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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644741/ras-signaling-regulates-stem-cells-and-amelogenesis-in-the-mouse-incisor
#1
X Zheng, A F Goodwin, H Tian, A H Jheon, O D Klein
The role of Ras signaling during tooth development is poorly understood. Ras proteins-which are activated by many upstream pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinase cascades-signal through multiple effectors, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K pathways. Here, we utilized the mouse incisor as a model to study how the MAPK and PI3K pathways regulate dental epithelial stem cells and amelogenesis. The rodent incisor-which grows continuously throughout the life of the animal due to the presence of epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells-provides a model for the study of ectodermal organ renewal and regeneration...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643040/management-of-an-unusual-recurrent-neurenteric-cyst-in-an-infant-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Darian R Esfahani, Laura Burokas, Henry G Brown, Yoon S Hahn, Dimitrios Nikas
PURPOSE: Neurenteric cysts are rare congenital remnants formed by a failure of separation between endoderm and ectoderm in utero. METHODS: We describe a case of a 7-month-old male with a large cervical neurenteric cyst presenting with intermittent neck stiffness and irritability. RESULTS: This cyst was resected, recurred, and required repeat surgery. The patient's postoperative course included aseptic meningitis and hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt and later management of tethered cord, necessitating detethering...
June 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639124/low-grade-papillary-schneiderian-carcinoma-a-case-report
#3
Hui-Jeong Jeong, Jin Roh, Bong-Jae Lee, Kyung-Ja Cho
The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are covered with ciliated respiratory mucosa of ectodermal origin, known as Schneiderian epithelium, which can give rise to different types of sinonasal carcinomas. A 42-year-old woman with a history of nasal polypectomy 3 years previously presented with nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. She was found to have a papillary mass involving the left nasal cavity, and the left maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses by radiologic examination. She underwent endonasal resection under the diagnosis of oncocytic papilloma...
June 21, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635509/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-from-adult-common-marmoset-fibroblasts
#4
Scott C Vermilyea, Scott Guthrie, Michael Meyer, Kim Smuga-Otto, Katarina Braun, Sara Howden, James A Thomson, Su-Chun Zhang, Marina Emborg, Dr Thaddeus G Golos
The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus; Cj) is an advantageous nonhuman primate species for modeling age-related disorders, including Parkinson's disease, due to their shorter lifespan compared to macaques. Cj-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (Cj-iPSCs) from somatic cells are needed for in vitro disease modeling and testing regenerative medicine approaches. Here we report the development of a novel Cj-iPSC line derived from adult marmoset fibroblasts. The Cj-iPSCs showed potent pluripotency properties including development of mesodermal lineages in tumors after injection to immunocompromised mice, as well as ectoderm and endoderm lineages after in vitro differentiation regimens, demonstrating differentiated derivatives of all three embryonic layers...
June 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630355/apical-and-basal-epitheliomuscular-f-actin-dynamics-during-hydra-bud-evagination
#5
Roland Aufschnaiter, Roland Wedlich-Söldner, Xiaoming Zhang, Bert Hobmayer
Bending of 2D cell sheets is a fundamental morphogenetic mechanism during animal development and reproduction. A critical player driving cell shape during tissue bending is the actin cytoskeleton. Much of our current knowledge about actin dynamics in whole organisms stems from studies of embryonic development in bilaterian model organisms. Here, we have analysed actin-based processes during asexual bud evagination in the simple metazoan Hydra We created transgenic Hydra strains stably expressing the actin marker Lifeact-GFP in either ectodermal or endodermal epitheliomuscular cells...
June 19, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629746/severe-disease-and-greater-impairment-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-i%C3%AE%C2%BAba-point-mutants-versus-truncation-mutants-in-autosomal-dominant-anhidrotic-ectodermal-dysplasia-with-immune-deficiency
#6
Daniel Petersheim, Michel J Massaad, Saetbyul Lee, Alessia Scarselli, Caterina Cancrini, Kunihiko Moriya, Yoji Sasahara, Arjan C Lankester, Morna Dorsey, Daniela Di Giovanni, Liliana Bezrodnik, Hidenori Ohnishi, Ryuta Nishikomori, Kay Tanita, Hirokazu Kanegane, Tomohiro Morio, Erwin W Gelfand, Ashish Jain, Elizabeth Secord, Capucine Picard, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Michael H Albert, Troy R Torgerson, Raif S Geha
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency (AD EDA-ID) is caused by heterozygous point mutations at or close to S32 and S36 or N-terminal truncations in IκBα that impair its phosphorylation and degradation, and thus activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway. The outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is poor in AD EDA-ID despite achievement of chimerism. Mice heterozygous for the S32I mutation in IκBα have impaired non-canonical NF-κB activity and defective lymphorganogenesis...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628612/novel-interplay-between-jnk-and-egfr-signaling-in-drosophila-dorsal-closure
#7
Tatyana Kushnir, Sharon Mezuman, Shaked Bar-Cohen, Rotem Lange, Ze'ev Paroush, Aharon Helman
Dorsal closure (DC) is a developmental process in which two contralateral epithelial sheets migrate to seal a large hole in the dorsal ectoderm of the Drosophila embryo. Two signaling pathways act sequentially to orchestrate this dynamic morphogenetic process. First, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling activity in the dorsal-most leading edge (LE) cells of the epidermis induces expression of decapentaplegic (dpp). Second, Dpp, a secreted TGF-β homolog, triggers cell shape changes in the adjacent, ventrally located lateral epidermis, that guide the morphogenetic movements and cell migration mandatory for DC...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625869/an-historical-perspective-on-the-pioneering-experiments-of-john-saunders
#8
REVIEW
Cheryll Tickle
John Saunders was a highly skilled embryologist who pioneered the study of limb development. His studies on chick embryos provided the fundamental framework for understanding how vertebrate limbs develop. This framework inspired generations of scientists and formed the bridge from experimental embryology to molecular mechanisms. Saunders investigated how feathers become organized into tracts in the skin of the chick wing and also identified regions of programmed cell death. He discovered that a region of thickened ectoderm that rims the chick wing bud - the apical ectodermal ridge - is required for outgrowth and the laying down of structures along the proximo-distal axis (long axis) of the wing, identified the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA; polarizing region) that controls development across the anteroposterior axis ("thumb to little finger "axis) and contributed to uncovering the importance of the ectoderm in development of structures along the dorso-ventral axis ( "back of hand to palm" axis)...
