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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775023/-the-role-of-th1-th2-cells-imbalance-in-the-pathogenesis-of-secretory-otitis-media
#1
Z H Li, Q Y Fu, Z Y Li, K X Wang, Y C Xu, J P Xue
Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the role of Th1/Th2 cells imbalance in the pathogenesis of secretory otitis media. Method: Ninety secretory otitis media patients were enrolled in observation group. According to medical history, they were divided into acute and chronic group. In addition, 90 healthy volunteers during the same period were selected as the control group. The levels of Th1-type cytokines IFN-γ, Th2-type cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IFN-γ/IL-4 in peripheral blood were compared between observation group and control group...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767829/homeopathy-in-the-age-of-antimicrobial-resistance-is-it-a-viable-treatment-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#2
Alison Fixsen
BACKGROUND:  Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and their complications are the most frequent cause of antibiotic prescribing in primary care. With multi-resistant organisms proliferating, appropriate alternative treatments to these conditions are urgently required. Homeopathy presents one solution; however, there are many methods of homeopathic prescribing. This review of the literature considers firstly whether homeopathy offers a viable alternative therapeutic solution for acute URTIs and their complications, and secondly how such homeopathic intervention might take place...
May 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741289/grommets-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Roderick P Venekamp, Paul Mick, Anne Gm Schilder, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood illnesses. While many children experience sporadic AOM episodes, an important group suffer from recurrent AOM (rAOM), defined as three or more episodes in six months, or four or more in one year. In this subset of children AOM poses a true burden through frequent episodes of ear pain, general illness, sleepless nights and time lost from nursery or school. Grommets, also called ventilation or tympanostomy tubes, can be offered for rAOM...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737504/inadequate-harms-reporting-in-randomized-control-trials-of-antibiotics-for-pediatric-acute-otitis-media-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Stephanie W Hum, Su Golder, Nader Shaikh
INTRODUCTION: Reporting of harms in randomized control trials is often inconsistent and inadequate. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of harms reporting in randomized control trials evaluating the efficacy of antibiotics used to treat pediatric acute otitis media and to investigate whether connections to pharmaceutical companies or the publication of the CONSORT-Harms extension influenced the quality of harms reporting. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We considered randomized control trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated acute otitis media in children aged 0-19...
May 8, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720156/trends-in-healthcare-utilization-and-costs-associated-with-acute-otitis-media-in-the-united-states-during-2008-2014
#5
Sabine Tong, Caroline Amand, Alexia Kieffer, Moe H Kyaw
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common cause of pediatric medical visits and antibiotic prescriptions worldwide, but its current impact on the US healthcare system is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the incidence of AOM from 2008, just before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced, to 2014 using US insurance records in the Truven MarketScan® database. The study also examined the costs associated with index AOM events during the two most recent years for which data were available (2013-2014)...
May 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699430/current-evidence-of-peripheral-vestibular-symptoms-secondary-to-otitis-media
#6
Rafael Costa Monsanto, Ana Luiza Papi Kasemodel, Andreza Tomaz, Michael M Paparella, Norma O Penido
BACKGROUND: The association between otitis media and vestibular symptoms has been hypothesized in the past. Thus, in this study, we aimed to critically analyze (based in a systematic review of the literature) whether patients who have otitis media are at greater risk of developing vestibular impairment or not. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature, and identified potentially relevant articles reporting vestibular symptoms and results of vestibular function tests in patients with otitis media through searches of the PubMED, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases...
April 26, 2018: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691919/impact-of-different-assumptions-on-estimates-of-childhood-diseases-obtained-from-health-care-data-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Osemeke U Osokogu, Alexandra Pacurariu, Mees Mosseveld, Peter Rijnbeek, Daniel Weibel, Katia Verhamme, Miriam C J M Sturkenboom
PURPOSE: Accurate estimates of disease incidence in children are required to support pediatric drug development. Analysis of electronic health care records (EHR) may yield such estimates but pediatric-specific methods are lacking. We aimed to understand the impact of assumptions regarding duration of disease episode and length of run-in period on incidence estimates from EHRs. METHODS: Children aged 0 to 17 years (5-17 years for asthma) registered in the Integrated Primary Care Information database between 2002 and 2014 were studied...
