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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777270/-rathke-cysts-craniopharyngioma-and-colloid-cysts-what-are-the-differences-between-these-pathologies
#1
REVIEW
R Eymann, M Kiefer
CLINICAL ISSUE: Headache is the most common symptom of colloid cysts, Rathke cysts, and craniopharyngioma due to their location in the midline, being extra-axial and typically presenting in the parasellar region. THERAPEUTIC PROBLEMS: Although these tumors are generally considered benign, each has its typical characteristics defined by its location and histology. These individual characteristics define whether surgery is necessary at all and if so, the preferred surgical approach and resection's totality...
May 17, 2018: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773559/serrate-notch-signaling-regulates-the-size-of-the-progenitor-cell-pool-in-drosophila-imaginal-rings
#2
Sheng-An Yang, Wu-Min Deng
Drosophila imaginal rings are larval tissues composed of progenitor cells that are essential for the formation of adult foreguts, hindguts and salivary glands. Specified from subsets of ectoderm in the embryo, imaginal ring cells are kept quiescent until mid-second larval instar, and undergo rapid proliferation during the third instar to attain adequate numbers of cells that will replace apoptotic larval tissues for adult organ formation. Here we show that Notch signaling is activated in all three imaginal rings from middle embryonic stage to early pupal stage and that Notch signaling positively controls cell proliferation in all three imaginal rings during the third larval instar...
May 17, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765017/assessment-of-established-techniques-to-determine-developmental-and-malignant-potential-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
(no author information available yet)
The International Stem Cell Initiative compared several commonly used approaches to assess human pluripotent stem cells (PSC). PluriTest predicts pluripotency through bioinformatic analysis of the transcriptomes of undifferentiated cells, whereas, embryoid body (EB) formation in vitro and teratoma formation in vivo provide direct tests of differentiation. Here we report that EB assays, analyzed after differentiation under neutral conditions and under conditions promoting differentiation to ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm lineages, are sufficient to assess the differentiation potential of PSCs...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760939/novel-tfap2a-mutation-in-a-japanese-family-with-branchio-oculo-facial-syndrome
#4
Taisuke Sato, Osamu Samura, Noriko Kato, Kosuke Taniguchi, Ken Takahashi, Yuki Ito, Hiroaki Aoki, Masahisa Kobayashi, Ohsuke Migita, Aikou Okamoto, Kenichiro Hata
Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by craniofacial, ocular, and ectodermal anomalies. BOFS is caused by mutation of the transcription factor AP2-alpha gene ( TFAP2A ). We performed detailed genetic analysis of a Japanese family with clinically suspected BOFS and identified a novel missense mutation resulting in a predicted amino-acid substitution in the highly conserved basic DNA-binding domain of TFAP2A (NM_003220.2:c.699A>C).
2018: Human Genome Variation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756146/effect-of-geometrical-constraints-on-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-nuclei-in-pluripotency-and-differentiation
#5
Eleonora Grespan, Giovanni G Giobbe, Florent Badique, Karine Anselme, Jürgen Rühe, Nicola Elvassore
Mechanical stimuli and geometrical constraints transmitted across the cytoskeleton to the nucleus affect the nuclear morphology and cell function. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent an effective tool for evaluating transitions in nuclear deformability from the pluripotent to differentiated stage, and for deciphering the underlying mechanisms. We report the first study that investigates the nuclear deformability induced by geometrical constraints of hPSCs both in the pluripotent stage and during early germ layer specification...
May 14, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750989/altered-ca-2-signaling-in-enamelopathies
#6
REVIEW
Miriam Eckstein, Francisco J Aulestia, Meerim K Nurbaeva, Rodrigo S Lacruz
Biomineralization requires the controlled movement of ions across cell barriers to reach the sites of crystal growth. Mineral precipitation occurs in aqueous phases as fluids become supersaturated with specific ionic compositions. In the biological world, biomineralization is dominated by the presence of calcium (Ca2+ ) in crystal lattices. Ca2+ channels are intrinsic modulators of this process, facilitating the availability of Ca2+ within cells in a tightly regulated manner in time and space. Unequivocally, the most mineralized tissue produced by vertebrates, past and present, is dental enamel...
May 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738712/drosophila-tnf-modulates-tissue-tension-in-the-embryo-to-facilitate-macrophage-invasive-migration
#7
Aparna Ratheesh, Julia Biebl, Jana Vesela, Michael Smutny, Ekaterina Papusheva, S F Gabriel Krens, Walter Kaufmann, Attila Gyoergy, Alessandra Maria Casano, Daria E Siekhaus
Migrating cells penetrate tissue barriers during development, inflammatory responses, and tumor metastasis. We study if migration in vivo in such three-dimensionally confined environments requires changes in the mechanical properties of the surrounding cells using embryonic Drosophila melanogaster hemocytes, also called macrophages, as a model. We find that macrophage invasion into the germband through transient separation of the apposing ectoderm and mesoderm requires cell deformations and reductions in apical tension in the ectoderm...
