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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079354/effect-of-excess-iodine-intake-on-thyroid-on-human-health
#1
Eftychia G Koukkou, Nikolaos D Roupas, Kostas B Markou
INTRODUCTION: The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 175 μg for pregnancy and 200 μg for lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin...
January 12, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056690/2016-guidelines-of-the-american-thyroid-association-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-thyroid-disease-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum
#2
Erik K Alexander, Elizabeth N Pearce, Gregory A Brent, Rosalind S Brown, Herbert Chen, Chrysoula Dosiou, William Grobman, Peter Laurberg, John H Lazarus, Susan J Mandel, Robin Peeters, Scott Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Thyroid disease in pregnancy is a common clinical problem. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were first published in 2011, significant clinical and scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease in women during pregnancy, preconception and the postpartum period...
January 6, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049387/stimulation-of-thyroid-function-by-hcg-during-pregnancy-a-risk-factor-for-thyroid-disease-and-a-mechanism-for-known-risk-factors
#3
Tim Korevaar, Yolanda B de Rijke, Layal Chaker, Marco Medici, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Eric Ap Steegers, Theo J Visser, Robin Peeters
BACKGROUND: Thyroid autoimmunity is a major risk factor for gestational thyroid disease and recently various other risk factors have been identified, including maternal age, BMI and parity. hCG is an important determinant of gestational thyroid function, yet it is unknown to what extent differences in hCG concentration affect the risk for thyroid disease. We have recently shown that TPOAb positivity impairs the thyroidal response to hCG stimulation, which may suggest that this is a mechanism through which thyroid autoimmunity acts as a risk factor for thyroid disease...
January 3, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034801/testing-the-correlation-between-experimentally-induced-hypothyroidism-during-pregnancy-and-autistic-like-symptoms-in-the-rat-offspring
#4
Francesca Melancia, Michela Servadio, Sara Schiavi, Patrizia Campolongo, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva, Viviana Trezza
Thyroid hormones are important for the development of the central nervous system. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not functioning until mid-gestation, transport of maternal thyroid hormones across the placenta is essential during the early phases of gestation. Maternal thyroid deficiency has been associated with a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders in the newborns. The relationship between maternal hypothyroidism and the onset of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring, however, is still debated...
December 26, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017871/no-mediated-anticontractile-effect-of-the-endothelium-is-abolished-in-coronary-arteries-of-adult-rats-with-antenatal-early-postnatal-hypothyroidism
#5
Dina K Gaynullina, Svetlana I Sofronova, Ekaterina K Selivanova, Anastasia A Shvetsova, Anna A Borzykh, Anna P Sharova, Daria S Kostyunina, Andrey A Martyanov, Olga S Tarasova
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormones are essential for proper development of many systems and organs, including circulatory system. Thyroid deficiency during pregnancy may affect the cardiovascular function in children early on and later in adulthood. However, long-term effects of early thyroid deficiency are poorly understood. We hypothesized that antenatal/early postnatal hypothyroidism will influence anticontractile effect of NO in coronary arteries of adult rats. DESIGN AND METHODS: To model antenatal/early postnatal hypothyroidism dams were treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water (0...
December 23, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981252/thyroid-hormone-dysfunction-during-pregnancy-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Aynadis Alemu, Betelihem Terefe, Molla Abebe, Belete Biadgo
Thyroid dysfunctions such as hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and thyroid nodules may develop during pregnancy leading to abortion, placental abruptions, preeclampsia, preterm delivery and reduced intellectual function in the offspring. Epidemiological data have shown the significant role of maternal thyroid hormone in fetal neurologic development and maternal health. It has been suggested that the deleterious effects of thyroid dysfunction can also extend beyond pregnancy and delivery to affect neuro-intellectual development in the early life of the child...
November 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978517/management-of-fetal-and-neonatal-graves-disease
#7
Juliane Léger
Fetal and neonatal autoimmune hyperthyroidism is a rare, serious but transient disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment are key objectives for an optimal prognosis and the well-being of the child. This review focuses on the management of these patients during the fetal and neonatal periods. We propose a diagnostic algorithm for high-risk pregnancies in mothers with current or past hyperthyroidism related to Graves' disease, involving repeated fetal thyroid gland assessments from 20 weeks of gestation onwards and maternal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) determination, with close monitoring if TRAb levels exceed 2 to 3 times the upper limit of the normal range...