April 24, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688138/antibody-responses-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-and-moraxella-catarrhalis-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-infection-with-or-without-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-carriage
#8
Dafne C Andrade, Igor C Borges, Maiara L Bouzas, Juliana R Oliveira, Helena Käyhty, Olli Ruuskanen, Cristiana Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: We studied Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in young children with acute viral type respiratory infection and analyzed the findings in a multivariate model including age, nasopharyngeal carriage of the tested bacteria and pneumococcal vaccination. METHODS: We included 227 children aged 6-23 months with acute respiratory infection. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for bacterial carriage through detection of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript with nCounter analysis...
April 24, 2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676868/-how-i-treat-%C3%A2-an-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#9
V Heinrichs, J Frère
Acute otitis media (AOM) is very common in early childhood (inferior to 2 years). As a spontaneous recovery occurs in superior to 80 % of cases, antibiotics use should not be systematic. The aim of this review is to discuss AOM diagnostic criteria based on the latest recommendations, aiming a wiser use of antibiotics. Antibiotics use in a child with AOM should take into account the age, the severity of the disease, uni- or bilateral otitis, the presence or absence of otorrhea, and the presence of possible risk factors...
April 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656888/animal-models-of-acute-otitis-media-a-review-with-practical-implications-for-laboratory-research
#10
N H Davidoss, Y K Varsak, P L Santa Maria
Considerable animal research has focused on developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Several experimental models of AOM have thus been developed. A PubMed search of the English literature was conducted from 1975 to July 2016 using the search terms "animal model" and "otitis media" from which 91 published studies were included for analysis, yielding 123 animal models. The rat, mouse and chinchilla are the preferred animals for experimental AOM models with their individual advantages and disadvantages...
April 12, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650603/top-studies-relevant-to-primary-care-practice
#11
REVIEW
Danielle Perry, Michael R Kolber, Christina Korownyk, Adrienne J Lindblad, Jamil Ramji, Joey Ton, G Michael Allan
OBJECTIVE: To summarize 10 high-quality studies from 2017 that have strong relevance to primary care practice. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Study selection involved routine literature surveillance by a group of primary care health professionals. This included screening abstracts of important journals and Evidence Alerts, as well as searching the American College of Physicians Journal Club. MAIN MESSAGE: Topics of the 2017 articles include whether treating subclinical hypothyroidism improves outcomes or symptoms; whether evolocumab reduces cardiovascular disease as well as low-density lipoprotein levels; whether lifestyle interventions reduce medication use in patients with diabetes; whether vitamin D prevents cardiovascular disease, cancer, or upper respiratory tract infections; whether canagliflozin reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; how corticosteroid injections affect knee osteoarthritis; whether drained abscesses benefit from antibiotic treatment; whether patients with diabetes benefit from bariatric surgery; whether exenatide reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; and whether tympanostomy tubes affect outcomes in recurrent acute otitis media or chronic otitis media...
April 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624209/withdrawn-grommets-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Loretta Lau, Paul Mick, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2008 and previously updated in 2011.Acute suppurative otitis media is one of the most common infectious diseases in childhood. Recurrent acute otitis media is defined for the purposes of this review as either three or more acute infections of the middle ear cleft in a six-month period, or at least four episodes in a year. Strategies for managing the condition include the assessment and modification of risk factors where possible, repeated courses of antibiotics for each new infection, antibiotic prophylaxis and the insertion of ventilation tubes (grommets)...
