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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131140/a-transient-pool-of-nuclear-f-actin-at-mitotic-exit-controls-chromatin-organization
#1
Christian Baarlink, Matthias Plessner, Alice Sherrard, Kohtaro Morita, Shinji Misu, David Virant, Eva-Maria Kleinschnitz, Robert Harniman, Dominic Alibhai, Stefan Baumeister, Kei Miyamoto, Ulrike Endesfelder, Abderrahmane Kaidi, Robert Grosse
Re-establishment of nuclear structure and chromatin organization after cell division is integral for genome regulation or development and is frequently altered during cancer progression. The mechanisms underlying chromatin expansion in daughter cells remain largely unclear. Here, we describe the transient formation of nuclear actin filaments (F-actin) during mitotic exit. These nuclear F-actin structures assemble in daughter cell nuclei and undergo dynamic reorganization to promote nuclear protrusions and volume expansion throughout early G1 of the cell cycle...
November 13, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121270/the-effect-of-atp-marination-on-the-depolymerization-of-actin-filament-in-goose-muscles-during-postmortem-conditioning
#2
Chang-Yu Zhou, Ying Wang, Dao-Dong Pan, Yang-Ying Sun, Jin-Xuan Cao
In order to study the tenderization mechanism of ATP treatments by depolymerizing actin filaments, breast muscles of Eastern Zhejiang White Geese were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, 10 and 20 mM groups. Shear force (SF), sarcomere length (SL) and myofibrillar fraction index (MFI), the content of F-actin and G-actin, the expression of actin associated proteins (cofilins and tropomodulins) were investigated during conditioning. In 20 mM group, cofilins content increased from 48 to 168 h, while tropomodulins decreased; the content of F-actin decreased from 24 to 168 h, while the increased G-actin was observed upto 48 h...
November 7, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115495/pirb-inhibits-axonal-outgrowth-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#3
Yong-Yan Bi, Yong Quan
Accumulating data strongly suggests that leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor B1 (PirB) inhibits axonal outgrowth. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, cortical neurons of newborn mice were cultured with Nogo‑66 (Nogo‑p4; 4 µmol/l; a PirB ligand) together with NEP1‑40 (Nogo inhibitory peptide) and/or anti‑PirB body (50 mg/ml). PirB mRNA and protein was higher in cultured neurons induced by Nogo‑66 compared with untreated cells. Neurite outgrowth assays demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of Nogo‑66 on axonal outgrowth were reversed by anti‑PirB body...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114228/integrative-temporo-spatial-mineralogic-spectroscopic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-postnatal-enamel-development-in-teeth-with-limited-growth
#4
Mirali Pandya, Hui Liu, Smit J Dangaria, Weiying Zhu, Leo L Li, Shuang Pan, Moufida Abufarwa, Roderick G Davis, Stephen Guggenheim, Timothy Keiderling, Xianghong Luan, Thomas G H Diekwisch
Tooth amelogenesis is a complex process beginning with enamel organ cell differentiation and enamel matrix secretion, transitioning through changes in ameloblast polarity, cytoskeletal, and matrix organization, that affects crucial biomineralization events such as mineral nucleation, enamel crystal growth, and enamel prism organization. Here we have harvested the enamel organ including the pliable enamel matrix of postnatal first mandibular mouse molars during the first 8 days of tooth enamel development to conduct a step-wise cross-sectional analysis of the changes in the mineral and protein phase...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114038/aberrant-rac1-cofilin-signaling-mediates-defects-in-dendritic-spines-synaptic-function-and-sensory-perception-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#5
Alexander Pyronneau, Qionger He, Jee-Yeon Hwang, Morgan Porch, Anis Contractor, R Suzanne Zukin
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disabilities and a leading cause of autism. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide expansion in the gene FMR1 on the X chromosome. The neuroanatomical hallmark of FXS is an overabundance of immature dendritic spines, a factor thought to underlie synaptic dysfunction and impaired cognition. We showed that aberrantly increased activity of the Rho GTPase Rac1 inhibited the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin, a major determinant of dendritic spine structure, and caused disease-associated spine abnormalities in the somatosensory cortex of FXS model mice...
