jennings, Janak A Patel, David P McCormick, Tasnee Chonmaitree
BACKGROUND: Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) is a common complication of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URI). Clinical characteristics of URIs complicated by ABS in young children have not been well studied. METHODS: We identified ABS episodes in a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 294 children (6-35 months of age at enrollment), who were followed up for 1 year to capture all URI episodes and complications. At the initial URI visit seen by the study personnel (median day = 4 from symptoms onset), nasopharyngeal samples were obtained for bacterial cultures and viral studies...
August 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Shaantanu Donde, Anupam Mishra, Puja Kochhar
To assess the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of azithromycin in acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). In this open-label, prospective, multi-center, non-interventional study in bacterial URTI, the decision to prescribe azithromycin was independent of enrolment. Follow up was 1 week after treatment and if possible, at Week 2. Investigators' assessment of clinical outcome (Success/Failure) at the end of study was the primary endpoint for efficacy analysis. Clinical outcome of 'Success' was defined as the global response of Cure or Improvement...
January 2014: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
H Haas, M Lorrot, V Hentgen, R Cohen, E Grimprel
Intra or extra orbital cellulitis or abscesses are the most frequent bacterial complications of acute sinusitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (SA), and anaerobic bacteria are predominant, and more rarelyHaemophilus influenzae (especially since vaccination against type b). Because of bacterial sensitivity, PK/PD parameters of antibiotics, and depending on the classification of Chandler, different probabilistic regimens may be proposed: In class 1 by Chandler (preseptal cellulitis), amoxicillinclavulinate (80 mg/kg/d) in 2 oral doses, and ceftriaxone in intramuscular injection; in cases of class 2 to 5 by Chandler, high doses of intravenous amoxicillin-clavulinate (until 150 mg/kg/d of amoxicillin), or intravenous association of ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/d) or cefotaxim (200 mg/kg/d), with anti-anaerobic like metronidazole (30 mg/kg/d) or clindamycine (40 mg/kg/d)...
November 2013: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
E Grimprel, V Hentgen, M Lorrot, H Haas, R Cohen
The French Group of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (PID) of the French Society of Pediatrics found necessary to issue in 2011 therapeutic proposals concerning antibiotic treatment in severe ENT infections in children (acute mastoiditis, severe sinusitis, peripharyngeal abscess). They took into account, for each clinical situation, published studies and existing guidelines, the most frequently encountered bacterial species, their usual sensitivity to antibiotics, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) characteristics...
November 2013: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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