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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922676/identification-of-functional-pathways-associated-with-the-conditional-ablation-of-serum-response-factor-in-dstncorn1-mice
#1
Yanan Huo, Xin Xie, Bo Jiang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the signaling pathways associated with functional alterations in corneal tissues following the conditional ablation of serum response factor (Srf) in Dstncorn1 mice. The gene expression profiling array GSE49688, which includes 3 samples each from the wild‑type (WT), Dstncorn1 mutant (corn1) and corn1 mice following the conditional ablation of Srf from the corneal epithelium [namely rescued (res)] mouse groups, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917311/rock-inhibition-promotes-attachment-proliferation-and-wound-closure-in-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigmented-epithelium
#2
Roxanne H Croze, William J Thi, Dennis O Clegg
PURPOSE: Nonexudative (dry) age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the elderly, is associated with the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells and the development of geographic atrophy, which are areas devoid of RPE cells and photoreceptors. One possible treatment option would be to stimulate RPE attachment and proliferation to replace dying/dysfunctional RPE and bring about wound repair. Clinical trials are underway testing injections of RPE cells derived from pluripotent stem cells to determine their safety and efficacy in treating AMD...
November 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914009/serum-response-factor-srf-ablation-interferes-with-acute-stress-associated-immediate-and-long-term-coping-mechanisms
#3
Annemarie Zimprich, Gabi Mroz, Christopher Meyer Zu Reckendorf, Sofia Anastasiadou, Philip Förstner, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Lore Becker, Jan Rozman, Cornelia Prehn, Birgit Rathkolb, Kristin Moreth, Wolfgang Wurst, Thomas Klopstock, Martin Klingenspor, Jerzy Adamski, Eckhard Wolf, Raffi Bekeredjian, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Bernd Knöll
Stress experience modulates behavior, metabolism, and energy expenditure of organisms. One molecular hallmark of an acute stress response is a rapid induction of immediate early genes (IEGs) such as c-Fos and Egr family members. IEG transcription in neurons is mediated by the neuronal activity-driven gene regulator serum response factor (SRF). We show a first role of SRF in immediate and long-lasting acute restraint stress (AS) responses. For this, we employed a standardized mouse phenotyping protocol at the German Mouse Clinic (GMC) including behavioral, metabolic, and cardiologic tests as well as gene expression profiling to analyze the consequences of forebrain-specific SRF deletion in mice exposed to AS...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910925/thrombomodulin-regulates-monocye-differentiation-via-pkc%C3%AE-and-erk1-2-pathway-in-vitro-and-in-atherosclerotic-artery
#4
Chien-Sung Tsai, Yi-Wen Lin, Chun-Yao Huang, Chun-Min Shih, Yi-Ting Tsai, Nai-Wen Tsao, Chin-Sheng Lin, Chun-Che Shih, Hellen Jeng, Feng-Yen Lin
Thrombomodulin (TM) modulates the activation of protein C and coagulation. Additionally, TM regulates monocyte migration and inflammation. However, its role on monocyte differentiation is still unknown. We investigated the effects of TM on monocyte differentiation. First, we found that TM was increased when THP-1 cells were treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Overexpression of TM enhanced the macrophage markers, CD14 and CD68 expression in PMA-induced THP-1. TM siRNA depressed the PMA-induced increase of p21(Cip1/WAF1) via ERK1/2-NF-kB p65 signaling...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895171/impairment-of-ccr6-and-cxcr3-th-cell-migration-in-hiv-1-infection-is-rescued-by-modulating-actin-polymerization
#5
Valentina Cecchinato, Enos Bernasconi, Roberto F Speck, Michele Proietti, Ulrike Sauermann, Gianluca D'Agostino, Gabriela Danelon, Tanja Rezzonico Jost, Fabio Grassi, Lorenzo Raeli, Franziska Schöni-Affolter, Christiane Stahl-Hennig, Mariagrazia Uguccioni
