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Jeffrey Zielich, Elena Tzima, Eva Ayla Schröder, Faten Jemel, Barbara Conradt, Eric J Lambie
P5B ATPases are present in the genomes of diverse unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, indicating that they have an ancient origin, and that they are important for cellular fitness. Inactivation of ATP13A2, one of the four human P5B ATPases, leads to early-onset Parkinson's disease (Kufor-Rakeb Syndrome). The presence of an invariant PPALP motif within the putative substrate interaction pocket of transmembrane segment M4 suggests that all P5B ATPases might have similar transport specificity; however, the identity of the transport substrate(s) remains unknown...
2018: PloS One
David J Hunter
Amidst the NHS's (National Health Service) success lies its major weakness, although one that Klein overlooks in his reflections on the NHS as it approaches 70. The focus on, and investment in, curing ill-health has been at the expense of attending to the public's overall health and well-being. This preoccupation poses a greater threat to the NHS's future than privatisation. Despite the weakness having been diagnosed decades ago, redressing the imbalance has proved stubbornly hard to achieve. Rhetoric has not been translated into reality...
March 16, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
H C Sun, Z L Ning, G Wang, W Z Liang, S Pauly, Y J Huang, S Guo, X Xue, J F Sun
ZrCu-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) are well known for their plastic deformability, superior to traditional metallic glasses (MGs), which is attributed to a unique dual-phases structure, namely, the glassy matrix and unstable B2 phase. In the present study, in-situ tensile testing is used to trace the deformation process of a ZrCu-based BMGC. Three deformation stages of the BMGC, i.e., the elastic-elastic stage, the elastic-plastic stage, and the plastic-plastic stage are identified. In the elastic-elastic and elastic-plastic stages, the yield strength and elastic limit are major influenced by the volume fraction of the B2 crystals...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ryan P Donahue, Andrew W Stamm, Robert P Gibbons, Christopher R Porter, Kathleen C Kobashi, John M Corman, Una J Lee
INTRODUCTION: The ureteral stent is engrained in the fabric of urologic practice. Virginia Mason Medical Center had a unique role in its development through the pioneering work of Dr. Robert Gibbons. Here, we review his contribution to the evolution of the modern ureteral stent. METHODS: We reviewed Dr. Gibbons' extensive work through primary sources, including interviews, projector slides, radiology images, stent prototypes, his personal writings and archived documents...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Christopher J Lambert, Briana C Freshner, Arlen Chung, Tamara J Stevenson, D Miranda Bowles, Raheel Samuel, Bruce K Gale, Joshua L Bonkowsky
Zebrafish are a valuable model organism in biomedical research. Their rapid development, ability to model human diseases, utility for testing genetic variants identified from next-generation sequencing, amenity to CRISPR mutagenesis, and potential for therapeutic compound screening, has led to their wide-spread adoption in diverse fields of study. However, their power for large-scale screens is limited by the absence of automated genotyping tools for live animals. This constrains potential drug screen options, limits analysis of embryonic and larval phenotypes, and requires raising additional animals to adulthood to ensure obtaining an animal of the desired genotype...
2018: PloS One
Thibaut Eguether, Fabrice P Cordelieres, Gregory J Pazour
The vertebrate hedgehog pathway is organized in primary cilia and hedgehog components relocate into or out of cilia during signaling. Defects in intraflagellar transport (IFT) typically disrupt ciliary assembly and attenuate hedgehog signaling. Determining if IFT drives the movement of hedgehog components is difficult due to the requirement of IFT for building cilia. Unlike most IFT proteins, IFT27 is dispensable for cilia formation but affects hedgehog signaling similar to other IFTs allowing us to examine its role in the dynamics of signaling...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Elizabeth J Lawrence, Göker Arpağ, Stephen R Norris, Marija Zanic
Cytoplasmic Linker-Associated Proteins (CLASPs) are microtubule-associated proteins essential for microtubule regulation in many cellular processes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CLASP activity are not understood. Here, we use purified protein components and Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to investigate the effects of human CLASP2 on microtubule dynamics in vitro We demonstrate that CLASP2 suppresses microtubule catastrophe and promotes rescue without affecting the rates of microtubule growth or shrinkage...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Xiaobin Xu, Shuang Hou, Natcha Wattanatorn, Fang Wang, Qing Yang, Chuanzhen Zhao, Xiao Yu, Hsian-Rong Tseng, Steven J Jonas, Paul S Weiss
An efficient nonviral platform for high-throughput and subcellular precision targeted intracellular delivery of nucleic acids in cell culture based on magnetic nanospears is reported. These magnetic nanospears are made of Au/Ni/Si (∼5 μm in length with tip diameters <50 nm) and fabricated by nanosphere lithography and metal deposition. A magnet is used to direct the mechanical motion of a single nanospear, enabling precise control of position and three-dimensional rotation. These nanospears were further functionalized with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-expression plasmids via a layer-by-layer approach before release from the underlying silicon substrate...