June 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622687/identification-of-a-novel-p53-target-col17a1-that-inhibits-breast-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#9
Varalee Yodsurang, Chizu Tanikawa, Takafumi Miyamoto, Paulisally Hau Yi Lo, Makoto Hirata, Koichi Matsuda
p53 mutation is a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancers. To identify downstream targets of p53, we screened two transcriptome datasets, including cDNA microarrays of MCF10A breast epithelial cells with wild-type p53 or p53-null background, and RNA sequence analysis of breast invasive carcinoma. Here, we unveil ten novel p53 target candidates that are up-regulated after the induction of p53 in wild-type cells. Their expressions are also high in breast invasive carcinoma tissues with wild-type p53. The GO analysis identified epidermis development and ectoderm development, which COL17A1 participates, as significantly up-regulated by wild-type p53...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621432/regulatory-heterochronies-and-loose-temporal-scaling-between-sea-star-and-sea-urchin-regulatory-circuits
#10
Tsvia Gildor, Veronica Hinman, Smadar Ben-Tabou-De-Leon
It has long been argued that heterochrony, a change in relative timing of a developmental process, is a major source of evolutionary innovation. Heterochronic changes of regulatory gene activation could be the underlying molecular mechanism driving heterochronic changes through evolution. Here, we compare the temporal expression profiles of key regulatory circuits between sea urchin and sea star, representative of two classes of Echinoderms that shared a common ancestor about 500 million years ago. The morphologies of the sea urchin and sea star embryos are largely comparable, yet, differences in certain mesodermal cell types and ectodermal patterning result in distinct larval body plans...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621415/building-functional-units-of-movement-generation-and-movement-sensation-in-the-embryo
#11
Peleg Hasson, Talila Volk, Adi Salzberg
The musculoskeletal and proprioceptive sensory systems exhibit intricate crosstalk between force generation, force sensation and force transmission, all of which are critical for coordinated animal locomotion. Recent developmental studies of the musculoskeletal and proprioceptive units of the invertebrate Drosophila embryo, have revealed several common molecular and structural principles mediating the formation of each of these systems. These common principles, as well as the differences between the developmental programs of the two systems, are discussed...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620912/oesophageal-epidermal-naevi-as-a-feature-of-systematised-epidermal-naevus-syndrome
#12
Tola Oyesanya, Emily Boozalis, Shawn G Kwatra, Bernard A Cohen
Systematised epidermal naevi are hamartomas developing from neural ectoderm that can be quite extensive, typically with involvement of the face, neck, scalp, arms, legs and trunk. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is rare. We report on a 38-year-old Caucasian woman with systematised epidermal naevus syndrome who presented with previously undescribed involvement of the oesophagus, as well as the right side of her scalp, forehead, cheeks, chin, oral mucosa, neck, arms and trunk.
June 16, 2017: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610558/the-many-faces-of-pluripotency-in-vitro-adaptations-of-a-continuum-of-in-vivo-states
#13
REVIEW
Sophie Morgani, Jennifer Nichols, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis
Pluripotency defines the propensity of a cell to differentiate into, and generate, all somatic, as well as germ cells. The epiblast of the early mammalian embryo is the founder population of all germ layer derivatives and thus represents the bona fide in vivo pluripotent cell population. The so-called pluripotent state spans several days of development and is lost during gastrulation as epiblast cells make fate decisions towards a mesoderm, endoderm or ectoderm identity. It is now widely recognized that the features of the pluripotent population evolve as development proceeds from the pre- to post-implantation period, marked by distinct transcriptional and epigenetic signatures...