April 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621281/evidence-of-functional-cell-mediated-immune-responses-to-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-in-otitis-prone-children
#13
Elke Seppanen, Dino Tan, Karli J Corscadden, Andrew J Currie, Peter C Richmond, Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann S Kirkham
Otitis media (OM) remains a common paediatric disease, despite advances in vaccinology. Susceptibility to recurrent acute OM (rAOM) has been postulated to involve defective cell-mediated immune responses to common otopathogenic bacteria. We compared the composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 20 children with a history of rAOM (otitis-prone) and 20 healthy non-otitis-prone controls, and assessed innate and cell-mediated immune responses to the major otopathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617959/reduction-in-all-cause-acute-otitis-media-in-children-less-than-three-years-of-age-in-primary-care-following-pneumococcal-vaccination-with-phid-cv10-a-whole-population-study
#14
Samúel Sigurðsson, Elias Eythorsson, Birgir Hrafnkelsson, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Karl G Kristinsson, Ásgeir Haraldsson
Background: The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) was introduced in Iceland in 2011, without catch-up. The aim of this study was to estimate vaccine impact on acute otitis media (AOM). Methods: In this whole-population study, all primary care visits due to AOM from 2005-2015 in children less than three years of age were included. Birth-cohorts were grouped as vaccine non-eligible (VNEC, 2005-2010) or vaccine eligible (VEC, 2011-2015). Crude incidence rates (IR) were compared between VNEC and VEC...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610253/deconstructing-progression-from-pneumococcal-colonization-to-disease
#15
Stephen I Pelton
Despite advances in treatment and prevention, the pneumococcus continues as a dominant cause of severe pneumonia and sepsis, of otitis media, sinusitis and nonbacteremic pneumonia. Lewnard and colleagues use a unique data set of nasopharyngeal and middle ear fluid samples to provide further insight into the progression of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization to disease. They report the comparative rate of progression from colonization to otitis media by serotype, providing insight as to how conjugate vaccines that do not reduce the overall presence of pneumococci in the nasopharynx dramatically impact the incidence of acute and complex otitis media...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603797/reductions-in-otitis-and-other-respiratory-tract-infections-following-childhood-pneumococcal-vaccination
#16
Urban Johansson Kostenniemi, Jessica Palm, Sven-Arne Silfverdal
AIM: Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes respiratory tract infections including acute otitis media and pneumonia. In this study, we evaluated the impact of general infant pneumococcal vaccination, introduced in Sweden in 2009, on respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We studied the incidence of respiratory tract infections and antibiotic consumption in Västerbotten County, Sweden, during 2005-2014 by using the County Council's diagnosis register. RESULTS: Comparing the pre-vaccination period of 2005-2008 to 2014, the incidences of all-cause acute otitis media decreased significantly in children aged 0-4 and 5-17 years, by 41...
March 30, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601460/national-incidence-of-pediatric-mastoiditis-in-the-united-states-2000-2012-creating-a-baseline-for-public-health-surveillance
#17
Laura M King, Monina Bartoces, Adam L Hersh, Lauri A Hicks, Katherine E Fleming-Dutra
Between 2000-2012, the national estimated incidence rate of pediatric mastoiditis, a rare but serious complication of acute otitis media (AOM), was highest in 2006 (2.7 per 100,000 population) and lowest in 2012 (1.8 per 100,000 population). This measure provides a baseline for public health surveillance in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era as stewardship efforts target antibiotic use in AOM.
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595417/genotypic-characterization-of-haemophilus-influenzae-isolates-from-paediatric-patients-in-japan
#18
Yoko Adachi, Mariko Ando, Miyuki Morozumi, Kimiko Ubukata, Satoshi Iwata
PURPOSE: β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Haemophilus influenzae is frequently isolated from respiratory samples and is particularly problematic in Japan. The aim of this study was to characterize circulating isolates of H. influenzae genotypically by BLNAR-PCR and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and to determine any associations between them. METHODS: H. influenzae isolates (n=191) were collected from paediatric patients (1 month to 12 years old) between 2000 and 2011 for three types of infections: pneumonia (n=61), acute otitis media (AOM) (n=68) and meningitis (n=62)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593875/long-term-low-dose-of-clarithromycin-as-a-cause-of-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-5-year-old-boy
#19
Hirofumi Namiki, Tadashi Kobayashi
Clostridium difficile is one of the most common causes of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Despite C. difficile infection (CDI) has increased in all ages worldwide, episodes of CDI are often misdiagnosed due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Macrolides are also associated with CDI. Additionally, exposure to macrolides in the 12 weeks preceding infection is reported to be a significant risk factor of CDI in a child. We report here a 5-year-old Japanese boy who presented with acute onset of watery diarrhoea...
March 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589044/-the-role-of-innate-immunity-in-otitis-media
#20
REVIEW
M Wigand, T K Hoffmann, A F Ryan, B Wollenberg, A Leichtle
Otitis media (OM) belongs to the most common pediatric diseases and causes more medical contacts, surgical interventions, and drug prescriptions than any other infectious disease. Recent findings have identified a critical role of innate immunity in recovery from OM. The middle ear mucosa identifies invading pathogens by sensing pathogen-associated molecule patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). They generate immediate antimicrobial responses and cytokine release, leading to an inflammatory reaction as seen in acute or chronic OM...
March 27, 2018: HNO
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