May 7, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737535/neural-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-induced-by-glial-cell-conditioned-media
#8
Debora Lo Furno, Giuliana Mannino, Rosario Giuffrida, Elisa Gili, Carlo Vancheri, Maria S Tarico, Rosario E Perrotta, Rosalia Pellitteri
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) may transdifferentiate into cells belonging to mesodermal, endodermal, and ectodermal lineages. The aim of this study was to verify whether a neural differentiation of ASCs could be induced by a conditioned medium (CM) obtained from cultures of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) or Schwann cells (SCs). ASCs were isolated from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue and expanded for 2-3 passages. They were then cultured in OEC-CM or SC-CM for 24 hr or 7 days...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731302/quantitative-control-of-gpcr-organization-and-signaling-by-endocytosis-in-epithelial-morphogenesis
#9
Ankita Jha, Thomas S van Zanten, Jean-Marc Philippe, Satyajit Mayor, Thomas Lecuit
Tissue morphogenesis arises from controlled cell deformations in response to cellular contractility. During Drosophila gastrulation, apical activation of the actomyosin networks drives apical constriction in the invaginating mesoderm and cell-cell intercalation in the extending ectoderm. Myosin II (MyoII) is activated by cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as Smog and Mist, that activate G proteins, the small GTPase Rho1, and the kinase Rok. Quantitative control over GPCR and Rho1 activation underlies differences in deformation of mesoderm and ectoderm cells...
April 25, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722151/specifying-neural-crest-cells-from-chromatin-to-morphogens-and-factors-in-between
#10
REVIEW
Crystal D Rogers, Shuyi Nie
Neural crest (NC) cells are a stem-like multipotent population of progenitor cells that are present in vertebrate embryos, traveling to various regions in the developing organism. Known as the "fourth germ layer", these cells originate in the ectoderm between the neural plate (NP), which will become the brain and spinal cord, and nonneural tissues that will become the skin and the sensory organs. NC cells can differentiate into more than 30 different derivatives in response to the appropriate signals including, but not limited to, craniofacial bone and cartilage, sensory nerves and ganglia, pigment cells, and connective tissue...
May 3, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715461/direct-visualization-of-the-wntless-induced-redistribution-of-wnt1-in-developing-chick-embryos
#11
Lisa M Galli, Frederick Santana, Chantilly Apollon, Linda A Szabo, Keri Ngo, Laura W Burrus
Paracrine Wnt signals are critical regulators of cell proliferation, specification, and differentiation during embryogenesis. Consistent with the discovery that Wnt ligands are post-translationally modified with palmitoleate (a 16 carbon mono-unsaturated fatty acid), our studies show that the vast majority of bioavailable chick WNT1 (cWNT1) produced in stably transfected L cells is cell-associated. Thus, it seems unlikely that the WNT1 signal is propagated by diffusion alone. Unfortunately, the production and transport of vertebrate Wnt proteins has been exceedingly difficult to study as few antibodies are able to detect endogenous Wnt proteins and fixation is known to disrupt the architecture of cells and tissues...
April 28, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713351/the-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factors-in-tooth-development-and-incisor-renewal
#12
REVIEW
Wen Du, Wei Du, Haiyang Yu
The mineralized tissue of the tooth is composed of enamel, dentin, cementum, and alveolar bone; enamel is a calcified tissue with no living cells that originates from oral ectoderm, while the three other tissues derive from the cranial neural crest. The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are critical during the tooth development. Accumulating evidence has shown that the formation of dental tissues, that is, enamel, dentin, and supporting alveolar bone, as well as the development and homeostasis of the stem cells in the continuously growing mouse incisor is mediated by multiple FGF family members...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709598/transcriptomics-of-dorso-ventral-axis-determination-in-xenopus-tropicalis
#13
Rita S Monteiro, George E Gentsch, James C Smith
Amphibian embryos provide a powerful system to study early cell fate determination because their eggs are externally fertilised, large, and easy to manipulate. Ultraviolet (UV) or lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment are classic embryonic manipulations frequently used to perturb specification of the dorso-ventral (DV) axis by affecting the stability of the maternal Wnt mediator β-catenin. Such treatments result in the formation of so-called ventralised or dorsalised embryos. Although these phenotypes have been well described with respect to their morphology and some aspects of gene expression, their whole transcriptomes have never been systematically characterised and compared...
April 27, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704308/a-sibling-pair-with-cardiofaciocutaneous-syndrome-cfc-secondary-to-braf-mutation-with-unaffected-parents-the-first-cases-of-gonadal-mosaicism-in-cfc
#14
Sarah Geoghegan, Graham King, Jennifer Henchliffe, Simon C Ramsden, Raymond J Barry, Andrew J Green, Susan M O'Connell
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a RASopathy characterized by intellectual disability, congenital heart defects, a characteristic facial appearance, gastro-intestinal complications, ectodermal abnormalities and growth failure. The RASopathies result from germline mutations in the Ras/Mitogen-activated-protein-kinase (MAPK) pathway. CFC is associated with mutations in BRAF, KRAS, MEK1 and MEK2. CFC has been considered a "sporadic" disorder, with minimal recurrence risk to siblings. In recent years, vertical transmission of CFC has been seen in mutations involving the MEK2 and KRAS genes, but has not previously been reported with BRAF mutations...