June 13, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603898/getting-to-the-root-of-scales-feather-and-hair-as-deep-as-odontodes
#14
Danielle Dhouailly, Pascal Godefroit, Thomas Martin, Stefan Nonchev, Flavien Caraguel, Olav Oftedal
While every jawed vertebrate, or its recent ancestor, possesses teeth, skin appendages are characteristic of the living clades: skin denticles (odontodes) in chondrichthyians, dermal scales in teleosts, ducted multicellular glands in amphibians, epidermal scales in squamates, feathers in birds, and hair-gland complexes in mammals, all of them showing a dense periodic patterning. While the odontode origin of teleost scales is generally accepted, the origin of both feather and hair is still debated. They appear long before mammals and birds, at least in Jurassic in mammaliaforms and in ornithodires (pterosaurs and dinosaurs), and are contemporary to scales of early squamates...
June 11, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598512/long-term-dental-management-of-a-patient-with-features-of-sch%C3%A3-pf-schulz-passarge-syndrome
#15
Nandika Manchanda, Robert Anthonappa, Hessa Al-Mulla, Nigel King
Schöpf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome (SSPS) is thought to be a rare autosomal recessive condition similar to many other ectodermal dysplasias. Diagnosis is difficult, with many possible differential diagnoses; however, eyelid cysts are a commonly seen feature. This clinical report aims to highlight this and describe the dental features and management of this syndrome, which existing literature has not previously described.
June 9, 2017: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597146/human-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-gain-of-function-a-severe-and-syndromic-immunodeficiency
#16
REVIEW
Bertrand Boisson, Anne Puel, Capucine Picard, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Germline heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations of NFKBIA, encoding IκBα, cause an autosomal dominant (AD) form of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID). Fourteen unrelated patients have been reported since the identification of the first case in 2003. All mutations enhanced the inhibitory activity of IκBα, by preventing its phosphorylation on serine 32 or 36 and its subsequent degradation. The mutation certainly or probably occurred de novo in 13 patients, whereas it was inherited from a parent with somatic mosaicism in one patient...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595634/generation-of-tooth-periodontium-complex-structures-using-high-odontogenic-potential-dental-epithelium-derived-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#17
Yancong Zhang, Yongliang Li, Ruirui Shi, Siqi Zhang, Hao Liu, Yunfei Zheng, Yan Li, Jinglei Cai, Duanqing Pei, Shicheng Wei
BACKGROUND: A number of studies have shown that tooth-like structures can be regenerated using induced pluripotent stem cells and mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. However, few studies have reported the regeneration of tooth-periodontium complex structures, which are more suitable for clinical tooth transplantation. We established an optimized approach to induce high-odontogenic potential dental epithelium derived from mES cells by temporally controlling bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) function and regenerated tooth-periodontium complex structures in vivo...
June 8, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595566/a-systemic-review-of-the-sources-of-adult-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-suitability-in-musculoskeletal-applications
#18
Rhiannon Nancarrow-Lei, Pouya Mafi, Reza Mafi, Wasim Khan
Background: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were first isolated from bone marrow by Friedenstein in 1976. These cells were clonogenic, non-haematopoietic, and able to replicate extensively in vitro. The fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have grown dramatically since their inception. In the decades since, MSCs have been identified from mesoderm-, endoderm- and ectoderm-derived tissues. In light of our ageing population, the need for effective cell-based therapies for tissue repair and regeneration is ever-expanding...
June 8, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589954/wnt10a-mutation-causes-ectodermal-dysplasia-by-impairing-progenitor-cell-proliferation-and-klf4-mediated-differentiation
#19
Mingang Xu, Jeremy Horrell, Melinda Snitow, Jiawei Cui, Heather Gochnauer, Camille M Syrett, Staci Kallish, John T Seykora, Fei Liu, Dany Gaillard, Jonathan P Katz, Klaus H Kaestner, Brooke Levin, Corinne Mansfield, Jennifer E Douglas, Beverly J Cowart, Michael Tordoff, Fang Liu, Xuming Zhu, Linda A Barlow, Adam I Rubin, John A McGrath, Edward E Morrisey, Emily Y Chu, Sarah E Millar
Human WNT10A mutations are associated with developmental tooth abnormalities and adolescent onset of a broad range of ectodermal defects. Here we show that β-catenin pathway activity and adult epithelial progenitor proliferation are reduced in the absence of WNT10A, and identify Wnt-active self-renewing stem cells in affected tissues including hair follicles, sebaceous glands, taste buds, nails and sweat ducts. Human and mouse WNT10A mutant palmoplantar and tongue epithelia also display specific differentiation defects that are mimicked by loss of the transcription factor KLF4...
June 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584727/the-presumed-oldest-flying-insect-more-likely-a-myriapod
#20
Carolin Haug, Joachim T Haug
The early fossil record of insects is scarce, with only few finds in the Devonian. All these finds appear problematic and controversial, partly due to incomplete preservation and challenging interpretation of many structures. We provide details of one of these important forms, Rhyniognatha hirsti from the famous Rhynie Chert Lagerstätte with up-to-date 3D imaging techniques. The fossil has been interpreted as the remains of one of the earliest flying insects. The specimen mainly preserves the remains of the head...
2017: PeerJ
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