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Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in children

Itzhak Brook
OBJECTIVES: Presenting the role of antibiotics in pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis based on its pathophysiology and microbiology. DATA SOURCE: Review of the literature searching PubMed for microbiology and treatment of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis. RESULTS: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory condition of the paranasal sinuses that persists for 12 weeks or longer, despite medical management. The microbiology of rhinosinusitis evolves through several stages...
June 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
Elizabeth E Dawson-Hahn, Sharon Mickan, Igho Onakpoya, Nia Roberts, Matthew Kronman, Chris C Butler, Matthew J Thompson
Purpose: To summarize the evidence comparing the effectiveness of short and long courses of oral antibiotics for infections treated in outpatient settings. Methods: We identified systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for children and adults with bacterial infections treated in outpatient settings from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The Database of Review of Effects. Data were extracted on the primary outcome of clinical resolution and secondary outcomes...
September 1, 2017: Family Practice
Dana T Badr, Jonathan M Gaffin, Wanda Phipatanakul
Rhinosinusitis, is defined as an inflammation of the paranasal and nasal sinus mucosae. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)is a common problem in the pediatric age group and the diagnosis and treatment are challenging due to the chronicity and similarity of symptoms with allergic rhinitis and adenoid hypertrophy. Although it is less common than acute rhinosinusitis, CRS is becoming more frequent and significantly affects the quality of life in children and can substantially impair daily function. CRS is characterized by sinus symptoms lasting more than 3 months despite medical therapy...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Allergy
Tal Marom, Shiran Bookstein Peretz, Orna Schwartz, Abraham Goldfarb, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), for example, acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis, acute bacterial sinusitis and meningitis. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: Children 0-16 years of age, who were hospitalized with HNIs in the pediatrics department in a general hospital between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2014, were retrospectively identified...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
L Schollin Ask, S Hultman Dennison, P Stjärne, A Granath, S Srivastava, M Eriksson, A Lindstrand, M Ryd Rinder
AIM: This study established the incidence of acute rhinosinusitis and related orbital complications in tertiary care in Stockholm County and surveyed the clinical outcomes. METHODS: This was a population-based, retrospective, observational study, from July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2007, of the hospital admissions records of 213 children up to five years old, with a diagnosis of sinusitis and related complications. RESULTS: Preseptal cellulitis was present in 171 of the 213 admissions, which equated to an incidence of orbital complications due to acute rhinosinusitis of 36 per 100 000 people per year (95% confidence interval 26-49)...
February 2017: Acta Paediatrica
Araya Satdhabudha, Kusumawadee Utispan, Paopaga Monthanapisut, Orapan Poachanukoon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of positive-pressure nasal irrigation devices in children with acute sinusitis, in addition to bacterial colonization of the irrigation device. METHOD: We performed a randomized, prospective, controlled study of 80 children with acute sinusitis, aged between 3 and 15 years. Participants were randomly separated into two groups, where one group was treated using a squeezable bottle and the other group treated using a syringe. All patients were instructed to use a 1...
August 16, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Benjamin Luke Duell, Yu-Ching Su, Kristian Riesbeck
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a commensal microbe often isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tract. This bacterial species can cause sinusitis, acute otitis media in preschool children, exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as conjunctivitis and bacteremia. Since the introduction of a vaccine against H. influenzae serotype b in the 1990s, the burden of H. influenzae-related infections has been increasingly dominated by NTHi. Understanding the ability of NTHi to cause infection is currently an expanding area of study...
November 2016: FEBS Letters
A Kamawal, M A Schmidt, O Rompel, G C Gusek-Schneider, C Y Mardin, R Trollmann
Complications of acute bacterial sinusitis mostly occur in children and adolescents. In particular, intracranial spread of the infection can lead to severe even fatal courses of the disease. This article is a case report about a 13-year-old boy suffering from left-sided headache, meningismus and exophthalmos as presenting symptoms. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed merely right-sided sphenoid sinusitis; however, the diffusion-weighted MRI sequence indicated a left-sided cavernous sinus thrombosis, which could be confirmed by computed tomography (CT) angiography...
May 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Clark A Santee, Nabeetha A Nagalingam, Ali A Faruqi, Gregory P DeMuri, James E Gern, Ellen R Wald, Susan V Lynch
BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory infections (URI) and their complications are a major healthcare burden for pediatric populations. Although the microbiology of the nasopharynx is an important determinant of the complications of URI, little is known of the nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota of children, the factors that affect its composition, and its precise relationship with URI. RESULTS: Healthy children (n = 47) aged 49-84 months from a prospective cohort study based in Wisconsin, USA, were examined...
July 1, 2016: Microbiome
Brandon L Hatcher, Joanetha Y Hale, David E Briles
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and neurological sequelae in children worldwide. Acute bacterial meningitis is widely considered to result from bacteremia that leads to blood-brain barrier breakdown and bacterial dissemination throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Previously, we showed that pneumococci can gain access to the CNS through a nonhematogenous route without peripheral blood infection. This access is thought to occur when the pneumococci in the upper sinus follow the olfactory nerves and enter the CNS through the olfactory bulbs...