CD4(+) T cell repopulation of the gut is rarely achieved in HIV-1-infected individuals who are receiving clinically effective antiretroviral therapy. Alterations in the integrity of the mucosal barrier have been indicated as a cause for chronic immune activation and disease progression. In this study, we present evidence that persistent immune activation causes impairment of lymphocytes to respond to chemotactic stimuli, thus preventing their trafficking from the blood stream to peripheral organs. CCR6(+) and CXCR3(+) Th cells accumulate in the blood of aviremic HIV-1-infected patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy, and their frequency in the circulation positively correlates to levels of soluble CD14 in plasma, a marker of chronic immune activation...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872653/the-zuo-jin-wan-formula-induces-mitochondrial-apoptosis-of-cisplatin-resistant-gastric-cancer-cells-via-cofilin-1
#6
Qing-Feng Tang, Jian Sun, Hui Yu, Xiao-Jing Shi, Rong Lv, Hong-Chang Wei, Pei-Hao Yin
Despite the status of cisplatin (DDP) as a classical chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer, the development of multidrug resistance often leads to a failure of DDP therapy. Here we found that phosphorylated cofilin-1 (p-cofilin-1) was overexpressed in the DDP-resistant human gastric cancer cell lines SGC7901/DDP and BGC823/DDP, relative to the respective parent cell lines (SGC7901 and BGC823), and that DDP induced the dephosphorylation of p-cofilin-1 in both parent lines but not in the DDP-resistant lines...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866972/letrozole-regulates-actin-cytoskeleton-polymerization-dynamics-in-a-src-1-dependent-manner-in-the-hippocampus-of-mice
#7
Yangang Zhao, Yanlan Yu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Li He, Linli Qiu, Jikai Zhao, Mengying Liu, Jiqiang Zhang
In the hippocampus, local estrogens (E2) derived from testosterone that is catalyzed by aromatase play important roles in the regulation of hippocampal neural plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The actin cytoskeleton contributes greatly to hippocampal synaptic plasticity; however, whether it is regulated by local E2 and the related mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we first examined the postnatal developmental profiles of hippocampal aromatase and specific proteins responsible for actin cytoskeleton dynamics...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865840/a-pleckstrin-homology-like-domain-is-critical-for-f-actin-binding-and-cofilin-phosphatase-activity-of-slingshot-1
#8
Katsunori Takahashi, Haruka Okabe, Shin-Ichiro Kanno, Tomoaki Nagai, Kensaku Mizuno
Slingshot-1 (SSH1) is a protein phosphatase that specifically dephosphorylates and activates cofilin, an F-actin-severing protein. SSH1 binds to and co-localizes with F-actin, and the cofilin-phosphatase activity of SSH1 is markedly increased by binding to F-actin. In this study, we performed a secondary structure analysis of SSH1, which predicted the existence of a pleckstrin homology (PH)-like domain in the N-terminal region of SSH1. SSH1 also contains a DEK-C domain in the N-terminal region. The N-terminal fragment of SSH1 bound to and co-localized with F-actin, but mutation at Arg-96 or a Leu-His-Lys (LHK) motif in the PH-like domain reduced this activity...
November 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863071/the-putative-involvement-of-actin-binding-proteins-and-cytoskeleton-proteins-in-pathological-mechanisms-of-ketamine-cystitis-revealed-by-a-prospective-pilot-study-using-proteomic-approaches
#9
Hsueh-Hui Yang, Wei-Jun Zhai, Hann-Chorng Kuo
PURPOSE: Ketamine Cystitis (KC) among chronic ketamine young abusers has increased dramatically and it has brought attention for Urologists. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism(s) of KC is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the possible pathophysiological mechanism(s) of KC through proteomic techniques. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Bladder tissues were obtained from 7 patients with KC, 7 patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and 5 control subjects who underwent videourodynamic study followed by augmentation enterocystoplasty to increase bladder capacity...