April 28, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702146/regulation-of-the-are-binding-proteins-ttp-tristetraprolin-and-hur-human-antigen-r-in-inflammatory-response-in-astrocytes
#15
Alina A Astakhova, Dmitry V Chistyakov, Marina G Sergeeva, Georg Reiser
Control of decay of mRNA containing the adenine-uridine rich elements (AREs) is an important post-transcriptional mechanism involved in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression. Two widely recognized proteins in this machinery are HuR (human antigen R) - a protein that stabilizes ARE-containing mRNA and TTP (tristetraprolin) - a protein that shortens half-lives of ARE-containing mRNA. Although HuR and TTP regulation mechanisms have been well studied in cells of hematopoietic origin, there are no respective data in astrocytes, cells of ectodermal origin which play an important role in neuroinflammation...
April 24, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698439/tnf-differentially-regulates-ganglioside-biosynthesis-and-expression-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#16
Justine H Dewald, Sumeyye Cavdarli, Agata Steenackers, Clément P Delannoy, Marlène Mortuaire, Corentin Spriet, Maxence Noël, Sophie Groux-Degroote, Philippe Delannoy
Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids concentrated in glycolipid-enriched membrane microdomains. Mainly restricted to the nervous system in healthy adult, complex gangliosides such as GD3 and GD2 have been shown to be involved in aggressiveness and metastasis of neuro-ectoderm derived tumors such as melanoma and neuroblastoma. GD3 synthase (GD3S), the key enzyme that controls the biosynthesis of complex gangliosides, was shown to be over-expressed in Estrogen Receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer tumors, and associated with a decreased overall survival of patients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696142/isolation-and-characterization-of-neural-crest-derived-stem-cells-from-adult-ovine-palatal-tissue
#17
Marie-Theres Zeuner, Nikolai N Didenko, David Humphries, Sokratis Stergiadis, Taryn M Morash, Ketan Patel, Wolf-Dieter Grimm, Darius Widera
Adult mammalian craniofacial tissues contain limited numbers of post-migratory neural crest-derived stem cells. Similar to their embryonic counterparts, these adult multipotent stem cells can undergo multi-lineage differentiation and are capable of contributing to regeneration of mesodermal and ectodermal cells and tissues in vivo . In the present study, we describe for the first time the presence of Nestin-positive neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) within the ovine hard palate. We show that these cells can be isolated from the palatal tissue and are able to form neurospheres...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694819/prenatal-correction-of-x-linked-hypohidrotic-ectodermal-dysplasia
#18
Holm Schneider, Florian Faschingbauer, Sonia Schuepbach-Mallepell, Iris Körber, Sigrun Wohlfart, Angela Dick, Mandy Wahlbuhl, Christine Kowalczyk-Quintas, Michele Vigolo, Neil Kirby, Corinna Tannert, Oliver Rompel, Wolfgang Rascher, Matthias W Beckmann, Pascal Schneider
Genetic deficiency of ectodysplasin A (EDA) causes X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), in which the development of sweat glands is irreversibly impaired, an condition that can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia. We observed normal development of mouse fetuses with Eda mutations after they had been exposed in utero to a recombinant protein that includes the receptor-binding domain of EDA. We administered this protein intraamniotically to two affected human twins at gestational weeks 26 and 31 and to a single affected human fetus at gestational week 26; the infants, born in week 33 (twins) and week 39 (singleton), were able to sweat normally, and XLHED-related illness had not developed by 14 to 22 months of age...
April 26, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682553/maxillary-bone-regeneration-based-on-nanoreservoirs-functionalized-%C3%AE%C2%B5-polycaprolactone-biomembranes-in-a-mouse-model-of-jaw-bone-lesion
#19
Marion Strub, Xavier Van Bellinghen, Florence Fioretti, Fabien Bornert, Nadia Benkirane-Jessel, Ysia Idoux-Gillet, Sabine Kuchler-Bopp, François Clauss
Current approaches of regenerative therapies constitute strategies for bone tissue reparation and engineering, especially in the context of genetical diseases with skeletal defects. Bone regeneration using electrospun nanofibers' implant has the following objectives: bone neoformation induction with rapid healing, reduced postoperative complications, and improvement of bone tissue quality. In vivo implantation of polycaprolactone (PCL) biomembrane functionalized with BMP-2/Ibuprofen in mouse maxillary defects was followed by bone neoformation kinetics evaluation using microcomputed tomography...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679503/prosthetic-rehabilitation-of-patients-with-hypohidrotic-ectodermal-dysplasia-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Dagmar Schnabl, Ingrid Grunert, Matthias Schmuth, Ines Kapferer-Seebacher
BACKGROUND: Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) comprises a large group of inherited disorders of ectodermal structures, characterized by hypo-/anhidrosis, hypotrichosis and hypo-/oligo-/anodontia. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically assess the spectrum of prosthodontic approaches with regard to the patients' age and to provide clinical implications for practicing dentists. METHODS: An electronic and manual search was conducted in four databases (Medline, LIVIVO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science Core Collection)...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
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