September 2016: Infection and Immunity
A Bajor, C P Lang, E Bültmann, C Framme, K Hufendiek
Bacterial orbital cellulitis is a life-threatening infection of the postseptal orbital tissue. It can occur in the context of sinusitis, particularly in children and adolescents. Ocular complications include exposure keratopathy, increased intraocular pressure, occlusion of the central retinal artery or vein and optic neuropathy. Rarely, a subperiosteal abscess can occur, and osteomyelitis can lead to spread of the infection to the cerebrum. A rapid diagnosis and targeted therapy are essential for saving the eye as well as the life of the patient...
April 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Viraj J Mehta, Jeanie D Ling, Louise A Mawn
Acute bacterial sinusitis is a common disease in the pediatric population that typically resolves without significant complications. Children who do suffer from complications involving the orbit or the brain often experience significant morbidity and potential mortality, typically requiring hospitalization for management. Numerous studies have demonstrated that children from low-income families with public or no insurance are less likely to receive adequate preventative care, are more likely to present with later disease stages, and ultimately endure worse health outcomes...
2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
I Brook
Most sinus infections are viral and only a small percentage develop bacterial infection. Rhino-, influenza, and para-influenza viruses are the most frequent viral causes of sinusitis. The most common bacterial isolates from children and adult patients with community-acquired acute bacterial sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic organisms (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ayşe Kaman, Türkan Aydın-Teke, Fatma Nur Öz, Gülsüm İclal Bayhan, Özge Metin, Zeynep Gökçe Gayretli-Aydın, Gönül Tanır
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children. It is also responsible for bacteremia, sepsis, pneumonia, sinusitis and acute otitis media in young children worldwide. The serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7)-1, 5, 6A, 6B, 14, 19F, 23F-are those most commonly responsible for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally. Unvaccinated children are at greater risk for meningitis. The rate of non-vaccine serotypes as causes of invasive disease has increased...
May 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Gail Hayward, Matthew J Thompson, Rafael Perera, Chris B Del Mar, Paul P Glasziou, Carl J Heneghan
BACKGROUND: The common cold is a frequent illness, which, although benign and self limiting, results in many consultations to primary care and considerable loss of school or work days. Current symptomatic treatments have limited benefit. Corticosteroids are an effective treatment in other upper respiratory tract infections and their anti-inflammatory effects may also be beneficial in the common cold. This updated review has included one additional study. OBJECTIVES: To compare corticosteroids versus usual care for the common cold on measures of symptom resolution and improvement in children and adults...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Adam Janicki, Geoffry Capraro
The prompt identification of sepsis in children is challenging, but once sepsis is identified, initiation of care and determination of proper disposition may be insufficient to ensure optimal outcomes. The best opportunity for full recovery also requires rapid identification and treatment of the infectious source. Acute bacterial sinusitis is common in the pediatric population, and although intracranial complications of sinusitis are rare, they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. History and physical examination may be imperfectly sensitive for the presence of acute bacterial sinusitis and its intracranial complications...
August 2015: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Orapan Poachanukoon, Auchara Tangsathapornpong, Sermkiat Tanuchit
OBJECTIVES: Cefditoren pivoxil (CDT) has been used in the treatment of rhinosinusitis. However, little is known about the efficacy of this drug at low and high doses. This study was to compare the efficacy and safety of low dose (8-12 mg/kg/day) and high dose (16-20 mg/kg/day) CDT in the treatment of children with uncomplicated acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). METHODS: This investigation was a randomized, investigator-blinded, and parallel study, conducted in patients (aged 1-15 years) with a clinical diagnosis of uncomplicated ARS...
June 2015: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
Matthew P Kronman, Chuan Zhou, Rita Mangione-Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Antimicrobials are frequently prescribed for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI), although many are viral. We aimed to determine bacterial prevalence rates for 5 common childhood ARTI - acute otitis media (AOM), sinusitis, bronchitis, upper respiratory tract infection, and pharyngitis- and to compare these rates to nationally representative antimicrobial prescription rates for these ARTI. METHODS: We performed (1) a meta-analysis of English language pediatric studies published between 2000 and 2011 in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library to determine ARTI bacterial prevalence rates; and (2) a retrospective cohort analysis of children age <18 years evaluated in ambulatory clinics sampled by the 2000-2010 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) to determine estimated US ARTI antimicrobial prescribing rates...
October 2014: Pediatrics
Iulia Ioan, Mathias Poussel, Laurianne Coutier, Jana Plevkova, Ivan Poliacek, Donald C Bolser, Paul W Davenport, Jocelyne Derelle, Jan Hanacek, Milos Tatar, François Marchal, Cyril Schweitzer, Giovanni Fontana, Silvia Varechova
The cough reflex is modulated throughout growth and development. Cough-but not expiration reflex-appears to be absent at birth, but increases with maturation. Thus, acute cough is the most frequent respiratory symptom during the first few years of life. Later on, the pubertal development seems to play a significant role in changing of the cough threshold during childhood and adolescence resulting in sex-related differences in cough reflex sensitivity in adulthood. Asthma is the major cause of chronic cough in children...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
Janalee Stokken, Amar Gupta, Paul Krakovitz, Samantha Anne
BACKGROUND: Patient characteristics, risk factors, and microbiology are important to consider in the management of complications of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) in pediatric patients. This study evaluates this subset of patients and compares them to patients that undergo surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). METHODS: This study is a retrospective review of all pediatric patients from 2002 to 2011, who underwent sinus surgery at a tertiary hospital. Patients who underwent surgery for ABS complication were compared to patients who underwent surgery for CRS...
September 2014: American Journal of Otolaryngology
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