March 14, 2018: ACS Nano
I P M Jordans, R de Leeuw, S I Stegwee, N N Amso, P N Barri-Soldevila, T van den Bosch, T Bourne, H A M Brolmann, O Donnez, M Dueholm, W J K Hehenkamp, N Jastrow, D Jurkovic, R Mashiach, O Naji, I Streuli, D Timmerman, L F Vd Voet, J A F Huirne
OBJECTIVES: To generate a uniform, internationally recognized guideline for detailed uterine niche evaluation by ultrasonography in non-pregnant women using a modified Delphi method amongst international experts. METHODS: Fifteen international gynecological experts were recruited by their membership of the European niche taskforce group. All experts were physicians with extensive experience in niche evaluation in clinical practice and/or authors of niche studies...
March 14, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Michael A Luzuriaga, Danielle R Berry, John C Reagan, Ronald A Smaldone, Jeremiah J Gassensmith
Biodegradable polymer microneedle (MN) arrays are an emerging class of transdermal drug delivery devices that promise a painless and sanitary alternative to syringes; however, prototyping bespoke needle architectures is expensive and requires production of new master templates. Here, we present a new microfabrication technique for MNs using fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing using polylactic acid, an FDA approved, renewable, biodegradable, thermoplastic material. We show how this natural degradability can be exploited to overcome a key challenge of FDM 3D printing, in particular the low resolution of these printers...
March 14, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Heikki J Nieminen, Ivo Laidmäe, Ari Salmi, Timo Rauhala, Tor Paulin, Jyrki Heinämäki, Edward Hæggström
Electrospinning is commonly used to produce polymeric nanofibers. Potential applications for such fibers include novel drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, and filters. Electrospinning, however, has shortcomings such as needle clogging and limited ability to control the fiber-properties in a non-chemical manner. This study reports on an orifice-less technique that employs high-intensity focused ultrasound, i.e. ultrasound-enhanced electrospinning. Ultrasound bursts were used to generate a liquid protrusion with a Taylor cone from the surface of a polymer solution of polyethylene oxide...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lindsay J Blazin, Cherilyn Cecchini, Catherine Habashy, Erica C Kaye, Justin N Baker
Effective communication is essential to the practice of pediatric oncology. Clear and empathic delivery of diagnostic and prognostic information positively impacts the ways in which patients and families cope. Honest, compassionate discussions regarding goals of care and hopes for patients approaching end of life can provide healing when other therapies have failed. Effective communication and the positive relationships it fosters also can provide comfort to families grieving the loss of a child. A robust body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of optimal communication for patients, families, and healthcare providers...