November 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114037/reducing-eif4e-eif4g-interactions-restores-the-balance-between-protein-synthesis-and-actin-dynamics-in-fragile-x-syndrome-model-mice
#6
Emanuela Santini, Thu N Huynh, Francesco Longo, So Yeon Koo, Edward Mojica, Laura D'Andrea, Claudia Bagni, Eric Klann
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. FXS is caused by silencing of the FMR1 gene, which encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an mRNA-binding protein that represses the translation of its target mRNAs. One mechanism by which FMRP represses translation is through its association with cytoplasmic FMRP-interacting protein 1 (CYFIP1), which subsequently sequesters and inhibits eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). CYFIP1 shuttles between the FMRP-eIF4E complex and the Rac1-Wave regulatory complex, thereby connecting translational regulation to actin dynamics and dendritic spine morphology, which are dysregulated in FXS model mice that lack FMRP...
November 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111771/staphylococcus-aureus-alpha-toxin-induces-actin-filament-remodeling-in-human-airway-epithelial-model-cells
#7
Sabine Ziesemer, Ina Eiffler, Alfrun Schönberg, Christian Müller, Falko Hochgräfe, Achim G Beule, Jan-Peter Hildebrandt
Exposure of cultured human airway epithelial model cells (16HBE14o-, S9) to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (hemolysin A, Hla) induces changes in cell morphology and cell layer integrity which are due to the inability of the cells to maintain stable cell-cell or focal contacts and to properly organize their actin cytoskeleton. The aim of this study was to identify Hla-activated signaling pathways involved in regulating the phosphorylation level of the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin. We used recombinant wild-type Hla (rHla) as well as a variant of Hla (rHla-H35L) that is unable to form functional transmembrane pores to treat immortalized human airway epithelial cells (16HBE14o-, S9) as well as freshly isolated human nasal tissue...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102633/actin-cytoskeleton-and-sperm-function
#8
Haim Breitbart, Maya Finkelstein
For the acquisition of the ability to fertilize the egg, mammalian spermatozoa should undergo a series of biochemical transformations in the female reproductive tract, collectively called capacitation. The capacitated sperm can undergo the acrosomal exocytosis process near or on the oocyte, which allows the spermatozoon to penetrate and fertilize it. One of the main processes in capacitation involves dynamic cytoskeletal remodeling particularly of actin. Actin polymerization occurs during sperm capacitation and the produced F-actin should be depolymerized prior to the acrosomal exocytosis...
November 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102047/identification-of-a-novel-cofilin-related-molecule-der-f-31-as-an-allergen-from-dermatophagoides-farinae
#9
Jianli Lin, Nana Huang, Hui Wang, Qinghui Fu, Eryi Wang, Ping Li, Liteng Yang, Xinping Luo, Xiaoyu Liu, Zhigang Liu
House dust mite (HDM) allergen is a major cause of allergic disease. In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization tandem Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) were used to identify Der f 31. After Der f 31 was cloned, expressed and purified, skin prick test (SPT), Immune inhibitory assays, Western blot, ELISA and asthmatic mouse model were employed to examine the allergenicity of recombinant Der f 31. The gene of Der f 31 includes 447 bps, and encoded 148 amino acids...