December 16, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927272/ethnic-differences-in-preterm-birth-risks-for-pregnant-women-with-thyroid-dysfunction-or-autoimmunity-a-meta-analysis
#8
Min Li, Shao Wei Wang, Feng Li Wu, Jin Shi, Pu Lin Yu, Xiu Ling Peng, Liang Sun
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal maternal thyroid function is associated with preterm birth. However, this association stays dubious in relevant individual studies for ethnic difference reasons and lack of direct supporting data. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between preterm birth and thyroid dysfunction or autoimmunity based on ethnic differences. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified through searches of MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica, Wan Fang, China Biological Medicine disc, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from inception to June 15, 2016...
October 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886341/clinical-efficacy-of-therapeutic-intervention-for-subclinical-hypothyroidism-during-pregnancy
#9
R Ju, L Lin, Y Long, J Zhang, J Huang
This study explored the effects of levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement therapy on pregnancy outcomes in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). We analyzed the effects on pregnancy outcomes with respect to gestational week when the desired thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was reached as well as the length of time required to reach the target level during L-T4 treatment. This study enrolled 457 patients diagnosed with SCH upon initial thyroid function screening. Subjects were assigned to the treatment group (N = 184), and the control group (N = 273)...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879326/effects-of-levothyroxine-treatment-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-autoimmune-thyroid-disease
#10
Sima Nazarpour, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Masoumeh Simbar, Maryam Tohidi, Hamid Alavi Majd, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND: Despite some studies indicating that thyroid antibody positivity during pregnancy has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, evidence regarding the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) treatment of euthyroid/subclinical hypothyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease on pregnancy outcome is limited. We aimed to assess whether pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease, but without overt thyroid dysfunction are affected by higher rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862717/prenatal-diagnosis-and-successful-intrauterine-treatment-of-severe-congenital-hypothyroidism-associated-with-fetal-goiter
#11
Vladimír Ferianec, Peter Papcun, František Grochal, Katarína Schenková, Michaela Bártová
Congenital hypothyroidism with fetal goiter is a rare condition associated with severe, but possibly preventable, intrauterine and postnatal complications. Ultrasound examination after 20 weeks of pregnancy enables prenatal diagnosis and early treatment. Due to limited transplacental transport of thyroid hormones, direct intrauterine treatment is needed. So far, only a few reports of fetal goitrous hypothyroidism have been published and no consensus on adequate management exists. We present a case of severe fetal goitrous hypothyroidism diagnosed at 23 gestational weeks treated by sequential intra-amniotic administration of L-thyroxin...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852097/subclinical-hypothyroidism-and-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-outcomes
#12
Marcela de Alencar Coelho Neto, Wellington de Paula Martins, Anderson Sanches de Melo, Rui Alberto Ferriani, Paula Andrea Navarro
Purpose Whether preconception elevated concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) compromises reproductive outcomes in patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) remains unclear. This study therefore compared the reproductive outcomes in patients with TSH concentrations of < 2.5 mIU/L, 2.5-4.0 mIU/L, and 4.0-10.0 mIU/L undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated the medical records of all women with measured TSH concentrations who underwent IVF/ICSI between January 2011 and December 2012...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843806/a-2016-italian-survey-about-the-clinical-use-of-selenium-in-thyroid-disease
#13
Roberto Negro, Roberto Attanasio, Franco Grimaldi, Claudio Marcocci, Rinaldo Guglielmi, Enrico Papini
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is a trace element that plays key roles in thyroid physiology. Se deficiency is associated with increased risk of thyroid disease. Some evidence suggests that Se supplementation may be beneficial in autoimmune thyroid disease (either hypo- or hyperthyroidism). OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the use of Se in daily clinical practice among Italian endocrinologists. METHODS: Members of the Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AME) were invited to participate in a web-based survey investigating the use of Se in different clinical conditions...
September 2016: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824324/no-adverse-effects-after-radioiodine-treatment-at-3-weeks-of-pregnancy
#14
Matea Radacic-Aumiler, Iva Kraljickovic, Viktorija Edeljic-Turk, Ksenija Makar-Ausperger, Robert Likic, Iveta Simic
Radioactive iodine is used for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Because it accumulates in the fetal thyroid, its administration during pregnancy may cause severe and potentially irreversible hypothyroidism in neonates, with consequent mental retardation, and it is contraindicated during the whole pregnancy. We present a case of a pregnant woman inadvertently treated with 1 mCi (37 MBq) of I in the earliest period of pregnancy and subsequently gave birth to a male infant without signs or symptoms of hypothyroidism or any other damage...