March 11, 2018: Children
Kiley L Armstrong, Lisa M Lombardo, Kevin M Foglyano, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
BACKGROUND: The leading cause of injury for manual wheelchair users are tips and falls caused by unexpected destabilizing events encountered during everyday activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of automatically restoring seated stability to manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) via a threshold-based system to activate the hip and trunk muscles with electrical stimulation during potentially destabilizing events. METHODS: We detected and classified potentially destabilizing sudden stops and turns with a wheelchair-mounted wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU), and then applied neural stimulation to activate the appropriate muscles to resist trunk movement and restore seated stability...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Joseph J Kavolus, David Sia, Hollis G Potter, David E Attarian, Paul F Lachiewicz
BACKGROUND: Surgeon-performed periarticular injections and anesthesiologist-performed femoral nerve or adductor canal blocks with local anesthetic are in common use as part of multimodal pain management regimens for patients undergoing TKA. However, femoral nerve blocks risk causing quadriceps weakness and falls, and anesthesiologist-performed adductor canal blocks are costly in time and resources and may be unreliable. We investigated the feasibility of a surgeon-performed saphenous nerve ("adductor canal") block from within the knee at the time of TKA...
January 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
J Bogdanowicz, A Kumar, C Fleischmann, M Gilbert, J Houard, A Vella, W Vandervorst
This paper demonstrates the increased light absorption efficiency of semiconducting atom probe tips resulting from focused-ion-beam (FIB) preparation. We use transmission electron microscopy to show that semiconducting tips prepared with FIB are surrounded with an amorphized shell. Photomodulated optical reflectance measurements then provide evidence that FIB-induced damage leads to an increase in both sub- and supra-bandgap light absorption efficiency. Using laser-assisted atom probe tomography (La-APT) measurements, we finally show that, for a nanoscale tip geometry, the laser-induced heating of a tip during La-APT is enhanced by the FIB preparation...
March 5, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Daniela Di Felice, Yannick J Dappe, César González
A theoretical study of a graphene-like tip used in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is presented. Based on first principles simulations, we have proved the low reactivity of this kind of tip, using a MoS&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; monolayer as the testing sample. Our simulations show that the tip-MoS&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; interaction is mediated through weak van der Waals (vdW) forces. Even on the defective monolayer, the interaction is reduced one order of magnitude with respect to the values obtained using a highly reactive metallic tip...
March 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
J D Afroze, M J Abden, M A Islam
Hydroxyapatite-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (HA-fMWCNT) magnetic nanocomposite was successfully prepared using a novel slurry-compounding method. The prepared HA-fMWCNT nanocomposite with the addition of small amount (0.5 wt%) of fMWCNT exhibited much greater improvement in mechanical properties due to strong interfacial adhesion between acid-treated MWCNTs fillers and HA matrix, thus efficient stress transfer to nanotubes from the matrix. The nanocomposite exhibited excellent haemocompatibility...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Stefan Ignjatovic, Reza Omidi, Rahel A Kubik-Huch, Suzanne Anderson, Frank J Ahlhelm
Background Compared with other available injection techniques for lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections (LTFESIs), the traditionally performed subpedicular approach is associated with a higher risk of spinal cord infarction, a rare but catastrophic complication. Purpose To assess the short-term efficacy of the retroneural approach for computed tomography (CT)-guided LTFESIs with respect to different needle-tip positions. Material and Methods This retrospective analysis included 238 patients receiving 286 CT-guided LTFESIs from January 2013 to January 2016...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
James A Grogan, Anthony J Connor, Joe M Pitt-Francis, Philip K Maini, Helen M Byrne
The corneal micropocket angiogenesis assay is an experimental protocol for studying vessel network formation, or neovascularization, in vivo. The assay is attractive due to the ease with which the developing vessel network can be observed in the same animal over time. Measurements from the assay have been used in combination with mathematical modeling to gain insights into the mechanisms of angiogenesis. While previous modeling studies have adopted planar domains to represent the assay, the hemispherical shape of the cornea and asymmetric positioning of the angiogenic source can be seen to affect vascular patterning in experimental images...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
S P Ban, O-K Kwon, S U Lee, J S Bang, C W Oh, H J Jeong, M J Cho, E-A Jeong, T Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During stent-assisted coiling of ICA aneurysms, stent tips are sometimes unintentionally embedded into ICA branches. Stent tips can be visualized because they have radiopaque markers. Concerns regarding stent tip misplacement include risks of artery perforation and occlusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of ICA branches with embedded stent tips. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ICA branches with embedded stent tips were identified among 35 patients with unruptured ICA aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coiling between November 2003 and November 2014...
March 8, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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