October 5, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073094/mechanistic-principles-underlying-regulation-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-by-phosphoinositides
#10
Yosuke Senju, Maria Kalimeri, Essi V Koskela, Pentti Somerharju, Hongxia Zhao, Ilpo Vattulainen, Pekka Lappalainen
The actin cytoskeleton powers membrane deformation during many cellular processes, such as migration, morphogenesis, and endocytosis. Membrane phosphoinositides, especially phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], regulate the activities of many actin-binding proteins (ABPs), including profilin, cofilin, Dia2, N-WASP, ezrin, and moesin, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Moreover, because of a lack of available methodology, the dynamics of membrane interactions have not been experimentally determined for any ABP...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071730/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-enhances-rho-kinase-activity-and-contraction-in-airway-smooth-muscle-via-the-nucleotide-exchange-factor-arhgef1
#11
Yasin Shaifta, Charles E MacKay, Nneka Irechukwu, Katie A O'Brien, David B Wright, Jeremy P T Ward, Greg A Knock
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), RhoA/Rho-kinase and Src-family kinases (SrcFK) have independently been implicated in airway hyper-responsiveness, but how they interact in order to regulate airway smooth muscle contractility is not fully understood. We found that TGF-β pre-treatment enhanced acute contractile responses to bradykinin (BK) in isolated rat bronchioles, and inhibitors of RhoGEFs (Y16) and Rho-kinase (Y27632), but not the SrcFK inhibitor PP2 prevented this enhancement. In cultured human airway smooth muscle cells (hASMC), TGF-β pre-treatment enhanced the protein expression of the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF1, MLC20 , MYPT-1 and the actin-severing protein cofilin, but not of RhoA, ROCK2 or c-Src...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063620/predictive-value-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-signature-and-parp-1-in-prostate-cancer-radioresistance
#12
Timothy W Stark, Patrick J Hensley, Amanda Spear, Hong Pu, Stephen S Strup, Natasha Kyprianou
INTRODUCTION: Epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) has been previously identified as a contributor to prostate cancer progression to metastasis and therapeutic resistance to antiandrogens and radiotherapy. In this study we conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate the significance of radiation-induced EMT and consequential changes to the tumor microenvironment in biochemical recurrence and response to radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients. METHODS: Expression profiling and localization for EMT effectors, E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin, β-catenin and Vimentin was assessed in human prostate tumor specimens pre- and post-radiotherapy and correlated with biochemical recurrence...
December 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058761/c-abl-tyrosine-kinase-regulates-neutrophil-crawling-behavior-under-fluid-shear-stress-via-rac-pak-limk-cofilin-signaling-axis
#13
Haibin Tong, Dake Qi, Xingang Guan, Guiquan Jiang, Zhiyong Liao, Xu Zhang, Peichao Chen, Nan Li, Mingjiang Wu
The excessive recruitment and improper activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) often induces serious injury of host tissues, leading to inflammatory disorders. Therefore, to understand the molecular mechanism on neutrophil recruitment possesses essential pathological and physiological importance. In this study, we found that physiological shear stress induces c-Abl kinase activation in neutrophils, and c-Abl kinase inhibitor impaired neutrophil crawling behavior on ICAM-1. We further identified Vav1 was a downstream effector phosphorylated at Y174 and Y267...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058591/proteomic-analysis-of-trochophore-and-veliger-larvae-development-in-the-small-abalone-haliotis-diversicolor
#14
Guilan Di, Xianghui Kong, Xiulian Miao, Yifang Zhang, Miaoqin Huang, Yuting Gu, Weiwei You, Jianxin Zhang, Caihuan Ke
BACKGROUND: Haliotis diversicolor is commercially important species. The trochophore and veliger are distinct larval stages in gastropod development. Their development involves complex morphological and physiological changes. We studied protein changes during the embryonic development of H. diversicolor using two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and label-free methods, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/ MS), and Mascot for protein identification. RESULTS: A total of 150 2-DE gel spots were identified...
October 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056508/functions-of-actin-interacting-protein-1-aip1-wd-repeat-protein-1-wdr1-in-actin-filament-dynamics-and-cytoskeletal-regulation
#15
Shoichiro Ono
Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin and actin-interacting protein 1 (AIP1), also known as WD-repeat protein 1 (WDR1), are conserved among eukaryotes and play critical roles in dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. AIP1 preferentially promotes disassembly of ADF/cofilin-decorated actin filaments but exhibits minimal effects on bare actin filaments. Therefore, AIP1 has been often considered to be an ancillary co-factor of ADF/cofilin that merely boosts ADF/cofilin activity level. However, genetic and cell biological studies show that AIP1 deficiency often causes lethality or severe abnormalities in multiple tissues and organs including muscle, epithelia, and blood, suggesting that AIP1 is a major regulator of many biological processes that depend on actin dynamics...