November 10, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852434/crenactin-forms-actin-like-double-helical-filaments-regulated-by-arcadin-2
#10
Thierry Izoré, Danguole Kureisaite-Ciziene, Stephen H McLaughlin, Jan Löwe
The similarity of eukaryotic actin to crenactin, a filament-forming protein from the crenarchaeon Pyrobaculum calidifontis supports the theory of a common origin of Crenarchaea and Eukaryotes. Monomeric structures of crenactin and actin are similar, although their filament architectures were suggested to be different. Here we report that crenactin forms bona fide double helical filaments that show exceptional similarity to eukaryotic F-actin. With cryo-electron microscopy and helical reconstruction we solved the structure of the crenactin filament to 3...
November 17, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849007/two-ptp-receptors-mediate-cspg-inhibition-by-convergent-and-divergent-signaling-pathways-in-neurons
#11
Yosuke Ohtake, Daniella Wong, P M Abdul-Muneer, Michael E Selzer, Shuxin Li
Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (PTPσ) and its subfamily member LAR act as transmembrane receptors that mediate growth inhibition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Inhibition of either receptor increases axon growth into and beyond scar tissues after CNS injury. However, it is unclear why neurons express two similar CSPG receptors, nor whether they use the same or different intracellular pathways. We have now studied the signaling pathways of these two receptors using N2A cells and primary neurons derived from knockout mice...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844143/aberrant-expression-of-limk1-impairs-neuronal-migration-during-neocortex-development
#12
Jiongfang Xie, Xuzhao Li, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Chai, Yingxue Huang, Kaikai Li, Xinran Cheng, Shanting Zhao
Neuronal migration is essential for the formation of cortical layers, and proper neuronal migration requires the coordination of cytoskeletal regulation. LIMK1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates actin dynamics by regulating actin depolymerization factor/cofilin. However, the role of LIMK1 in neuronal migration and its potential mechanism remains elusive. Here, we found that using the in utero electroporation to overexpress LIMK1 and its mutants, constitutively active LIMK1 (LIMK1-CA) and dominant-negative LIMK1 (LIMK1-DN), impaired neuronal migration in the embryonic mouse brain...
November 14, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831495/simultaneous-quantification-of-actin-monomer-and-filament-dynamics-with-modelling-assisted-analysis-of-photoactivation
#13
Maryna Kapustina, Tracy-Ann Read, Eric A Vitriol
Photoactivation allows one to pulse-label molecules and obtain quantitative data about their behavior. We have devised a new modeling-based analysis for photoactivatable actin experiments that simultaneously measures properties of monomeric and filamentous actin in a three dimensional cellular environment. We use this method to determine differences in the dynamic behavior of beta and gamma actin isoforms, showing that both inhabit filaments that depolymerize at equal rates but that beta actin exists in a higher monomer-to-filament ratio...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825046/talin-a-potential-protein-biomarker-in-postmortem-investigations
#14
Zahra K Campell, Insu Kwon, Sheree J Finley, Youngil Lee, Gulnaz T Javan
The determination of the postmortem interval is of utmost importance in medicolegal death investigations. There are a number of ways to estimate the postmortem interval; however, the current established methods are susceptible to numerous biotic and abiotic factors. Previously published studies state that protein concentrations in postmortem brain tissues can detect protein changes via immunoblotting and densitometry techniques. The objective of the current study was to determine if there is a correlation between protein expression in cadaver tissues and postmortem interval...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807861/interplay-between-cytoskeletal-polymerization-and-the-chondrogenic-phenotype-in-chondrocytes-passaged-in-monolayer-culture
#15
Justin Parreno, Mortah Nabavi Niaki, Katarina Andrejevic, Amy Jiang, Po-Han Wu, Rita A Kandel