December 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813690/fetal-neonatal-thyrotoxicosis-in-a-newborn-from-a-hypothyroid-woman-with-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis
#15
Florian W Kiefer, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Manuel Steiner, Christof Worda, Gregor Kasprian, Tanja Diana, George J Kahaly, Alois Gessl
CONTEXT: Fetal/neonatal thyrotoxicosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. It is most commonly observed in poorly controlled Graves' disease during pregnancy. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here we describe the first reported case of thyrotoxicosis in a fetus/newborn from a woman with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and levothyroxine-treated hypothyroidism. Transplacental passage of stimulating TSH-receptor antibodies, measured by a cell-based bioassay, was the underlying mechanism of fetal/neonatal thyrotoxicosis even though the mother had no history of hyperthyroidism...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809623/onset-of-graves-disease-during-pregnancy-in-a-woman-with-established-hypothyroidism
#16
María Alberiche, Rosa María Sánchez-Hernández, Xabier López Mérida, Ana María Wägner
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy strongly influences the thyroid gland and its function. Thyroid guidelines recommend a 30 to 50% increase of the preconceptional levothyroxine dose in women with hypothyroidism, when pregnancy is diagnosed. CASE: A 33 year-old, 8-week pregnant woman with hypothyroidism, presents with a 2-week history of palpitations, sweating, nervousness and fatigue. Physical examination shows tachycardia (108 bpm), distal tremors and diffuse goiter. After biochemical confirmation of hyperthyroidism, her levothyroxine dose is reduced and finally interrupted...
November 4, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809617/d2-thr92ala-thyroid-hormone-levels-and-biochemical-hypothyroidism-in-preeclampsia
#17
Lucia Maria Procopciuc, Gabriela Caracostea, Georgeta Hazi, Georgiana Nemeti, Florin Stamatian
AIM: To identify if there is a relationship between the deiodinase D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped 125 women with preeclampsia and 131 normal pregnant women using PCR-RFLP. Serum thyroid hormone levels were determined using ELISA. RESULTS: Our study showed higher TSH and FT4 levels and lower FT3 levels in women with preeclampsia compared to normal pregnant women, with statistical significance for women with mild and severe preeclampsia...
November 4, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790523/the-effect-of-anti-thyroid-peroxidase-antibodies-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-euthyroid-women
#18
Monika Meena, Seema Chopra, Vanita Jain, Neelam Aggarwal
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid autoimmunity can have an adverse impact on the outcome of the pregnancy. Although the adverse effects of antithyroid antibodies have been well studied in hypothyroid women, their effects in euthyroid women are not well evaluated. AIM: The study was conducted to assess the overall prevalence of anti-Thyroid Peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies in pregnant women and the effect of anti-TPO positivity on the outcome of pregnancy in euthyroid women...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790353/does-hypothyroidism-affect-post-operative-outcome-of-patients-undergoing-carpal-tunnel-release
#19
Sharareh Roshanzamir, Sahameddin Mortazavi, Alireza Dabbaghmanesh
INTRODUCTION: Risk factors associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome include repetitive use of hand and wrist, advanced age, obesity, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease. Decompression of the median nerve is the last treatment of choice usually indicated when negative results to conservative treatments remain for three months. In this study, we aimed to find out whether hypothyroid patients would respond to CTS surgical decompression differently in comparison to healthy individuals...
September 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781488/current-challenges-in-the-pharmacological-management-of-thyroid-dysfunction-in-pregnancy
#20
I Khan, O E Okosieme, J H Lazarus
Thyroid dysfunction is common in pregnancy and has adverse fetal and maternal health consequences. A number of challenges in the management of gestational thyroid dysfunction remain unresolved including uncertainties in optimal thresholds for correction of hypothyroidism and strategies for pharmacological management of hyperthyroidism. Areas covered: We addressed key challenges and areas of uncertainty in the management of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. Expert commentary: Gestational thyroid hormone reference intervals vary according to population ethnicity, iodine nutrition, and assay method and each population should derive trimester specific reference intervals for use in pregnancy...
January 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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