October 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052140/prion-protein-family-contributes-to-tumorigenesis-via-multiple-pathways
#16
Xiaowen Yang, Zhijun Cheng, Lihua Zhang, Guiru Wu, Run Shi, Zhenxing Gao, Chaoyang Li
A wealth of evidence suggests that proteins from prion protein (PrP) family contribute to tumorigenesis in many types of cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), breast cancer, glioblastoma, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, melanoma, etc. It is well documented that PrP is a biomarker for PDAC, breast cancer, and gastric cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The major reasons for cancer cell-caused patient death are metastasis and multiple drug resistance, both of which connect to physiological functions of PrP expressing in cancer cells...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051583/nuclear-fragments-of-the-neural-cell-adhesion-molecule-ncam-with-or-without-polysialic-acid-differentially-regulate-gene-expression
#17
Nina Westphal, Thomas Theis, Gabriele Loers, Melitta Schachner, Ralf Kleene
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the major carrier of polysialic acid (PSA) which modulates NCAM functions of neural cells at the cell surface. In previous studies, we have shown that stimulation of cultured neurons with surrogate NCAM ligands leads to the generation and nuclear import of PSA-lacking and -carrying NCAM fragments. Here, we show that the nuclear import of the PSA-carrying NCAM fragment is mediated by positive cofactor 4 and cofilin, which we identified as novel PSA-binding proteins...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029503/slingshot-1l-a-cofilin-phosphatase-induces-primary-breast-cancer-metastasis
#18
Chen Chen, Yusufu Maimaiti, Shen Zhijun, Liu Zeming, Guo Yawen, Yu Pan, Huang Tao
Slingshot (SSH) is a member of the conserved family of cofilin phosphatases that plays a critical role in cell membrane protrusion and migration by transforming inactive phosphorylated cofilin to an active form. SSH-like protein 1 (SSH-1L) expression is detected in various types of tumors; insulin induces the phosphatases activity of SSH-1L in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent manner. However, little is known about the expression and role of SSH-1L in breast cancer. Here, we analyzed 295 human breast cancer tissue specimens for SSH-1L expression by immunohistochemistry...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017932/tanshinone-i-prevents-atorvastatin-induced-cerebral-hemorrhage-in-zebrafish-and-stabilizes-endothelial-cell-cell-adhesion-by-inhibiting-ve-cadherin-internalization-and-actin-myosin-contractility
#19
Bin Huang, Zhong-Yan Zhou, Shang Li, Xiao-Hui Huang, Jing-Yi Tang, Maggie Pui Man Hoi, Simon Ming Yuen Lee
Defects in vascular integrity in cerebrovasculature lead to serious pathologies including hemorrhagic stroke. The stability of cell adhesion junctions and actin-myosin contractile machinery are two major determinants for the integrity of endothelial monolayer. Here we have evaluated the protective effects of tanshinone I (Tan I), a lipophilic compound presents in Salvia miltiorrhiza, against atorvastatin-induced cerebral hemorrhage in zebrafish in vivo, and further dissected the molecular mechanisms in HUVECs...
October 7, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993724/plpp-cin-regulates-seizure-activity-by-the-differential-modulation-of-calsenilin-binding-to-glun1-and-kv4-2-in-mice
#20
Ji-Eun Kim, Hye-Won Hyun, Su-Ji Min, Duk-Shin Lee, A Ran Jeon, Min Ju Kim, Tae-Cheon Kang
Calsenilin (CSEN) binds to Kv4.2 (an A-type K(+) channel) as well as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), and modulates their activities. However, the regulatory mechanisms for CSEN-binding to Kv4.2 or NMDAR remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate the novel role of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate phosphatase/chronophin (PLPP/CIN), one of the cofilin-mediated F-actin regulators, in the CSEN binding to Kv4.2 or GluN1 (an NMDAR subunit). PLPP/CIN dephosphorylated CSEN in competition with casein kinase 1, independent of cofilin dephosphorylation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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