Tubulin and actin exist as monomeric units that polymerize to form either microtubules or filamentous actin. As the polymerization status (monomeric/polymeric ratio) of tubulin and/or actin have been shown to be important in regulating gene expression and phenotype in non-chondrocyte cells, the objective of this study was to examine the role of cytoskeletal polymerization on the chondrocyte phenotype. We hypothesized that actin and/or tubulin polymerization status modulates the chondrocyte phenotype during monolayer culture as well as in 3D culture during redifferentiation...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799894/deciphering-the-role-of-emx1-in-neurogenesis-a-neuroproteomics-approach
#16
Firas H Kobeissy, Katharina Hansen, Melanie Neumann, Shuping Fu, Kulin Jin, Jialing Liu
Emx1 has long been implicated in embryonic brain development. Previously we found that mice null of Emx1 gene had smaller dentate gyri and reduced neurogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms underlying this defect was not well understood. To decipher the role of Emx1 gene in neural regeneration and the timing of its involvement, we determine the frequency of neural stem cells (NSCs) in embryonic and adult forebrains of Emx1 wild type (WT) and knock out (KO) mice in the neurosphere assay. Emx1 gene deletion reduced the frequency and self-renewal capacity of NSCs of the embryonic brain but did not affect neuronal or glial differentiation...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799793/dephosphorylated-cofilin-expression-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-cases-of-human-breast-cancer-a-tissue-microarray-analysis
#17
Yusufu Maimaiti, Zeming Liu, Jie Tan, Kelimu Abudureyimu, Bangxing Huang, Chunping Liu, Yawen Guo, Changwen Wang, Xiu Nie, Jing Zhou, Tao Huang
BACKGROUND: Proteins in the cofilin pathway regulate actin dynamics and may be involved in cancer cell migration and invasion. However, there are no direct data that suggest that dephosphorylated cofilin can affect breast cancer prognosis. METHODS: We assessed the expressions of cofilin and phosphorylated cofilin (P-cofilin) in breast cancer tissue microarrays (290 patients, mean follow-up: 95.7±2.49 months) to evaluate dephosphorylated cofilin and its relationship with breast cancer prognosis...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799369/-back-to-back-mechanisms-drive-actomyosin-ring-closure-during-drosophila-embryo-cleavage
#18
Zenghui Xue, Anna Marie Sokac
Contraction of actomyosin rings during cytokinesis is typically attributed to actin filaments sliding toward each other via Myosin-2 motor activity. However, rings constrict in some cells in the absence of Myosin-2 activity. Thus, ring closure uses Myosin-2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. But what the Myosin-2-independent mechanisms are, and to what extent they are sufficient to drive closure, remains unclear. During cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster embryos, actomyosin rings constrict in two sequential and mechanistically distinct phases...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795708/broad-spectrum-anticancer-activity-of-myo-inositol-and-inositol-hexakisphosphate
#19
REVIEW
Mariano Bizzarri, Simona Dinicola, Arturo Bevilacqua, Alessandra Cucina
Inositols (myo-inositol and inositol hexakisphosphate) exert a wide range of critical activities in both physiological and pathological settings. Deregulated inositol metabolism has been recorded in a number of diseases, including cancer, where inositol modulates different critical pathways. Inositols inhibit pRB phosphorylation, fostering the pRB/E2F complexes formation and blocking progression along the cell cycle. Inositols reduce PI3K levels, thus counteracting the activation of the PKC/RAS/ERK pathway downstream of PI3K activation...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792307/a-cell-permeable-biscyclooctyne-as-a-novel-probe-for-the-identification-of-protein-sulfenic-acids
#20
David J McGarry, Maria M Shchepinova, Sergio Lillla, Richard C Hartley, Michael F Olson
Reactive oxygen species act as important second messengers in cell signaling and homeostasis through the oxidation of protein thiols. However, the dynamic nature of protein oxidation and the lack of sensitivity of existing molecular probes have hindered our understanding of such reactions; therefore, new tools are required to address these challenges. We designed a bifunctional variant of the strained bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne (BCN-E-BCN) that enables the tagging of intracellular protein sulfenic acids for biorthogonal copper-free click chemistry...
October 28, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
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